Hybotidae

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Hybotidae
Bicellaria.spuria.jpg
Bicellaria spuria (Ocydromiinae: Bicellariini)
Scientific classification
Kingdom:
Phylum:
Class:
Order:
Suborder:
Superfamily:
Family:
Hybotidae
Subfamilies

Hybotidae, the typical dance flies, are a family of true flies. They belong to the superfamily Empidoidea and were formerly included in the Empididae as a subfamily.

Some, such as Tachydromia, are predators that run around on the bark of trees in complex patterns, hence the common name. Tachydromia species are only about three millimeters long.

Description[edit]

Right wing of the species Hybos grossipes, showing discal medial cell (dm) and first and second medial vein (M1+2)

Hybotidae share some similarities with the family Dolichopodidae, when looking at rotation of genetalia and wing characteristics. Male terminalia are rotated dextrally between 45° and 90°, excluding segment 7. Hybotidae wings always have a simple R4+5 vein, where the costa either ends near or at M1/M1+2, or near or at R4+5/R5. Furthermore, it can be distinguished from Dolichopodidae by the point of vein Rs, which it at a distance from the humeral crossvein (h) equal to or longer than the length of h.[1]

Systematics[edit]

The Hybotidae clearly form a lineage quite distinct from the Empididae. Among the Empidoidea, they represent a lineage more basal than the main radiation of Empididae and Dolichopodidae, though they are not as ancient as the genera placed in the Atelestidae.[2][3]

By and large, the Hybotidae are monophyletic. Among its subfamilies, the Hybotinae and Tachydromiinae certainly represent clades. The status of the Ocydromiinae as a natural group is less clear, in particular whether the Trichininae should be included as tribe Trichinini or even in the Bicellariini[4] or Oedaleini,[5] or whether they are more distinct and warrant recognition as a separate subfamily.[2]

Based on the most recent phylogenetic studies[1], the relationship between Hybotidae and other members of Empidoidea is as follows. The placement of Hybotidae is emphasized in bold formatting.

Atelestidae

Atelestinae

Nemedininae

Hybotidae

Bicellariinae

Hybotinae

Oedaleinae

Ocydromiinae

Trichininae

Tachydromiinae

Tachydromiini

Symballaphthalmini

Drapetini

Dolichopodidae

Ragadidae

Iteaphilinae

Ragadinae

Empididae

Clinocerinae

Brachystomatinae

Brachystomatini

Ceratomerini

Trichopezini

Empidinae

Chelipodini

Empidini

Hemerodromiini

Hilarini


Systematic list[edit]

The subfamilies with their tribes and selected genera are:[3][6][7]

Hybotinae Meigen, 1820

Ocydromiinae

Trichinomyia flavipes

Trichininae (often included in Ocydromiinae)

Tachydromia arrogans or closely related species (Tachydromiinae: Tachydromiini)

Tachydromiinae

Tachypeza nubila with prey (video, 2m 23s)

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Wahlberg, Emma; Johanson, Kjell Arne (2018). "Molecular phylogenetics reveals novel relationships within Empidoidea (Diptera)". Systematic Entomology. 43 (4): 619–636. doi:10.1111/syen.12297. ISSN 1365-3113.
  2. ^ a b Moulton, J. K.; Wiegmann, B. M. (2007). "The phylogenetic relationships of flies in the superfamily Empidoidea (Insecta: Diptera)". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 43 (3): 701–713. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2007.02.029. PMID 17468014.
  3. ^ a b Sinclair, Bradley J.; Cumming, Jeffrey M. (2006). The morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea (Diptera) (PDF). Zootaxa. 1180. pp. 1–172. ISBN 978-1-877407-80-2. Retrieved 20 December 2011.
  4. ^ Jere Kahanpää (July 23, 2008). "Hybotidae". Draft Catalogue of Finnish Flies (Diptera: Brachycera). Archived from the original on July 16, 2011. Retrieved July 30, 2008.
  5. ^ "Hybotidae". Integrated Taxonomic Information System. Retrieved June 21, 2008.
  6. ^ Chvála, Milan (1983). The Empidoidea (Diptera) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. II. General Part. The families Hybotidae, Atelestidae and Microphoridae. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. 12. pp. 1–279.
  7. ^ Chvála, Milan (1975). The Tachydromiinae (Diptera; Empididae) of Fennoscandia and Denmark. Fauna Entomologica Scandinavica. 3. Klampenborg: Scandinavian Science Press. pp. 1–336. ISBN 978-87-87491-04-4.
  8. ^ a b Bradley J. Sinclair and Jeffrey M. Cumming (May 2006). "Morphology, higher-level phylogeny and classification of the Empidoidea". North American Dipterists Society.
  9. ^ Miroslav Barták & Štěpán Kubík (2009). "A new species of the genus Trichina (Diptera: Hybotidae) with a key to European species" (PDF). home.czu.cz.
  10. ^ "Trichinomyia Tuomikoski, 1959". Natural History Museum.
  11. ^ "Symballophthalmus Becker, 1889". NBN Atlas.
  12. ^ Shamshev, I.V.; Grootaert, P. (2007). "Revision of the genus Elaphropeza Macquart (Diptera: Hybotidae) from the Oriental Region, with a special attention to the fauna of Singapore" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1488: 1–164. ISSN 1175-5334. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  13. ^ Grootaert, Patrick; Van De Velde, Isabella; Shamshev, Igor V. (2015). "Two new coastal species of Elaphropeza Macquart (Diptera: Hybotidae) from Bali, Indonesia". European Journal of Taxonomy. 112 (1): 1–10. doi:10.5852/ejt.2015.112. ISSN 2118-9773. Retrieved 18 July 2017.
  14. ^ Loew, H. (1864). "Ueber die schlesischen Arten der Gattungen Tachypeza Meig. (Tachypeza, Tachista, Dysaletria) und Microphorus Macq. (Trichina und Microphorus)". Zeitschrift für Entomologie. Breslau. 14 (1860): 1–60.
  15. ^ Arias, J. E. (1919). "Description preliminar de un nuevo Empido de Espana". Boletín de la Real Sociedad Española de Historia Natural. 19: 479–481.

External links[edit]