|Systematic IUPAC name
3D model (JSmol)
|Molar mass||1.01 g·mol−1|
|108.96 J K−1 mol−1|
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
The hydrogen anion, H−, is a negative ion of hydrogen, that is, a hydrogen atom that has captured an extra electron. The hydrogen anion is an important constituent of the atmosphere of stars, such as the Sun. In chemistry, this ion is called hydride. The ion has two electrons bound by the electromagnetic force to a nucleus containing one proton.
The binding energy of H− equals the binding energy of an extra electron to a hydrogen atom, called electron affinity of hydrogen. It is measured to be 0.754195(19)eV or 0.0277161(62)Ha. The total ground state energy thus becomes −14.359888 eV.
The hydrogen anion is an important species in the photosphere of the Sun. It absorbs energies in the range 0.75–4.0 eV, which ranges from the infrared into the visible spectrum (Rau 1999, Srinivasan 1999). It also occurs in the Earth's ionosphere (Rau 1999), and can be produced in particle accelerators.
Its existence was first proven theoretically by Hans Bethe in 1929 (Bethe 1929). H− is unusual because, in its free form, it has no bound excited states, as was finally proven in 1977 (Hill 1977). It has been studied experimentally using particle accelerators (Bryant 1977).
The term hydride is probably most often used to describe compounds of hydrogen with other elements in which the hydrogen is in the formal −1 oxidation state. In most such compounds the bonding between the hydrogen and its nearest neighbor is covalent. An example of a hydride is the borohydride anion (BH−
- Bethe, H. (1929). "Berechnung der Elektronenaffinität des Wasserstoffs". Zeitschrift für Physik (in German). 57 (11–12): 815–821. Bibcode:1929ZPhy...57..815B. doi:10.1007/BF01340659.
- Bryant, H. C.; Dieterle, B. D.; Donahue, J.; Sharifian, H.; Tootoonchi, H.; Wolfe, D. M.; Gram, P. A. M.; Yates-Williams, M. A. (1977). "Observation of Resonances near 11 eV in the Photodetachment Cross Section of the H− Ion". Physical Review Letters. 38 (5): 228. Bibcode:1977PhRvL..38..228B. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.228.
- Hill, R. N. (1977). "Proof that the H− Ion Has Only One Bound State". Physical Review Letters. 38 (12): 643. Bibcode:1977PhRvL..38..643H. doi:10.1103/PhysRevLett.38.643.
- Rau, A. R. P. (1996). "The Negative Ion of Hydrogen" (PDF). Journal of Astrophysics and Astronomy. 17 (3): 113–145. Bibcode:1996JApA...17..113R. doi:10.1007/BF02702300.
- Rau, A. (1999). The Negative Ion of Hydrogen.
- Srinivasan, G. (1999). "Chapter 5". From White Dwarfs to Black Holes: The Legacy of S. Chandrasekhar. Chicago: University of Chicago Press.