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Temporal range: Late Cretaceous, 84–80.5 Ma
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Reptilia
Superorder: Sauropterygia
Order: Plesiosauria
Family: Elasmosauridae
Genus: Hydralmosaurus
Welles, 1943
Species: H. serpentinus
Binomial name
Hydralmosaurus serpentinus
(Cope, 1877)
(originally Elasmosaurus)

Hydralmosaurus (meaning "salt water lizard") is a genus of elasmosaurid plesiosaur. It is known only from a single specimen discovered in Late Cretaceous (late Santonian - early Campanian age) rocks of Nebraska, USA;[1] Hydralmosaurus was coined as a new genus for "Elasmosaurus" serpentinus in 1943 by Samuel Paul Welles.[2] the specimen has a total body length of 9.44 metres (31.0 ft).[3] A 2016 study found it to be synonymous with Styxosaurus.[4]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Carpenter, K. (1999). "Revision of North American elasmosaurs from the Cretaceous of the western interior." Paludicola, 2(2): 148-173.
  2. ^ Welles, Samuel P. (1943). "Elasmosaurid plesiosaurs with description of new material from California and Colorado". Memoirs of the University of California. 13 (3): 125–254. 
  3. ^ O'Gorman, J.P. (2016). "A Small Body Sized Non-Aristonectine Elasmosaurid (Sauropterygia, Plesiosauria) from the Late Cretaceous of Patagonia with Comments on the Relationships of the Patagonian and Antarctic Elasmosaurids". Ameghiniana. 53 (3): 245–268. doi:10.5710/AMGH.29.11.2015.2928. 
  4. ^ Otero RA. (2016) Taxonomic reassessment of Hydralmosaurus as Styxosaurus: new insights on the elasmosaurid neck evolution throughout the Cretaceous. PeerJ 4:e1777 https://doi.org/10.7717/peerj.1777