Hydrangea hirta

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Hydrangea hirta
Hydrangea hirta 0805.JPG
Scientific classification edit
Kingdom: Plantae
Clade: Angiosperms
Clade: Eudicots
Clade: Asterids
Order: Cornales
Family: Hydrangeaceae
Genus: Hydrangea
Species: H. hirta
Binomial name
Hydrangea hirta
(Thunb.) Siebold

Hydrangea hirta that is commonly known as the "nettle-leaved hydrangea" is an endemic species that is native to Japan with ranges from its native country to East Asia.[1] Within the conservation levels this species fits into species the least concerned category.[2] Due to the beauty and sturdiness of the species flowers it can be found outside of its range due to being used for horticultural and landscaping  purposes,and is found in gardens and landscapes in a wide variety of countries including the United Kingdom and the Eastern United States.[3] As well as being a beautiful landscaping species for businesses and residential gardens alike, this species have been used in a wide array of research projects and studies that have been conducted at a variety of  Universities in countries around the world including Japan, the United Kingdom, and the United States to name a few.[4]

Description[edit]

A small deciduous shrub reaching 3 to 4 ft in height.[5] This shrub contains intricate hairy branches that are twisted and bent at opposite angles.[5] The leaves on this shrub are deep toothed, and are covered in stinging hairs or nettle-leaves.[6] Hydrangea hirta has alternating leaves that are 5 to 8 cm long with an egg shape that comes to a pointed tip.[6] The yellowing, and loss of the leaves begins to occur in August.[6]  As this shrub gets older the branches and leaves begin to smooth due to the loss of the stinging hairs.[6]

The flowers that bloom from this shrub tend to grow in small clusters that are light blue to white in color.[6] An individual flower for this species measure 5 cm in diameter with 5 petals and 10 stamens protruding from the bud, although this species lacks the ornamental flowers that many other hydrangea species contain.[6]  Each flower is fertile and contains an urceolate seeds swell in the middle and begins to narrow at the top within the flower clusters that contain a central stem bearing a single terminal flower that develops first, the other flowers in the cluster developing as terminal buds of lateral stems.[7] At the base of a flower pod the typical forming of the whorl that encloses the petals and forms a protective layer around a flower in bud is fairly small reaching to be approximately 2 to 3 inches across.[7]

Distributions[edit]

This shrub is native to the mountain ranges of Japan, and extends from the Himalayas through China to Taiwan.[1]  In Japan the Hydrangea Hirta species is located in the cool-temperate rainforest belt, otherwise known as the Montane Temperate Rainforest.[6] This rainforest belt had a range of 1200 meters in elevation in Kyushu, at 1,000 – 1800 meters in Shikoku, 800 – 1650 meters in Chubum and the lowlands of south Hokkaido.[1] An example of where this species can be located  is in the Tsuga Sieboldii Forest that covers the Pacific side of Honshu and Shikoku where this shrub is a species that helps compose the 20% to 40% shrub cover layer in the lower area of the orotemperate belt.[1]  

Ecology[edit]

Hydrangea hirta is a slow growing deciduous species that requires podosolic soil that are more acidic, heavily leched, and moist with the cold and wetter climate conditions.[2] These conditions are best suited for the growth and development of this species.[6] This species is shade tolerant and prefers areas of light shade with partial or full shade.[6] The reproduction of this species is completed by bee pollination with a blooming season that starts in June or the late spring and ends in the early summer.[6] However, bee pollination is not the only way this species reproduces, other forms of reproduction for this species includes the  ability to reproduce from the parent stock by the breaking of woody stems, of semi hardwood stems, softwood stems, and the ability to grow new plants from buried aerial stems that will eventually break off and make a new plants.[6]

Taxonomy[edit]

Hydrangea is pronounced hy-DRAIN-juh. Hydrangea is Greek in Origin, and comes from the Greek word hydro meaning “water” and arrios meaning “a vessel” describing to the shape of the cup shaped fruit and the capsule the fruit is contained in.[8] The hirta portion of this species name means “hairy”, and is pronounced HUR-ta.[9] Another name for this species is Hortensia hirta. Hortensia is Latin in origin from the Latin word hortus meaning “garden” and hirta meaning “hairy”, essentially meaning hairy garden.[10] The vernacular name for this species is Viburnum hirtum.[11] While viburnum comes from a Latin origin, and means a small shrub or tree within the temperate and warm regions that bare flat or rounded clusters of white flowers.[11] While hirtum is also Latin in origin, and means “hairy” with a thick growth.[9] In Japan the name for this species is ko-ajisai meaning small hydrangea.[6]

Synonymous[edit]

Hydrangea hirta f. albiflora[12]

Hydrangea hirta f. lamalis[12]

Hydrangea hirta var. albiflora[12]

Uses[edit]

This species has started to be used horticulturally and into landscaping. The seeds for this species can purchased online through a multitude of vendors online, and are commonly found in Europe include the United Kingdom, and parts of the United States.[3] In the European countries that this species can be found in it is notably susceptible to honey fungus. However, the leaves of this species can eaten once they have been cooked, and is usually served with rice.[13]

Studies and Research[edit]

This species has also been used in a wide variety of studies and research projects. A recent project that was conducted by the Department of Forestry at Kyoto University in Kyoto Japan conducted its research on spatial arrangement of the floral buds of plants which perform functions such as climbing and protection of the terminal parts showing their stems nature with emphasis on herbivory on the shoots that have grown in the new growing season.[14] An other portion of this study was done on the competition from surrounding species and compare the requirements that is needed for the support of the species to grow.[14] A recent article that was published by the University of Chicago Press was on an already conducted research project that included a variety of Hydrangea species, including the Hydrangea hirta that was on the phylogenetic implications of seed morphology the species.[15] This study was conducted on eleven seed characteristics including shape, primary sculpture, secondary sculpture, and appendages.[15] The last example of a research study was done on the genome size and base composition on a variety 16 species and subspecies of hydrangea, including hydrangea hirta.[16] The study showed that natural hybrids between thy hydrangea species are rare.[16] However, this study stated that  there have been natural hybrids found in the Izu Peninsula of Japan between Hydrangea hirta and Hydrangea scadens.[16] However for breeding programs and or potentially enlarging the genetic diversity in cultivated species this study looked at the natural hybrids evolutionary development and diversification.[16]

Related species[edit]

The charity Plants For a Future: earth, plants, people provide a list of closely related species.[2] The species that are closely related to Hydrangea hirta include several species including the following species: Clerodendrum bungei (Rose Glorybower), Deinanthe bifida (False Hydrangea), Deutzia scabra (Fuzzy Deutzia), Dichroa febrifuga, Hydrangea anomala (Climbing Hydrangea), Hydrangea arborescens (Wild Hydrangea), Hydrangea aspera (Rough-leaved Hydrangea), Hydrangea macrophylla (Bigleaf Hydrangea), Hydrangea paniculata (Panicled Hydrangea), Hydrangea serrata (Mountain Hydrangea), Hydrangea serrata amagiana (Tea of Heaven), Hydrangea serrata thunbergii (Sawtooth Hydrangea), Philadelphus coronarius (Sweet Mock Orange), Philadelphus delavayi (Chinese Mock Orange), Philadelphus lewisii (Indian Arrowwood), Philadelphus pubescens (Hoary Mock Orange), Philadelphus x virginalis (Virginal Mock Orange), Platycrater arguta (Cobweb flower), Schizophragma hydrangeoides (Moonlight Chinese Hydrangea Vine), and the Schizophragma integrifolium (Chinese Hydrangea Vine).[2] Unfortunately, not every related species has a common name, or the common name is also the scientific name.

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d DellaSala, Dominick (2011). Temperate and Boreal Rainforests of the World. Washington: Island Press. pp. 188–189. ISBN 9781597266758.
  2. ^ a b c d "Hydrangea hirta PFAF Plant Database". www.pfaf.org. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  3. ^ a b "BlueBell Nursery - BlueBell Nursery - Trees & Shrubs - Hydrangea - Hydrangea hirta". www.bluebellnursery.com. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  4. ^ "Hydrangea (Hydrangea hirta) in the Hydrangeas Database - Garden.org". garden.org. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  5. ^ a b Andersson, Folke (2005). Coniferous Forests. Elsevier. ISBN 9780444816276.
  6. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l "Hydrangea hirta | Treasures of Mt. Takao | TAKAO 599 MUSEUM". www.takao599museum.jp (in Japanese). Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  7. ^ a b Kubitzki, Klaus (2013-11-11). Flowering Plants. Dicotyledons: Celastrales, Oxalidales, Rosales, Cornales, Ericales. Springer Science & Business Media. ISBN 9783662072578.
  8. ^ "hydrangea | Definition of hydrangea in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  9. ^ a b Quattrocchi, Umberto (1999-11-17). CRC World Dictionary of Plant Nmaes: Common Names, Scientific Names, Eponyms, Synonyms, and Etymology. CRC Press. ISBN 9780849326776.
  10. ^ "hortensia | Definition of hortensia in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  11. ^ a b "viburnum | Definition of viburnum in English by Oxford Dictionaries". Oxford Dictionaries | English. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  12. ^ a b c "Catalogue of Life : Hydrangea hirta (Thunb.) Siebold". www.catalogueoflife.org. Retrieved 2017-12-07.
  13. ^ Tanaka, Tyozaburo (1976). Cyclopedia of Edible Plants of the World. Keigaku Publishing Company.
  14. ^ a b Ishii, Hiroaki; Takeda, Hiroshi (1997-07-01). "Effects of the spatial arrangement of aerial stems and current-year shoots on the demography and growth of Hydrangea hirta in a light-limited environment". New Phytologist. 136 (3): 443–453. doi:10.1046/j.1469-8137.1997.00770.x. ISSN 1469-8137.
  15. ^ a b Hufford, Larry (1995-07-01). "Seed Morphology of Hydrangeaceae and Its Phylogenetic Implications". International Journal of Plant Sciences. 156 (4): 555–580. doi:10.1086/297279. ISSN 1058-5893.
  16. ^ a b c d Cerbah, M.; Mortreau, E.; Brown, S.; Siljak-Yakovlev, S.; Bertrand, H.; Lambert, C. (2001-07-01). "Genome size variation and species relationships in the genus Hydrangea". Theoretical and Applied Genetics. 103 (1): 45–51. doi:10.1007/s001220000529. ISSN 0040-5752.

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