Hydrocotyle bonariensis

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Hydrocotyle bonariensis
Hydrocotyle bonariensis.jpg
Largeleaf pennywort
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Apiales
Family: Araliaceae
Genus: Hydrocotyle
Species: H. bonariensis
Binomial name
Hydrocotyle bonariensis[1]
Lam.
Synonyms

Hydrocotyle bonariensis Comm. ex Lam.
Hydrocotyle multiflora Ruiz & Pav.
Hydrocotyle petiolaris DC.
Hydrocotyle yucatanensis Millsp.[2]
Hydrocotyle caffra Meisn.[3]

Hydrocotyle bonariensis (largeleaf pennywort)[1] once a member of the family Apiaceae, now in the family Araliaceae[4] and of the genus Hydrocotyle is a hairless and creeping[5] perennial.[6]

Description[edit]

Flowers
Numerous white[5] to creamy yellow[6] flowers, flower stalks can be 30 centimetres (12 in).[5]
Fruits and reproduction
Stems creep and root at the nodes and spreads by rhizomes. Produces a dry dehiscent fruit that at maturity splits two or more parts each with a single seed.[6]
Habitat
Lives in sandy areas of somewhat extreme conditions, very dry lands that are flooded sometimes.
Community species
Co-dominate species

Distribution[edit]

Colonizes sandy ground[5] and disturbed foreshore sites, estuaries, coastline, sand dunes and ponds.[6] H. bonariensis has also displayed a tendency to prefer and be stronger at higher elevations.[9]

Native[10]
Afrotropic:
West-Central Tropical Africa: Cameroon
West Tropical Africa: Côte d'Ivoire, Ghana, Liberia, Nigeria, Senegal
South Tropical Africa: Angola, Mozambique
Southern Africa: South Africa
Western Indian Ocean: Madagascar, Mauritius, Réunion
Nearctic:
Southeastern United States: Alabama, Florida, Georgia, Louisiana, Mississippi, North Carolina, South Carolina
South-Central United States: Texas
Neotropic:
Central America: Costa Rica, Guatemala, Nicaragua, Panama
Caribbean: Cuba, Puerto Rico
Northern South America: Venezuela
Brazil: Brazil
Western South America: Bolivia, Colombia, Peru
Southern South America: Argentina, Chile, Paraguay, Uruguay

Neighbors[edit]

Colombian communities
In a remote sensing project for rapid ecological evaluation, H. bonariensis was found in Colombia inhabiting several of the evaluated areas; the last two communities are considered exceptional for the diversity.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b Natural Resources Conservation Service (NRCS). "PLANTS Profile, Hydrocotyle bonariensis". The PLANTS Database. United States Department of Agriculture,. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  2. ^ Tropicos. "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam". Missouri Botanical Garden. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  3. ^ "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. record n° 27212". African Plants Database. South African National Biodiversity Institute, the Conservatoire et Jardin botaniques de la Ville de Genève and Tela Botanica. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  4. ^ "genus Hydrocotyle". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN) online database. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  5. ^ a b c d Aluka. "Hydrocotyle bonariensis Lam. [family UMBELLIFERAE]". African Plants. Ithaka Harbors, Inc. doi:10.5555/AL.AP.COMPILATION.PLANT-NAME-SPECIES.HYDROCOTYLE.BONARIENSIS. Retrieved 2008-04-25. [permanent dead link]
  6. ^ a b c d "Ecology of Cumberland Plain Woodland *Hydrocotyle bonariensis". Hot Science topics. Department of Environment and Climate Change, Botanic Gardens Trust. Archived from the original on 2008-08-01. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  7. ^ Klein, Alecsandro Schardosim; Vanilde Citadini-Zanette; Robson Santos (September 2007). "Florística e estrutura comunitária de restinga herbácea no município de Araranguá, Santa Catarina" (PDF). Biotemas (in Spanish). 20 (3): 15–26. – 1643. Retrieved 2008-04-25. [dead link]
  8. ^ "HABITATS DE PRAIAS DO ATLÂNTICO". DESCRIÇÃO DO SITE (in Portuguese). BRAZILIAN LONG TERM ECOLOGICAL RESEARCH (PELD). Archived from the original on 2007-05-25. Retrieved 2008-04-20. 
  9. ^ Knight, Tiffany M.; Thomas E. Miller (2004). "Local adaptation within a population of Hydrocotyle bonariensis" (PDF). Evolutionary Ecology Research (6): 103–114. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  10. ^ "Hydrocotyle bonariensis". Germplasm Resources Information Network (GRIN). Agricultural Research Service (ARS), United States Department of Agriculture (USDA). Retrieved 2008-04-25. 
  11. ^ Berlinc, Christian Niel; Rosario Beyhaut; Eduardo Marchisi; Nestor Pérez; Gonzalo Picasso; Carlos Prigioni; José Manuel Venzal (17–23 October 2004). "RAPID ECOLOGICAL EVALUATION FOR THE PROJECT ON THE USE OF REMOTE SENSING TECHNOLOGIES FOR ECOSYSTEM MANAGEMENT TREATIES" (PDF). Remote Sensing Technologies for Ecosystem Management Treaties. Bureau of Oceans and International Environmental and Scientific Affairs and United States Department of State. Retrieved 2008-04-25. 

External links[edit]

Media related to Hydrocotyle bonariensis at Wikimedia Commons Data related to Hydrocotyle bonariensis at Wikispecies