Hydnocarpus wightiana seed oil
Hydnocarpus wightiana or Chaulmoogra is a tree in the Achariaceae family. The oil from its seeds has been widely used in Indian medicine and Chinese traditional medicine for the treatment of leprosy. It entered early Western medicine in the 19th-century before the era of sulfones and antibiotics for the treatment of several skin diseases and leprosy.
Physical characteristics and composition
The oil is semi-solid at room temperature and does not have a strong odor. Gas–liquid chromatography analysis has shown the oil to contain the following fatty acids – hydnocarpic acid, chaulmoogric acid, gorlic acid, lower cyclic homologues, myristic acid, palmitic acid, stearic acid, palmitoleic acid, oleic acid, linoleic acid and linolenic acid.
The active ingredient that produces antimicrobial activity has been identified as hydnocarpic acid, a lipophilic compound. It acts by being an antagonist of biotin. The oil was used intravenously or intramuscularly in the early part of the 20th-century against leprosy. An ethyl ester of the oil was developed by Alice Ball in 1916 which led to the preparation and marketing of it by Burroughs Wellcome (modern GlaxoSmithKline) in the early 1920s. The oil preparations were used intravenously for leprosy patients, often producing local reactions. The oil was often obtained directly from trees in India, Sri Lanka or Africa. Doctors would locally prepare ethyl esters to treat their patients. In June 1927, Burroughs Wellcome released the commercial preparation, sodium hydnocarpate marketed as Alepol, which produced lesser disagreeable symptoms of pain, swelling, irritating cough and blocking of the veins. In May 1928, doctors reported cure of leprosy in some patients after treatment with alepol. In the 1940's chaulmoogra oil was replaced by the more effective sulfones.
The oil contains 5′-methoxyhydnocarpin, an amphipathic weak acid. Although a minor component in the oil with no antimicrobial activitiy on its own, it plays a role in preventing multidrug resistance among some bacteria such as Staphylococcus aureus. It enhances the action of berberine (which is not found in chaulmoogra oil) by preventing its removal from within Staphylococcus aureus bacterial cells. Thus using the oil or an extract of the hydnocarpic acid in combination with extracts from other plants could help increase antimicrobial activity due to synergistic effects.
Collection and preprocessing − processing − extraction
Fruits are plucked by climbing the tree or using long sticks with a sickle tied to it. The fruits are peeled by knife and the seeds are washed in water and then dried in sun. Seeds are decorticated (dehusked) by mallet, hand hammer, or decoricator. They may also be crushed in an expeller and rotary. The kernels yield 43% oil. The extracted oil is stored in zinc barrels until exported.
Properties and fatty acid composition
The crude oil is of pale greenish-brown tinged. The oil can be easily into white, watery oil. The oil contains three cyclopentene fatty acids.
Table: fatty acid composition of oil
|Acid||H. kurzil||H. wightiana||H. odorata|
|Lower cyclic homologs||0.3||4.6||..|
|Myristic acid (C14:0)||0.6||0.8||0.4|
|Palmitic acid (C16:0)||8.4||5.6||11.8|
|Stearic acid (C18:0)||1.6||4.7||..|
|Palmitoleic acid (C16:1)||6.0||0.5|
|Oleic acid (C18:1)||5.4||3.6||21.8|
|Linoleic acid (C18:2)||1.6||1.8||29.3|
|Linolenic acid (C18:3)||..||..||31.2|
Table of physical properties of oil
|Refractive index, at 400C||1.472-1.476|
|Acid value||Max. 25.0%|
|Melting point||20-25 °C|
|Specific gravity (at 25 °C)||0.950-.960|
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- Lukens, RM (1922). "CHAULMOOGRA OIL IN THE TREATMENT OF TUBERCULOUS LARYNGITIS". JAMA. 78 (4): 274–275. doi:10.1001/jama.1922.02640570018009.
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