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Sindhi: حیدر آباد
|Nickname(s): City Of Wind Catchers, Paris of India (British India), Heart of Mehran|
|• Total||3,198 km2 (1,235 sq mi)|
|Elevation||13 m (43 ft)|
|Time zone||PST (UTC+5)|
|• Summer (DST)||PDT (UTC+6)|
Hyderabad (Sindhi: حيدرآباد, Urdu: حيدرآباد ) is the 2nd largest city in Pakistan's Sindh province and now the the 3rd largest city, erstwhile 4th largest in the country and is one of fastest-growing cities in the world. It was founded in 1768 by Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro upon the ruins of a Mauryan fishing village along the bank of the Indus River known as Neroon Kot (Sindhi: نيرُون ڪوٽ). Formerly the capital of Sindh, it serves as the headquarters of the district of Hyderabad. The last Battle of Amir Talpor and the British took place in the city in 1843.
Located 110 kilometres (68 mi) from important archaeological digs investigating the pre-Harappan settlement of Amri, the region holds extreme importance for archaeologists the world over.
In AD 711, Muhammad bin Qasim conquered Sindh and the Indus Valley, bringing South Asian societies into contact with Islam. Raja Dahir was a Hindu king who ruled over a Buddhist majority and that Chach of Alor and his kin were regarded as usurpers of the earlier Buddhist Rai Dynasty. This view is questioned by those who note the diffuse and blurred nature of Hindu and Buddhist practices in the region, especially that of royalty to be patrons of both and those who believe that Chach himself may have been a Buddhist. The forces of Muhammad bin Qasim defeated Raja Dahir in alliance with the Jats and other regional governors.
Hyderabad is a city built on three hillocks cascading over each other. Mian Ghulam Shah Kalhoro of the Kalhora Dynasty founded the city in 1768 over the ruins of Neroon Kot (Nerun or Nerun Kot meaning the place of Neroon), a small fishing village on the banks of Indus River named after its ruler Neroon. A formal concept for the city was laid out by his son, Sarfraz Khan in 1782. When the foundations were laid, the city obtained the nickname Heart of the Mehran as the ruler Mian Ghulam Shah himself was said to have fallen in love with the city. In 1768 he ordered a fort to be built on one of the three hills of Hyderabad to house and defend his people. The fort was built using fire-baked bricks, on account of which it was named Pacco Qillo (Sindhi: پڪو قلعو) meaning the strong fort. After the death of the last Kalhoro, the Talpur dynasty ruled the region. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur left his capital Khudabad, the Land of God and made Hyderabad his capital in 1789. He made the Pacco Qillo his residence and also held his courts there. Mir Fateh Ali Khan Talpur along with his three other brothers were responsible for the affairs that persisted in the city of Hyderabad in the years of their rule. The four were called char yar, Sindhi for the four friends.
The City has a history of Sufism. In the 18th Century Syeds from Multan migrated and settled at Tando Jahania making it a sacred place for Muslims. These Syeds came here from Uch Sharif (Bahawalpur District) via Jahanian (Khanewal District 42 km from Multan). These were the descendants of Jahaniyan Jahangasht a noted Sufi saint. The family's lineage is linked to Jalaluddin Surkh-Posh Bukhari of Uch Sharif( Punjab, Pakistan). Tando Jahania is a small town in the city known for Sufism and Azadari.
The Baloch Talpur's rule lasted almost over 50 years and in 1843, Talpurs faced a greater threat, the invasion of an expanding British colonial empire. The British wanted to annexe Sindh due to their strategic interests in the Punjab region and Afghanistan. The Talpur Amir signed a peace agreement that gave significant concessions to the British. After signing this peace agreement Amir Talpur demobilised his volunteer army. The British General Napier also started to march his army back towards Bombay. When Napier heard that the Talpur Amir had demobilised his Baloch army, he turned back his army and again threatened Hyderabad. The peace agreement with Talpur Amir was of no consequence compared to the strategic interests of the British colonial empire. The British came face-to-face with the Talpurs at the Battle of Miani on 17 February 1843. General Napier was firmly determined in conquering Sindh and plundering Hyderabad. The battle ended on 24 March 1843 when the Talpur Amirs lost and the city came into the hands of the British. The Amirs of Hyderabad suffered great loss with thousands killed in the battle, their fort plundered, and Amirs themselves were exiled to Rangoon, Burma – never to see Sindh again. The British made the city part of the Bombay Presidency of British colonial empire.
Capital of Sindh
After the independence of Pakistan in 1947, Karachi the former provincial capital of Sindh from 1936 was made the Federal Capital of Pakistan. From 1947 to 1955 the city of Hyderabad served as the capital of Sindh province, which was later dissolved and one unit was formed named West Pakistan. Lahore was the capital of West Pakistan. In 1969 Karachi regained the status of capital of newly made province Sindh which included Khayrpur state as well.
Geography and climate
Located at 25.367 °N latitude and 68.367 °E longitude with an elevation of 13 metres (43 ft), Hyderabad is located on the east bank of the Indus River and is roughly 150 kilometres (93 mi) away from Karachi, the provincial capital. Two of Pakistan's largest highways, the Indus Highway and the National Highway join at Hyderabad. Several towns surrounding the city include Kotri at 6.7 kilometres (4.2 mi), Jamshoro at 8.1 kilometres (5.0 mi), Hattri at 5.0 kilometres (3.1 mi) and Husri at 7.5 kilometres (4.7 mi).
Hyderabad has a hot desert climate (Köppen BWh), with warm conditions year-round. The period from mid-April to late June (before the onset of the monsoon) is the hottest of the year, with highs peaking in May at 41.4 °C (106.5 °F). During this time, winds that blow usually bring along clouds of dust, and people prefer staying indoors in the daytime, while the breeze that flows at night is more pleasant. Winters are warm, with highs around 25 °C (77 °F), though lows can often drop below 10 °C (50 °F) at night. The highest temperature of 48.5 °C (119 °F) was recorded on 7 June 1991, while the lowest temperature of 1 °C (34 °F) was recorded on 8 February 2012.
In recent years Hyderabad has seen great downpours. In February 2003, Hyderabad received 105 millimetres (4.13 in) of rain in 12 hours, leaving many dead. The years of 2006 and 2007 saw close contenders to this record rain with death tolls estimated in the hundreds. The highest single-day rain total of 250.7 millimetres (9.87 in) was recorded on 12 September 1962, while the wettest month was September 1962, at 286 millimetres (11.26 in).
|Climate data for Hyderabad, Pakistan|
|Record high °C (°F)||33.3
|Average high °C (°F)||24.7
|Average low °C (°F)||11.1
|Record low °C (°F)||3.3
|Average rainfall mm (inches)||1.5
|Mean monthly sunshine hours||272.8||257.1||288.3||288.0||313.1||279.0||235.6||251.1||285.0||306.9||279.0||272.8||3,328.7|
|Source #1: |
|Source #2: HKO (sun only, 1961–1990) |
Hyderabad is an important commercial centre where industries includes: textiles, sugar, cement, manufacturing of mirror, soap, ice, paper, pottery, plastics, tanneries, hosiery mills and film. There are hide tanneries and sawmills. Handicraft industries, including silver and gold work, lacquer ware, ornamented silks, and embroidered leather saddles, are also well established. Hyderabad produces almost all of the ornamental glass bangles in Pakistan. Hyderabad is a major commercial centre for the agricultural produce of the surrounding area, including millet, rice, wheat, cotton, and fruit.
The city of Hyderabad is where the district headquarters are located and the district government is seated. The district government elections are not held since the last governments term expired and the posts of District Nazim and Naib Nazim are vacant at the moment.
Before the government of Abubaker Nizamani, the District Hyderabad included the present-day District of Badin. Then in the 2005-6 General Pervaiz Musharraf again divided it into four more districts Matiyari, Tando Allahyar, Tando Mohammad Khan and Hyderabad. Hyderabad district was subdivided into four talukas
- Amri: an archaeological site dating back to 3600 BC, 110-kilometre (68 mi) from the city, is the remains of a pre-Harrapan fortified town.
- Pacco Qillo (the Hyderabad Fort) and the Kachha Qilla (lit. the weak fort): fortified residences that were built by the Talpur rulers to keep out invaders during the 17th century.
- The Tombs of Talpur Mirs: colloquially known as Cubbas in Hirabad, tomb sites of the former rulers of Sindh who were defeated by the British in the famous battle of Miani.
- Agham Kot: an archaeological site containing the reminence and tombs of an ancient empire.
- Rani Bagh: formerly a zoo named after Queen Victoria of England (The zoo was founded by the British colonial local administration; Rani means "Queen" in Urdu), has been renovated and has become a very beautiful park with exotic animals such as lions, zebras, different species of birds as well as horses.
- Ranikot Fort: one of the largest forts in the world according to circumference. Located 90 km from the city.
- Sindh Museum: a museum featuring the history and heritage of Sindh and the Indus Valley Civilization. Items from various ruling periods of Sindh, including Samma, Soomra, Kalhora and Talpur periods can be found at the museum.
- Institute of Sindhology Museum: an exhibition of dioramas at the University of Sindh campus that display many aspects of the history of Sindh, its heritage, music and culture. Worth noticing are the ones that depict the lifestyles of the desert tribes of Thar and Kohistan.
- The mighty river Indus: the largest river in Pakistan and flows alongside the city of Hyderabad. Its banks touching Hyderabad are known to have some of the finest fishing spots in Pakistan.
As tradition goes, Sindh had always been a hub for Sufi poets. With a foothold on strong educational foundations, the city of Hyderabad was made into a refuge for thriving literary advocates. Of the few, Mirza Kalich Beg received education from the Government High School, Hyderabad and carried the banner of Sindhi literature across borders. Modern novelists, writers, columnists and researchers like Musharraf Ali Farooqi, Ghulam Mustafa Khan and Qabil Ajmeri also hail from Hyderabad.
Hyderabad has served many Sindhi literary campaigns throughout the history of Pakistan as is evident from the daily newspapers and periodicals that are published in the city. A few worth mention dailies are the Kawish, Ibrat, and Daily Sindh.
Radio and television
With the inauguration of a new broadcasting house at Karachi in 1950, it was possible to lay the foundations for the Hyderabad radio station in 1951. The initial broadcast was made capable using 1 kW medium-wave transmitter. With the first successful transmissions on the FM 100 bandwidth in Karachi, Lahore and Islamabad in October 1998, the Government decided on opening transmissions to other cities where Radio Pakistan had found success. This made available the FM 101 bandwidth transmissions to Hyderabad and other cities in Sindh.
A relief from the regular broadcasts in other cities, entertainment content on the Hyderabad radio gave birth to many a star whose names became an attribute to Hyderabad's richer media content. Among them were actor Shafi Mohammad, a young man who had recently finished his postgraduate degree from the University of Sindh. Such fresh and young talent became a trademark to entertainment in Hyderabad.
Pakistan Television had only had half-a-decade broadcast success from 1963 to 1969 that people in the radio entertainment business felt destined to make a mark on the television circuits. Prominent radio personalities from the Hyderabad radio station like Shafi Muhammad Shah and Mohammad Ali left the airwaves to hone their acting skills on the television. Television shows and content enriched with the inclusion of Hyderabadi names however PTV never opened a television station in Hyderabad.
While the year 2005 saw new FM regular stations set up at Gawadar, Mianwali, Sargodha, Kohat, Bannu and Mithi, private radio channels began airing in and around Hyderabad. Of late, stations like Sachal FM 105 and some others have gained popularity. But the unavailability of an up-to-date news and current affairs platform renders the services of such stations of not much value to the masses but nonetheless appealing to youngsters.
As the Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority (abbreviated as PEMRA) gave licenses to private radio channels, so were television channels owned privately given a right to broadcast from the year 2002, and Daily Kawish, a prominent Sindhi newspaper published from Hyderabad opened a one-of-its-kind private Sindhi channel Kawish Television Network. Many followed in its path namely Sindh TV, Dhoom TV and Kashish TV premiering Sindhi content.
- Hoshu Sheedi, General of Talpur Mirs' Army, which fought against British in the Battles of Miani and last Battle of Dubbo.
- Jivatram Kripalani (1886–1982), Indian politician and Indian independence activist.
- Mirza Kalich Beg (1853–1929), civil servant and author
- K. R. Malkani (1921–2003), Indian politician. Lieutenant-Governor of Pondicherry (2002–03)
- Allama Imdad Ali Imam Ali Kazi (1886–1968), philosopher and scholar
- Sadhu T. L. Vaswani (1879–1966), Hindu spiritualist. Founder of the Sadhu Vaswani Mission.
- Nabi Bux Khan Baloch (1917–2011), linguist and author
- Muhammad Ibrahim Joyo (born 1915), scholar and translator
- Ghulam Mustafa Khan (born 1912), researcher, and linguist
- Choudry Mohammad Sadiq (1900–1975), politician and Muslim Leaguer
- Syed Qamar Zaman Shah (born 1933), the nephew and son-in-law of Late Syed Miran Mohammad Shah. Senator during the early 1970s.
- Syed Miran Mohammad Shah, speaker of Sindh legislative Assembly, Minister in the Sindh Government, Ambassador of Pakistan to Spain.
- Qabil Ajmeri (1931–1962), recognised as a "senior" poet of Urdu
- Bhawani Shankar Chowdhry (born 1959), ICT Professional and an electronics engineer.
- List of twin towns and sister cities in Pakistan
- Hyderabad District, Sindh
- Hyderabadi pickle
- Hyderabad Electric Supply Company
- Sateen Jo Aastan
- Tando Jahania
- Hyderabad Airport
- History of Hyderabad, Pakistan
- History of Hyderabad, Sindh
- Battle of Hyderabad
- Markazi Imambargah Shah e Najaf
- Syed Weedhal Shah III
- Hyderabad Junction railway station
- Education in Hyderabad, Sindh
- "Sindh population surges by 81.5 pc, households by 83.9 pc". Thenews.com.pk. 2 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2013.
- Hyderabad, Apna. "3rd largest city in Pakistan". Apna Hyderabad. Apna Hyderabad. Retrieved 10 July 2015.
- Nicholas F. Gier, FROM MONGOLS TO MUGHALS: RELIGIOUS VIOLENCE IN INDIA 9TH-18TH CENTURIES, Presented at the Pacific Northwest Regional Meeting American Academy of Religion, Gonzaga University, May 2006 . Retrieved 11 December 2006.
- Naik, C.D. (2010). Buddhism and Dalits: Social Philosophy and Traditions. Delhi: Kalpaz Publications. p. 32. ISBN 978-81-7835-792-8.
- P. 151 Al-Hind, the Making of the Indo-Islamic World By André Wink
- P. 164 Notes on the religious, moral, and political state of India before the Mahomedan invasion, chiefly founded on the travels of the Chinese Buddhist priest Fai Han in India, A.D. 399, and on the commentaries of Messrs. Remusat, Klaproth, Burnouf, and Landresse, Lieutenant-Colonel W.H. Sykes by Sykes, Colonel;
- P. 505 The History of India, as Told by Its Own Historians by Henry Miers Elliot, John Dowson
- "Pakka Qila Hyderabad". abbasikalhora.com. Archived from the original on July 4, 2014. Retrieved November 16, 2014.
- Uch Sharif (18 December 2011). "Safarnama Makhdoom Jahanian Jahangasht". Uchsharif.com. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- [dead link]
- "Sufis & Shaykhs  – World of Tasawwuf". Spiritualfoundation.net. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Tomb of Bibi Jawindi, Baha'al-Halim and Ustead and the Tomb and Mosque of Jalaluddin Bukhari – UNESCO World Heritage Centre". Whc.unesco.org. Retrieved 20 November 2013.
- "Pakistan floods leave many dead". BBC News. 18 February 2003.
- "World Briefing – Asia: Pakistan: Floods Kill 88 And Maroon 100,000 \". The New York Times. 30 July 2003.
- "Climatological Information for Hyderabad, Pakistan". Hong Kong Observatory. Retrieved 2011-05-04.
- "Pakistan Backgrounder". South Asia Terrorism Portal. Retrieved 15 April 2008.
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- "Mirza Kalich Beg: Renowned scholar of Sindh". Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- "Read Daily Kawish online". Daily Kawish. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "Read Daily Ibrat online". Daily Ibrat. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "Read Daily Sindh online". Daily Sindh. Retrieved 21 May 2008.
- "Radio Pakistan: Chronicle of Progress". Radio Pakistan. Archived from the original on 14 February 2008. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- "Actor Shafi Muhammad passes away". Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- "Pakistan's Top Film Star Muhammad Ali Dies". Pakistan Tribune. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- "PEMRA Ordinance 2002" (PDF). Pakistan Electronic Media Regulatory Authority. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 October 2007. Retrieved 18 March 2008.
- Biographical Encyclopedia of Pakistan 1963–1966 edition.
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