Hybrid electric bus
- This article deals with hybrid combustion / battery hybrid buses. For alternately powered buses, see dual-mode bus; for fuel cell hybrids see fuel cell bus; for all-electric buses, see electric bus.
A hybrid electric bus combines a conventional internal combustion engine propulsion system with an electric propulsion system. These type of buses normally use a Diesel-electric powertrain and are also known as hybrid Diesel-electric buses.
- 1 Powertrain
- 2 Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
- 3 Manufacturers
- 4 List of transit authorities using hybrid electric buses
- 5 See also
- 6 References
- 7 External links
Types of hybrid vehicle drivetrain
The United States Department of Energy (USDOE) has announced the selection of Navistar Corporation for a cost-shared award of up to $10 million to develop, test, and deploy plug-in hybrid electric (PHEV) school buses. The project aims to deploy 60 vehicles for a three-year period in school bus fleets across the nation. The vehicles will be capable of running in either electric-only or hybrid modes and will be recharged from a standard electrical outlet. Because electricity will be their primary fuel, they will consume less petroleum than standard vehicles. To develop the PHEV school bus, Navistar will examine a range of hybrid architectures and evaluate advanced energy storage devices, with the goal of developing a vehicle with a 40-mile (64 km) electric range. Travel beyond the 40-mile (64 km) range will be facilitated by a clean Diesel engine capable of running on renewable fuels. The DOE funding will cover up to half of the project's cost and will be provided over three years, subject to annual appropriations.
- Tribrid buses have been developed by the University of Glamorgan, Wales. They are powered by hydrogen fuel or solar cells, batteries and ultracapacitors.
Air pollution and greenhouse gas emissions
A report prepared by Purdue University suggests introducing more hybrid Diesel-electric buses and a fuel containing 20 percent biodiesel (BD20) would further reduce greenhouse emissions and petroleum consumption.
Current manufacturers of Diesel-electric hybrid buses include Alexander Dennis Limited (ADL), Azure Dynamics Corporation, Ebus, Eletra (Brazil), New Flyer Industries, Tata, (India), Gillig, Motor Coach Industries, Orion Bus Industries, North American Bus Industries, Daimler AG's Mitsubishi Fuso, MAN, Designline, BAE Systems, Volvo Buses, Wrightbus, Castrosua, Tata Hispano and many more.
In the United Kingdom, Wrightbus has introduced a development of the London "Double-Decker", a new interpretation of the traditional red buses that are a feature of the extreme traffic density in London. The Wright Pulsar Gemini HEV bus uses a small Diesel engine with electric storage through a lithium ion battery pack. The use of a 1.9-litre Diesel instead of the typical 7.0-litre engine in a traditional bus demonstrates the possible advantages of serial hybrids in extremely traffic-dense environments. Based on a London test cycle, a reduction in CO2 emissions of 31% and fuel savings in the range of 40% have been demonstrated, compared with a modern "Euro-4" compliant bus.
Also in 2005 General Electric introduced its hybrid electric gear shifters on the market. Toyota claims to have started with the Coaster Hybrid Bus in 1997 on the Japanese market. In May 2003 General Motors started to tour with hybrid electric buses developed together with Allison. Several hundreds of those buses have entered into daily operation in the U.S. The Blue Ribbon City Hybrid bus was presented by Hino, a Toyota affiliate, in January 2005. Mitsubishi Fuso have developed a Diesel engine hybrid bus using lithium batteries in 2002, and this model has since seen limited service in several Japanese cities.
Since 1999, Hybrid electric buses with gas turbine generators have been developed by several manufacturers in the US and New Zealand, with the most successful design being the buses made by Designline of New Zealand. The first model went into commercial service in Christchurch (NZ) since 1999, and later models were sold for daily service in Tokyo, Auckland (NZ), Hong Kong, and Newcastle upon Tyne (UK).
The Whispering Wheel bus is another HEV.
List of former hybrid bus manufacturers: ISE Corporations Thundervolt (filed for bankruptcy in 2010) Azure Dynamics (filed for bankruptcy in 2012)
Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies (HEVT) makes conversions of new and used vehicles (aftermarket and retrofit conversions), from combustion buses and conventional hybrid electric buses into plug-in buses.
Transit authorities that use hybrid electric buses:
Federal funding generally comes from the federal Diesel Emissions Reduction Act.
- ABQ RIDE (Albuquerque, New Mexico)
- Ann Arbor Area Transportation Authority (AAATA) (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
- Autoridad Metropolitana de Autobuses (San Juan, Puerto Rico)
- Baltimore, Maryland
- Bee-Line Bus System (Westchester County, New York)
- Berks Area Reading Transportation Authority (Berks County, Pennsylvania)
- Bloomington Transit (Bloomington, Indiana)
- Broome County Transit (Broome County, New York)
- Broward County Transit (Broward County, Florida)
- Capital Area Transportation Authority (Lansing, Michigan)
- Capital District Transportation Authority (Albany, New York)
- Central New York Regional Transportation Authority (Syracuse, New York)
- Charlotte Area Transit System (Charlotte, North Carolina)
- Chatham Area Transit (Savannah, Georgia)
- Chicago Transit Authority
- Citibus (Lubbock, Texas).
- Central Ohio Transit Authority (Columbus, Ohio)
- Clarksville Transit System (CTS) (Clarksville, Tennessee)
- Community Transit (Snohomish County, Washington)
- C-Tran (Vancouver, Washington)
- Citilink (Fort Wayne, Indiana)
- CVTD Cache Valley Transit District (Logan, Utah)
- DART First State (Delaware)
- Durham Area Transit Authority (Durham, North Carolina)
- Eureka Transit Service (Eureka, California)
- GoRaleigh (formerly Capital Area Transit) (Raleigh, North Carolina)
- Greater Lafayette Public Transportation Corporation (Lafayette, IN)
- Greater Lynchburg Transit Company (Lynchburg, VA)
- Hillsborough Area Regional Transit (Hillsborough County, Florida)
- Howard Transit, (Howard County, Maryland)
- Jacksonville Transportation Authority
- Kanawha Valley Regional Transportation Authority
- Kansas City Area Transportation Authority
- King County Metro Transit Authority (Seattle, Washington)
- Lane Transit District (Lane County, Oregon)
- Long Beach Transit (Long Beach, California)
- LACMTA (Los Angeles, California)
- LANTA (Lehigh Valley, Pennsylvania)
- Madison Metro Transit (Wisconsin)
- Manatee County Area Transit (Manatee County, Florida)
- Massachusetts Bay Transportation Authority (Boston, MA)
- MATA (Memphis, Tennessee)
- MATBUS - Metro Area Transit (Fargo, ND - Moorhead, MN)
- Metropolitan Transit Authority of Harris County, Texas (Houston, Texas)
- Minneapolis-Saint Paul Metro Transit
- MTA Maryland (Baltimore, Maryland)
- Nashville Metropolitan Transit Authority
- New York City Transit Authority
- Niagara Frontier Transportation Authority (Buffalo, New York)
- North County Transit District (North San Diego County, California)
- Orange County Transportation Authority (Orange County, California)
- Pioneer Valley Transit Authority (Springfield, Massachusetts)
- Port Authority of Allegheny County (Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania)
- Regional Transportation Commission of Southern Nevada/Citizens Area Transit (Las Vegas, Nevada)
- Rhode Island Public Transit Authority (Providence, Rhode Island)
- Roaring Fork Transportation Authority (Aspen, Colorado)
- San Diego Metropolitan Transit System/San Diego Transit (San Diego, California)
- San Francisco MUNI (San Francisco, California)
- San Joaquin Regional Transit District (Stockton, California)
- Santa Clara Valley Transportation Authority (Santa Clara County, California)
- Santa Rosa CityBus (Santa Rosa, California)
- Sarasota County Area Transit (Sarasota County, Florida)
- Sound Transit (Puget Sound region, Washington)
- Southeastern Pennsylvania Transportation Authority (Philadelphia, Pennsylvania)
- Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority (Cincinnati, Ohio)
- Spokane Transit Authority (Spokane, Washington)
- TCAT (Ithaca, NY)
- TheBus (Honolulu, Hawaii)
- The Rapid The Interurban Transit Partnership Grand Rapids, Michigan *Has 5 vehicles used in fixed route service.
- TriMet (Portland, Oregon): two vehicles.
- University of Michigan Parking and Transportation Services (Ann Arbor, Michigan)
- Utah Transit Authority (Salt Lake City, Utah)
- Washington Metropolitan Area Transit Authority
- Transit Windsor (Windsor, Ontario)
- Edmonton Transit System (Edmonton, Alberta)
- Hamilton Street Railway (Hamilton, Ontario)
- OC Transpo (Ottawa, Ontario)
- RTC (Quebec City, Quebec) [Currently only one Novabus LFS HEV in service]
- Saskatoon Transit, Saskatchewan
- STM (Montréal, Québec) [Currently owns four Novabus LFS HEVs, testing for larger orders]
- STO (Gatineau, Québec)
- St. Catharines Transit Commission (St. Catharines, Ontario)
- Toronto Transit Commission buses [693 out of 2031 buses are hybrid.]
- Coast Mountain Bus Company (Vancouver, British Columbia)
- BC Transit (Kelowna and Victoria).
- GRT(Waterloo, Ontario). [Currently 6 out of 218 buses in service are hybrid.]
- London Transit Commission (London, Ontario)
- Strathcona County Transit (Strathcona County, Alberta) [As of 2014, 10 Nova Bus LFS HEV diesel-electric hybrid buses remain in service]
- Halifax Transit, Halifax, Nova Scotia. Currently owns two hybrid-electric buses.
- Beijing Public Transport
- Kunming Bus
- Shenzhen Bus Group
- Shenzhen Eastern Bus
- Shenzhen Western Bus
- Jinan Bus
- Budapest - The fleet consists of 28 Volvo 7900A Hybrid (Articulated)
- Kecskemét -The fleet consists of 20 Mercedes-Benz Citaro G BlueTec®-Hybrid (Articulated)
- London Buses, London. This is the largest fleet in the UK, with around 1200 vehicles in use.
- National Express in Birmingham - 18 currently, 21 more planned
- Stagecoach, Manchester, Oxford, Sheffield, Newcastle
- Oxford Bus Company, Oxfordshire - 52 currently.
- FirstGroup, Bath, Somerset, Bristol, Manchester Metroshuttle, Leeds
- Reading Buses
- Lothian Buses
- Cumfybus, Merseyside
- Brighton & Hove
- Stagecoach Bluebird, Aberdeen
- Arriva West Yorkshire from April 2013
- Barcelona (MAN Lion's City Hybrid)
- Empresa Municipal de Transportes, Madrid
- Figueres, within the Electrobus Project, IDAE
- Jönköpings Länstrafik, Jönköping. MAN Lion's City Hybrid
- Göteborgs Spårvägar, Göteborg. Volvo 7700 Hybrid
- Storstockholms Lokaltrafik, Stockholm. MAN Lion's City Hybrid
Other European Countries
- Ljubljanski potniški promet (5 Kutsenits Hydra City II/III Hybrid's), Ljubljana, Slovenia
- Paris: RATP is using a hybrid electric bus outfitted with ultracapacitors; the model used is the MAN Lion's City Hybrid.
- Milan, Italy
- Team Trafikk, Trondheim, Norway, with 10 Volvo B5L
- Vienna, Austria
- PostAuto, Switzerland: one vehicle is being tested since April 2010; the test will continue for three years.
- Warsaw, Poland, 4 Solaris hybrid (combustion-electric) buses
- Luxemburg (Sales-Lentz, Emile Weber and AVL)
- Belgium (De Lijn)
- Buenos Aires, Argentina
- Christchurch, New Zealand
- Curitiba, Brazil
- Mexico City, Mexico (Metrobús Line 4)
- Bogotá, Colombia
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- "Double Deck (2 axle)". Alexander-dennis.com. Retrieved 2013-05-29.
- "Energy.gov". Apps1.eere.energy.gov. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Green 'tribrid' minibus unveiled". BBC. 2008-06-05. Retrieved 2008-06-05.
- "Energycurrent.com". Energycurrent.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Ebus.com". Ebus.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Eletra, SBC, Brazil". Eletrabus.com.br. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Munich starts using the first MAN hybrid city bus | Frontier India Aerospace, Land and Marine". Frontierindia.net. 2010-05-25. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Castrosua.com". Castrosua.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "tatahispano.com". Tata Hispano. Retrieved 2013-08-05.
- "Hybrid Electric Vehicle Technologies, Inc (HEVT) | An IIT (Illinois Institute of Technology) Startup in Chicago | Home". HEVT. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Analysis of electric drive technologies for transit applications: Battery-electric, hybrid-electric, and fuel cells" (PDF). 2005. p. 20. Retrieved 2009-11-08. More transit authorities with HEV here (FTA)
- Jibreel Riley (2010-07-20). "COTA: Hybrid Bus Purchase". Theotherpaper.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Environmental Commitment". Community Transit. Retrieved September 3, 2014.
- "Citilink: Hybrid Bus Demonstration". Fwcitilink.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- [dead link]
- "Southwest Ohio Regional Transit Authority". go Metro. 2009-04-21. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Ann Arbor campus welcomes three more hybrid buses". The Regents of the University of Michigan. 2012-09-11. Retrieved 2013-04-01.
- "Hybrid Electric Bus". Transitbc.com. 2005-05-04. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Hybrid Bus".
- "Transit goes green-er".
- "BUSportal - Viac ako 30 percent nižšie CO2:". Busportal.sk. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Germany: MAN Lion's City Hybrid launches in Munich". Automotive World. 2010-05-27. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Hybrid Bus in the City: A Prototype with a Future". Physorg.com. 2007-08-20. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "Green Bus Fund". Dft.gov.uk. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- ""Green Technology":TFL Bus Investment". Transport for London.
- "Birmingham hybrid buses launched". National Express West Midlands Buses. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "More green hybrid buses on Way to West Midlands". National Express West Midlands Buses. Retrieved 31 May 2012.
- "Autobús urbano ecológico y eficiente - 29/09/2009 - Equipamiento para municipios". Interempresas.net. 2009-09-29. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- Navarro, Xavier (2009-04-15). "Paris tests a new hybrid bus that uses ultracapacitors — Autoblog Green". Green.autoblog.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "MAN Nutzfahrzeuge - Hybrid drive". Man-mn.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- Volvo Buses - when productivity counts (2010-04-20). "PostAuto operates the Volvo 7700 Hybrid on rural routes". Volvobuses.com. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
- "First hybrid Postbus". Postauto.ch. Retrieved 2010-11-27.
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