In U.S. politics, the Hyde Amendment is a legislative provision barring the use of certain federal funds to pay for abortion unless the pregnancy arises from incest, rape, or to save the life of the mother. The Hyde Amendment is not a permanent law, but rather is a "rider" that in various forms has been routinely attached to annual appropriations bills since 1976. Legislation including the Hyde Amendment generally only restricts the use of funds allocated for the Department of Health and Human Services and primarily affects Medicaid.
The original Hyde Amendment was passed on September 30, 1976 by the House of Representatives, by a 207-167 vote. It was named for its chief sponsor, Republican Congressman Henry Hyde of Illinois. The measure was the first major legislative success by the United States pro-life movement, especially the National Committee for a Human Life Amendment led by lobbyist Mark Gallagher, after the striking down of anti-abortion laws following the 1973 Supreme Court case Roe v. Wade. Congress subsequently altered the Hyde Amendment several times. The version in force from 1981 until 1993 prohibited the use of federal funds for abortions “except where the life of the mother would be endangered if the fetus were carried to term.”
On October 22, 1993, President Clinton signed into law the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education, and Related Agencies Appropriations Act, 1994. The Act contained a new version of the Hyde Amendment that expanded the category of abortions for which federal funds are available under Medicaid to include cases of rape and incest.
Exemplary Hyde Amendment Text
Although the exact language of the Hyde Amendment has changed over the years, the 2014 appropriations bill for the Departments of Labor, Health and Human Services, and Education contained the following limitations on federal spending for abortion that is typical of Hyde Amendment language generally:
SEC. 506. (a) None of the funds appropriated in this Act, and none of the funds in any trust fund to which funds are appropriated in this Act, shall be expended for any abortion. (b) None of the funds appropriated in this Act, and none of the funds in any trust fund to which funds are appropriated in this Act, shall be expended for health benefits coverage that includes coverage of abortion....
SEC. 507 (a) The limitations established in the preceding section shall not apply to an abortion— (1) if the pregnancy is the result of an act of rape or incest; or (2) in the case where a woman suffers from a physical disorder, physical injury, or physical illness, including a life endangering physical condition caused by or arising from the pregnancy itself, that would, as certified by a physician, place the woman in danger of death unless an abortion is performed. 
Effect on low-income women
Opponents of the amendment, such as the National Abortion Federation and the American Civil Liberties Union, assert that it unfairly targets low-income women, because the amendment effectively ended the provision of abortions for low-income women across the United States through Medicaid, the federal health insurance program for low-income Americans. As a rider attached to the yearly appropriations bill for Medicaid, it occasions intense debate in Congress each time that it comes up for renewal. The original measure made no exceptions for cases of pregnancies that were the result of rape or incest or that threatened the lives of pregnant women, provoking an outcry from women's rights advocates. As a result, beginning in 1977 the amendment was altered to provide for such circumstances; however, the exact wording has varied from one year to the next, subject to the outcome of Congressional bargaining on the issue.
Because of difficulties raising money to pay for their abortions, poor women who depend on Medicaid tend to have them later in pregnancy, which causes destruction of a further-developed fetus, increases in cost, and higher rates of complications from the procedure.
The cutoff of federal Medicaid funds prompted some states to provide public funding for abortion services from their own coffers. Over time the number of states doing so has gradually expanded, either through legislation or consequent to judicial rulings mandating equal access to health care for low-income women. As of 2007, 17 of the 50 states provide such funding, and 13 of these are required by court order to do so.
The Hyde Amendment inspired the passage of other similar provisions extending the ban on funding of abortions to a number of other federal health care programs. Consequently, those federal government employees who wish to have abortions must pay for them "out-of-pocket". In addition, abortion services are not provided for U.S. military personnel and their families, Peace Corps volunteers, Indian Health Service clients, or federal prisoners.
The Hyde Amendment should not be confused with the Mexico City Policy, which prohibited US government funds from going to agencies that promote or perform abortions in other countries. It prevented funds to agencies that promoted abortion regardless of whether or not they actually performed them, while the Hyde Amendment has a more limited scope.
The Stupak–Pitts Amendment, an amendment to the Affordable Health Care for America Act, was introduced by Democratic Rep. Bart Stupak of Michigan. It prohibits use of Federal funds "to pay for any abortion or to cover any part of the costs of any health plan that includes coverage of abortion" except in cases of rape, incest or danger to the life of the mother, and was included in the bill as passed by the House of Representatives on November 7, 2009. However, the Senate bill passed by the House on March 21, 2010 did not contain that Hyde Amendment language. As part of an agreement between Rep. Stupak and President Obama to secure Stupak's vote, the President issued Executive Order 13535 on March 24, 2010 affirming that the Hyde Amendment would extend to the new bill.
- New York Times, November 27, 1977, IV, 4
- See, e.g., Pub.L. No. 101-166, § 204, 103 Stat. 1159, 1177 (1989).
- Pub.L. No. 103-112, 107 Stat. 1082 (1993).
- Id. § 509, 107 Stat. at 1113 (the 1994 Hyde Amendment).
- "Pub L. No. 113-76, 128 Stat. 409" (PDF). Retrieved July 16, 2015.
- "Public Funding for Abortion: Medicaid and the Hyde Amendment". National Abortion Federation. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
- "Public Funding for Abortion". American Civil Liberties Union. 21 July 2004. Retrieved 10 January 2009.
- Francis Roberta W. "Frequently Asked Questions". Equal Rights Amendment. Alice Paul Institute. Retrieved 2009-09-13.
- November 7, 2009 CONGRESSIONAL RECORD—HOUSE H12921
- Hall, Mimi (25 March 2010). "Both sides of abortion issue quick to dismiss order". USA Today.