Hydraulic press

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to navigation Jump to search
Hydraulic force increase
Hydraulic press - 400T

A hydraulic press is a device (see machine press) using a hydraulic cylinder to generate a compressive force. It uses the hydraulic equivalent of a mechanical lever, and was also known as a Bramah press after the inventor, Joseph Bramah, of England.[1] He invented and was issued a patent on this press in 1795. As Bramah (who is also known for his development of the flush toilet) installed toilets, he studied the existing literature on the motion of fluids and put this knowledge into the development of the press.[2]

The Main Principle[edit]

The hydraulic press depends on Pascal's principle-the pressure throughout a closed system is constant. One part of the system is a piston acting as a pump, with a modest mechanical force acting on a small cross-sectional area; the other part is a piston with a larger area which generates a correspondingly large mechanical force. Only small-diameter tubing (which more easily resists pressure) is needed if the pump is separated from the press cylinder.

Pascal's law: Pressure on a confined fluid is transmitted undiminished and acts with equal force on equal areas and at 90 degrees to the container wall.

A small effort force acts on a small piston. This creates a pressure which is transferred through the hydraulic fluid to a large piston


Hydraulic presses are commonly used for forging, clinching, moulding, blanking, punching, deep drawing, and metal forming operations.[3][4] With the growth and importance of light-weighting in the aerospace and automotive industry, more applications are present in Thermoplastics, Composites, SMC Sheet Molded Composites, RTM Resin Transfer Molding, GMT Glass Mat Transfer and Carbon Fiber Molding. All of these applications require precise control and repeat-ability.

I-PRESS HYDRO Press & Automation Control

End users in many cases need to record data of every press stroke to assure parts meet compliance issues. With I-PRESS Connected Enterprise, users can download and store part to part information that includes, press position, tonnage, speeds, temperatures, automation location, in-feed of material, part exit and more.

With the ongoing surge towards light-weight parts for aerospace, automotive appliances and many other industries, Servo Hydraulic and Hydraulic presses have become a key tool for the Thermoplastic Industries. Otherwise known as compression molding presses, control of speed, pressures, position, heating and cooling mould temperatures can be managed with the I-PRESS HYDRO controller for press and automation functions.


In popular culture[edit]

In the 900s the diplomat Liutprand of Cremona, when visiting the emperor in the Byzantine Empire, explained that he saw the emperor sitting on a hydraulic throne and that it was "made in such a cunning manner that at one moment it was down on the ground, while at another it rose higher and was seen to be up in the air".[5]

The room featured in Fermat's Room has a design similar to that of a hydraulic press.[6] Boris Artzybasheff also created a drawing of a hydraulic press, in which the press was created out of the shape of a robot. In 2015, the Hydraulic Press Channel, a YouTube channel dedicated to crushing objects with a hydraulic press, was created by Lauri Vuohensilta, a factory owner from Tampere, Finland.[7]

Hydraulic Press History[edit]

In 1795, the British j. brammer used PASCAL's principle to create a water press for packaging and pressing vegetable oils.

By the middle of the 19th century, Britain began to use hydraulic presses for forging. The hydraulic press gradually replaced the super-large steam hammer.

By the end of the 19th century, the United States had built 126,00T free-forging hydraulic presses.

Since then, the world has produced more than 20 sets of 10,000T free-forging hydraulic machines, including two made in China.

With the development and improvement of the electric high-pressure pump, the forging hydraulic press is developing towards a small tonnage.

After the 1950s, small rapid forging hydraulic press appeared, which could do the things equivalent to the work done by 3-5Ton forging hammer.

In the 1940s, Germany made a huge die-forging press of 18,000T. Since then, the world has produced 18 sets of 18,000T forging hydraulic machines, of which one made in China is 30,000T.

Types of Hydraulic Press Machine[edit]

According to the structural form, the hydraulic press machine is mainly divided into:

  • Four-column hydraulic press
  • Single column hydraulic press (C type)
  • Horizontal hydraulic press
  • Vertical frame hydraulic press
  • Universal hydraulic press

Hydraulic Press Terminology[edit]

Nominal pressure

The highest pressure at which a machine can be used continuously.

Motive seal

The sealing of the relative sliding part of the hydraulic press becomes a motive seal.

Circuit diagram

Hydraulic system circuit diagram represented by professional graphic symbols.

Hydraulic drive system

The hydraulic transmission device is a device that converts pressure of fluid into power.

Hydraulic pressure station

A hydraulic device consisting of a fuel tank, a hydraulic pump, a motor, a control valve, etc.

Hydraulic balance

The weight carried by balancing the pressure of the liquid, including the equipment of the hydraulic press itself.

Oil drainage

The return of oil from a pipe in a hydraulic device to a tank or a collector is called oil drain.


  1. ^ Parker, Dana T. Building Victory: Aircraft Manufacturing in the Los Angeles Area in World War II, p. 87, Cypress, CA, 2013. ISBN 978-0-9897906-0-4.
  2. ^ Carlisle, Rodney (2004). Scientific American Inventions and Discoveries, p. 266. John Wiley & Sons, Inc., New Jersey. ISBN 0-471-24410-4.
  3. ^ "Video of hydraulic press". tekaonline.com. Tekameccanica. 2 September 2015. Retrieved 2 September 2015.[permanent dead link]
  4. ^ "Advantages of Hydraulic Presses". MetalFormingFacts.com. The Lubrizol Corporation. 4 February 2013. Archived from the original on 20 October 2013. Retrieved 23 August 2013.
  5. ^ Pevny, Olenka Z. (2000). "Perceptions of Byzantium and Its Neighbors: 843-1261". Yale University Press. p. 94-95.
  6. ^ "What Hydraulic Press Machine Is". BPThai. Retrieved 2016-06-19.
  7. ^ "Welcome to the 'Hydraulic Press' YouTube channel, a truly crushing experience". The Washington Post. Retrieved 2016-06-01.

See also:[edit]

Hydraulic Press Machine: The Essential Guide