Hydra viridissima

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Hydra viridissima
Hydra viridissima2.jpg
Hydra viridissima
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Cnidaria
Class: Hydrozoa
Order: Anthoathecata
Family: Hydridae
Genus: Hydra
Species:
H. viridissima
Binomial name
Hydra viridissima
Pallas, 1766[1]
Synonyms
  • Chlorohydra viridissima (Pallas, 1766)[1]
  • Hydra viridis Linnaeus, 1767[1]

Hydra viridissima is a species of Cnidaria which are commonly found in freshwater, mostly ponds, rivers, and slow flowing parts of streams and rivers (because they are sessile they cannot be in fast current water)[2] in the Northern temperate zone. They are also known as Hydra viridis and Chlorohydra viridissima. Green hydra are typically 10mm longs, and they have tentacles that are about half of their length.[3] They feed on small crustaceans and are strictly carnivorous.Typically they feed on small crustaceans, insects and annelids. Hydra viridissima is often known as the Green hydra, the species appears green because of the symbiotic relationship with Chlorella vulgaris, which is a green algaa that lives on the organism.[4] Hydra are normally sessile and live on aquatic vegetation they secrete mucous to attach using their basal disc.[3]

For movement, the individual will extend and contract with a mixture of muscle movement and water (hydraulic) pressure. The hydraulic pressure is created inside the digestive cavity. Tiny cells line the digestive system that have flagellea, this creates a current to draw water into the digestive cavity. This can extend the length of the body column.

Movement[edit]

Even though Hydra are sessile, they can can move in short bursts. They can detach their basal disc from the substrate and move to a new location by gliding or by "somersaulting", which they do by detaching the disc then bending over and over using the tentacles to push over when they rotate around. They will repeat attaching and detaching until they are at the desired location. They also move by floating upside down. The basal disc produces a gas bubble which carries it to the water surface to move.[5]

Anatomy[edit]

Hydra are multi-cellular organisms. They are made up of two epithelial cells layers and have an hypostome or mouth opening. Circling the mouth there are tentacles that contain nematocysts or stinging cells to help in prey capture. The mouth and tentacles are called the hydranth. The rest of the Hydra is known as the column and is divided into four sections: the gastric section (between the tentacles and first bud), budding section (which produces the buds), the peducle (between the lowest bud and basal disc), and the basal disc( foot-like structure). Hydra are diploblastic organisms, the body is composed of two embryonic cell layers; the ectoderm and the endoderm. The endoderm lines the gastrovascular cavity, which is a water-filled sac, this acts as a hydroskeleton and site for food digestion. They also have a simple nervous system that consist of a nerve net that cover the entire body.[6]

Symbiosis[edit]

H. viridissima is currently the only known Hydra species that has a permanent symbiotic relationship with photosynthetic unicellular Chlorella algae. These algae are located in the endodermal epithelial cells which are enclosed by an individual vacuolar membrane, which enclose inorganic and organic molecules for storage.[7] There are many cells that make up the endodermal epithelical on each cell there is usually 20-40 individual algea organisms.[8] The algae supplies nutrients through photosynthesis to the Hydra. Because the algae lives in the vacuoles of the cells, they are protected from the digestive enzymes of the Hydra.[4] During long period of darkness, such as storms or blooms that block sunlight, algae loss starts from the tentacles, hypostome and growth region. But when light conditions return the algae undergo a rapid multiplication and can repopulate the host in approximately two days.[9] Chlorella undergo asexual reproduction which is in correlation with the division of the host.[8] The Hydra regulates the population of the Chlorella algae by digesting excess algae or controlling algal cell division.[10]

Growth pattern[edit]

Hydra are capable of escaping death by renewing their body tissues. Mortality rates are extremely low and there have been no signs of decline in reproductive rate.[11]

Toxicity[edit]

Hydra cannot be found in impaired water due to their low tolerance to pollution. They can be used to rank toxicants on level of potential hazard. The simple tubular body and diplobastic membranes, all of the epithelical cells are in constant contact with the environment, this allows for toxic substances being exposed to all body surface.[6] Harsh metals and high levels of those metals can cause mortality. One advantage of being about to reproduce asexually, is that during times where there are high levels of harsh metals they can still reproduce successfully.[12]

Reproduction[edit]

Hydra are typically hermaphroditic or gonochoric. Uniquely to Hydra, the medusa stage is absent and only the polyps will reproduce sexually and asexually.[2] H. viridissima will reproduce sexually when temperatures have warmed to at least 20 degs C, typically this falls between May and June. Larger species will produce both ovaries and testes, while smaller individuals only develop testicles. Sexual reproduction can be seen as a strategy to survive during times of low nutrients and other unfavorable conditions. H. viridissima has three sexes: female, male, and hermaphrodite. Simultaneous hermaphrodites are dominant during the growing season. It is thought that female gonads need a longer period of inductive conditions for production, that means that there is a scarcity of females in most populations. During the summer months, specifically in Poland Lemna bloom occurs that reduces light attenuation which reduces photosynthesis efficiency of the Chlorella algae, this influences the asexual behavior. Even though during the beginning of the mating season for the Hydra, all the individuals are sexually active, asexual reproduction is the main strategy for reproduction. This behavior of interference of asexual and sexual reproduction allows population growth to continue throughout all conditions.[13]

When the Hydra reproduces asexually, buds will be produced that attach to the body wall. The buds are genetically identical clones of the parent. When they are mature they will break free. The parent can possess several buds that are at different stages of development at the same time. The bud once detached from the parent will float until they find some hard substrate to attach to.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c "Hydra viridissima Pallas, 1766". World Register of Marine Species.
  2. ^ a b c Hamrsky, Jan. "Hydra". Life in Freshwater.
  3. ^ a b Wright, Jonathan (1997). "Hydra". Hydra: Facts Sheet.
  4. ^ a b Massaro, FC; Roscha, O. "Development and population growth of Hydra viridissima Pallas". Brazilian Journal of Biology. 68 (2): 379–383. doi:10.1590/S1519-69842008000200020. Retrieved 3 April 2019.
  5. ^ "Information on Hydra". www.countrysideinfo.co.uk. Retrieved 2019-04-14.
  6. ^ a b Quinn, Brian; Gagne, Francois; Blaise, Christian. "Hydra, a model system for environmental studies". The International Journal of Developmental Biology. 56.
  7. ^ Hemmrich, Georg; Anokhin, Boris; Zacharias, Helmut; Bosch, Thomas (July 2007). "Molecular phylogenetics in Hydra, a classical model in evolutionary developmental biology". Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution. 44 (1): 281–290. doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2006.10.031. PMID 17174108.
  8. ^ a b Habetha, Matthias; Anton-Erzleben, Friederike; Neumann, Kathrin; Bosch, Thomas (2003). "The Hydra viridis / Chlorella symbiosis. Growth and sexual differentiation in polyps without symbionts". Zoology. 106 (2): 101–108. doi:10.1078/0944-2006-00104. PMID 16351895.
  9. ^ Pardy, Rosevelt (August 1974). "Some Factors Affecting the Growth and Distribution of the algal endosymbionts of Hydra". The Biological Bulletin. 147 (1): 105–118. doi:10.2307/1540572. JSTOR 1540572. PMID 4845245.
  10. ^ Muscatine, Leonard; McNeil, Paul (August 1, 2015). "Endosymbiosis in Hydra and the Evolution of Internal Defense System". Integrative and Comparative Biology. 29 (2): 371–386.
  11. ^ Martinez, DE (May 1998). "Mortality patterns suggest lack of senescence in hydra". Exp Gerontol. 33 (3): 217–25. doi:10.1016/S0531-5565(97)00113-7. PMID 9615920.
  12. ^ Beach, Matthew; Pascoe, David (April 1, 1997). "THE ROLE OF HYDRA VULGARIS (PALLAS) IN ASSESSING THE TOXICITY OF FRESHWATER POLLUTANTS". Water Research. 32 (1): 101–106. doi:10.1016/S0043-1354(97)00180-2.
  13. ^ Kaliszewicz, Anita (Jan 2011). "Interference of asexual and sexual reproduction in the green hydra". Ecological Research. 26 (1): 147–152. doi:10.1007/s11284-010-0771-6.