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Chemical structure of 1,3,3,3-tetrafluoropropene (HFO-1234ze)

Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) are unsaturated organic compounds composed of hydrogen, fluorine and carbon. These organofluorine compound are of interest as refrigerants. Unlike traditional hydrofluorocarbons (HFCs) and chlorofluorocarbons (CFCs), which are saturated, HFOs are olefins, otherwise known as alkenes.

HFO refrigerants are categorized as having zero ozone depletion potential (ODP) and low global warming potential (GWP) and so offer a more environmentally friendly alternative to CFCs, HCFCs, and HFCs. Many refrigerants in the HFO class is inherently stable chemically and inert, non toxic, and non-flammable or mildly flammable. Many HFOs have the proper freezing and boiling points to be useful for refrigeration at common temperatures. They also show promise as blowing agents, i.e. in production of insulation foams, food industry, construction materials, and others.

HFOs are being developed as "fourth generation" refrigerants with 0.1% of the GWP of HFCs.[1][2][3]

HFOs currently in use include:


  1. ^ a b "HETEROGENEOUS CATALYSIS UNDER MICROWAVE HEATING" (PDF). La Chimica & L'Industria (in Italian). Società Chimica Italiana (4): 22. May 2012.
  2. ^ HFO, i nuovi gas refirgerant
  3. ^ Hydrofluoroolefins (HFOs) Archived 2012-02-04 at the Wayback Machine, European Fluorocarbons Technical Committee
  4. ^ Honeywell Sells Novel Low-Global-Warming Blowing Agent To European Customers, Honeywell press release, Oct. 7, 2008
  5. ^ Molés, Francisco; Navarro-Esbrí, Joaquín; Peris, Bernardo; Mota-Babiloni, Adrián; Barragán-Cervera, Ángel; Kontomaris, Konstantinos (Kostas) (2014). "Low GWP alternatives to HFC-245fa in Organic Rankine Cycles for low temperature heat recovery: HCFO-1233zd-E and HFO-1336mzz-Z". Applied Thermal Engineering. 71 (1): 204–212. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2014.06.055. ISSN 1359-4311.
  6. ^ Navarro-Esbrí, Joaquín; Molés, Francisco; Peris, Bernardo; Mota-Babiloni, Adrián; Kontomaris, Konstantinos (2017). "Experimental study of an Organic Rankine Cycle with HFO-1336mzz-Z as a low global warming potential working fluid for micro-scale low temperature applications". Energy. 133: 79–89. doi:10.1016/j.energy.2017.05.092. ISSN 0360-5442.
  7. ^ Molés, Francisco; Navarro-Esbrí, Joaquín; Peris, Bernardo; Mota-Babiloni, Adrián; Barragán-Cervera, Ángel; Kontomaris, Konstantinos (Kostas) (2017). "Thermo-economic evaluation of low global warming potential alternatives to HFC-245fa in Organic Rankine Cycles". Energy Procedia. 142: 1199–1205. doi:10.1016/j.egypro.2017.12.381. ISSN 1876-6102.
  8. ^ Mateu-Royo, Carlos; Navarro-Esbrí, Joaquín; Mota-Babiloni, Adrián; Amat-Albuixech, Marta; Molés, Francisco (2019). "Thermodynamic analysis of low GWP alternatives to HFC-245fa in high-temperature heat pumps: HCFO-1224yd(Z), HCFO-1233zd(E) and HFO-1336mzz(Z)". Applied Thermal Engineering. 152: 762–777. doi:10.1016/j.applthermaleng.2019.02.047. ISSN 1359-4311.