Jump to content

Hydrogen peroxide

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia

Hydrogen peroxide
Structural formula of hydrogen peroxide
Space filling model of the hydrogen peroxide molecule
Space filling model of the hydrogen peroxide molecule
  Oxygen, O
  Hydrogen, H
IUPAC name
Hydrogen peroxide
Systematic IUPAC name
Other names
Perhydroxic acid
Oxygenated water
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.028.878 Edit this at Wikidata
EC Number
  • 231-765-0
RTECS number
  • MX0900000 (>90% soln.)
    MX0887000 (>30% soln.)
UN number 2015 (>60% soln.)
2014 (20–60% soln.)
2984 (8–20% soln.)
  • InChI=1S/H2O2/c1-2/h1-2H checkY
  • InChI=1/H2O2/c1-2/h1-2H
  • OO
Molar mass 34.014 g·mol−1
Appearance Very light blue liquid
Odor slightly sharp
Density 1.11 g/cm3 (20 °C, 30% (w/w) solution)[1]
1.450 g/cm3 (20 °C, pure)
Melting point −0.43 °C (31.23 °F; 272.72 K)
Boiling point 150.2 °C (302.4 °F; 423.3 K) (decomposes)
Solubility soluble in ether, alcohol
insoluble in petroleum ether
log P −0.43[2]
Vapor pressure 5 mmHg (30 °C)[3]
Acidity (pKa) 11.75
−17.7·10−6 cm3/mol
Viscosity 1.245 cP (20 °C)
2.26 D
1.267 J/(g·K) (gas)
2.619 J/(g·K) (liquid)
−187.80 kJ/mol
A01AB02 (WHO) D08AX01 (WHO), D11AX25 (WHO), S02AA06 (WHO)
GHS labelling:
GHS03: OxidizingGHS05: CorrosiveGHS07: Exclamation mark
H271, H302, H314, H332, H335, H412
P280, P305+P351+P338, P310
NFPA 704 (fire diamond)
Flash point Non-flammable
Lethal dose or concentration (LD, LC):
1518 mg/kg[citation needed]
2000 mg/kg (oral, mouse)[4]
1418 ppm (rat, 4 hr)[4]
227 ppm (mouse)[4]
NIOSH (US health exposure limits):
PEL (Permissible)
TWA 1 ppm (1.4 mg/m3)[3]
REL (Recommended)
TWA 1 ppm (1.4 mg/m3)[3]
IDLH (Immediate danger)
75 ppm[3]
Safety data sheet (SDS) ICSC 0164 (>60% soln.)
Related compounds
Related compounds
Hydrogen disulfide
Dioxygen difluoride
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
checkY verify (what is checkY☒N ?)

Hydrogen peroxide is a chemical compound with the formula H2O2. In its pure form, it is a very pale blue[5] liquid that is slightly more viscous than water. It is used as an oxidizer, bleaching agent, and antiseptic, usually as a dilute solution (3%–6% by weight) in water for consumer use and in higher concentrations for industrial use. Concentrated hydrogen peroxide, or "high-test peroxide", decomposes explosively when heated and has been used as both a monopropellant and an oxidizer in rocketry.[6]

Hydrogen peroxide is a reactive oxygen species and the simplest peroxide, a compound having an oxygen–oxygen single bond. It decomposes slowly into water and elemental oxygen when exposed to light, and rapidly in the presence of organic or reactive compounds. It is typically stored with a stabilizer in a weakly acidic solution in an opaque bottle. Hydrogen peroxide is found in biological systems including the human body. Enzymes that use or decompose hydrogen peroxide are classified as peroxidases.



The boiling point of H2O2 has been extrapolated as being 150.2 °C (302.4 °F), approximately 50 °C (90 °F) higher than water. In practice, hydrogen peroxide will undergo potentially explosive thermal decomposition if heated to this temperature. It may be safely distilled at lower temperatures under reduced pressure.[7]

Hydrogen peroxide forms stable adducts with urea (hydrogen peroxide–urea), sodium carbonate (sodium percarbonate) and other compounds.[8] An acid-base adduct with triphenylphosphine oxide is a useful "carrier" for H2O2 in some reactions.


O−O bond length = 147.4 pm O−H bond length = 95.0 pm
Structure and dimensions of H2O2 in the gas phase
O−O bond length = 145.8 pm O−H bond length = 98.8 pm
Structure and dimensions of H2O2 in the solid (crystalline) phase

Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) is a nonplanar molecule with (twisted) C2 symmetry; this was first shown by Paul-Antoine Giguère in 1950 using infrared spectroscopy.[9][10] Although the O−O bond is a single bond, the molecule has a relatively high rotational barrier of 386 cm−1 (4.62 kJ/mol) for rotation between enantiomers via the trans configuration, and 2460 cm−1 (29.4 kJ/mol) via the cis configuration.[11] These barriers are proposed to be due to repulsion between the lone pairs of the adjacent oxygen atoms and dipolar effects between the two O–H bonds. For comparison, the rotational barrier for ethane is 1040 cm−1 (12.4 kJ/mol).

The approximately 100° dihedral angle between the two O–H bonds makes the molecule chiral. It is the smallest and simplest molecule to exhibit enantiomerism. It has been proposed that the enantiospecific interactions of one rather than the other may have led to amplification of one enantiomeric form of ribonucleic acids and therefore an origin of homochirality in an RNA world.[12]

The molecular structures of gaseous and crystalline H2O2 are significantly different. This difference is attributed to the effects of hydrogen bonding, which is absent in the gaseous state.[13] Crystals of H2O2 are tetragonal with the space group D4
or P41212.[14]

Aqueous solutions


In aqueous solutions, hydrogen peroxide forms a eutectic mixture, exhibiting freezing-point depression down as low as -56 °C; pure water has a freezing point of 0 °C and pure hydrogen peroxide of -0.43 °C. The boiling point of the same mixtures is also depressed in relation with the mean of both boiling points (125.1 °C). It occurs at 114 °C. This boiling point is 14 °C greater than that of pure water and 36.2 °C less than that of pure hydrogen peroxide.[15]

  • Phase diagram of H2O2 and water: Area above blue line is liquid. Dotted lines separate solid–liquid phases from solid–solid phases.
  • Density of aqueous solution of H2O2
    H2O2 (w/w) Density
    3% 1.0095 15
    27% 1.10 20
    35% 1.13 20
    50% 1.20 20
    70% 1.29 20
    75% 1.33 20
    96% 1.42 20
    98% 1.43 20
    100% 1.45 20
  • Hydrogen peroxide is most commonly available as a solution in water. For consumers, it is usually available from pharmacies at 3 and 6 wt% concentrations. The concentrations are sometimes described in terms of the volume of oxygen gas generated; one milliliter of a 20-volume solution generates twenty milliliters of oxygen gas when completely decomposed. For laboratory use, 30 wt% solutions are most common. Commercial grades from 70% to 98% are also available, but due to the potential of solutions of more than 68% hydrogen peroxide to be converted entirely to steam and oxygen (with the temperature of the steam increasing as the concentration increases above 68%) these grades are potentially far more hazardous and require special care in dedicated storage areas. Buyers must typically allow inspection by commercial manufacturers.

    Comparison with analogues


    Hydrogen peroxide has several structural analogues with HmX−XHn bonding arrangements (water also shown for comparison). It has the highest (theoretical) boiling point of this series (X = O, S, N, P). Its melting point is also fairly high, being comparable to that of hydrazine and water, with only hydroxylamine crystallising significantly more readily, indicative of particularly strong hydrogen bonding. Diphosphane and hydrogen disulfide exhibit only weak hydrogen bonding and have little chemical similarity to hydrogen peroxide. Structurally, the analogues all adopt similar skewed structures, due to repulsion between adjacent lone pairs.

    Properties of H2O2 and its analogues
    Values marked * are extrapolated
    Name Formula Molar mass
    point (°C)
    point (°C)
    Water HOH 18.02 0.00 99.98
    Hydrogen peroxide HOOH 34.01 −0.43 150.2*
    Hydrogen disulfide HSSH 66.15 −89.6 70.7
    Hydrazine H2NNH2 32.05 2 114
    Hydroxylamine NH2OH 33.03 33 58*
    Diphosphane H2PPH2 65.98 −99 63.5*

    Natural occurrence


    Hydrogen peroxide is produced by various biological processes mediated by enzymes.

    Hydrogen peroxide has been detected in surface water, in groundwater, and in the atmosphere. It can also form when water is exposed to UV light.[16] Sea water contains 0.5 to 14 μg/L of hydrogen peroxide, and freshwater contains 1 to 30 μg/L.[17] Concentrations in air are about 0.4 to 4 μg/m3, varying over several orders of magnitude depending in conditions such as season, altitude, daylight and water vapor content. In rural nighttime air it is less than 0.014 μg/m3, and in moderate photochemical smog it is 14 to 42 μg/m3.[18]

    The amount of hydrogen peroxide in biological systems can be assayed using a fluorometric assay.[19]



    Alexander von Humboldt is sometimes said to have been the first to report the first synthetic peroxide, barium peroxide, in 1799 as a by-product of his attempts to decompose air, although this is disputed due to von Humboldt's ambiguous wording.[20] Nineteen years later Louis Jacques Thénard recognized that this compound could be used for the preparation of a previously unknown compound, which he described as eau oxygénée ("oxygenated water") – subsequently known as hydrogen peroxide.[21][22][23]

    An improved version of Thénard's process used hydrochloric acid, followed by addition of sulfuric acid to precipitate the barium sulfate byproduct. This process was used from the end of the 19th century until the middle of the 20th century.[24]

    The bleaching effect of peroxides and their salts on natural dyes had been known since Thénard's experiments in the 1820s, but early attempts of industrial production of peroxides failed. The first plant producing hydrogen peroxide was built in 1873 in Berlin. The discovery of the synthesis of hydrogen peroxide by electrolysis with sulfuric acid introduced the more efficient electrochemical method. It was first commercialized in 1908 in Weißenstein, Carinthia, Austria. The anthraquinone process, which is still used, was developed during the 1930s by the German chemical manufacturer IG Farben in Ludwigshafen. The increased demand and improvements in the synthesis methods resulted in the rise of the annual production of hydrogen peroxide from 35,000 tonnes in 1950, to over 100,000 tonnes in 1960, to 300,000 tonnes by 1970; by 1998 it reached 2.7 million tonnes.[17]

    Early attempts failed to produce neat hydrogen peroxide. Anhydrous hydrogen peroxide was first obtained by vacuum distillation.[25]

    Determination of the molecular structure of hydrogen peroxide proved to be very difficult. In 1892, the Italian physical chemist Giacomo Carrara (1864–1925) determined its molecular mass by freezing-point depression, which confirmed that its molecular formula is H2O2.[26] H2O=O seemed to be just as possible as the modern structure, and as late as in the middle of the 20th century at least half a dozen hypothetical isomeric variants of two main options seemed to be consistent with the available evidence.[27] In 1934, the English mathematical physicist William Penney and the Scottish physicist Gordon Sutherland proposed a molecular structure for hydrogen peroxide that was very similar to the presently accepted one.[28][29]


    Catalytic cycle for the anthraquinone process to produce hydrogen peroxide: an anthraquinone (right) is reduced using hydrogen to produce the corresponding anthrahydroquinone (left). This is oxidized using oxygen to produce hydrogen peroxide and recover anthraquinone.

    In 1994, world production of H2O2 was around 1.9 million tonnes and grew to 2.2 million in 2006,[30] most of which was at a concentration of 70% or less. In that year, bulk 30% H2O2 sold for around 0.54 USD/kg, equivalent to US$1.50/kg (US$0.68/lb) on a "100% basis"[clarification needed].[31]

    Today, hydrogen peroxide is manufactured almost exclusively by the anthraquinone process, which was originally developed by BASF in 1939. It begins with the reduction of an anthraquinone (such as 2-ethylanthraquinone or the 2-amyl derivative) to the corresponding anthrahydroquinone, typically by hydrogenation on a palladium catalyst. In the presence of oxygen, the anthrahydroquinone then undergoes autoxidation: the labile hydrogen atoms of the hydroxy groups transfer to the oxygen molecule, to give hydrogen peroxide and regenerating the anthraquinone. Most commercial processes achieve oxidation by bubbling compressed air through a solution of the anthrahydroquinone, with the hydrogen peroxide then extracted from the solution and the anthraquinone recycled back for successive cycles of hydrogenation and oxidation.[31][32]

    The net reaction for the anthraquinone-catalyzed process is:[31]

    H2 + O2 → H2O2

    The economics of the process depend heavily on effective recycling of the extraction solvents, the hydrogenation catalyst and the expensive quinone.

    ISO tank container for hydrogen peroxide transportation
    A tank car designed for transporting hydrogen peroxide by rail

    Historical methods


    Hydrogen peroxide was once prepared industrially by hydrolysis of ammonium persulfate:

    [NH4]2S2O8 + 2 H2O → 2 [NH4]HSO4 + H2O2

    [NH4]2S2O4 was itself obtained by the electrolysis of a solution of ammonium bisulfate ([NH4]HSO4) in sulfuric acid.[33]

    Other routes


    Small amounts are formed by electrolysis, photochemistry, and electric arc, and related methods.[34]

    A commercially viable route for hydrogen peroxide via the reaction of hydrogen with oxygen favours production of water but can be stopped at the peroxide stage.[35][36] One economic obstacle has been that direct processes give a dilute solution uneconomic for transportation. None of these has yet reached a point where it can be used for industrial-scale synthesis.





    Hydrogen peroxide is about 1000 times stronger as an acid than water.[37]

    H2O2 ⇌ H+ + HO2 pK = 11.65



    Hydrogen peroxide disproportionates to form water and oxygen with a ΔHo of –2884.5 kJ/kg[38] and a ΔS of 70.5 J/(mol·K):

    2 H2O2 → 2 H2O + O2

    The rate of decomposition increases with rise in temperature, concentration, and pH. H2O2 is unstable under alkaline conditions. Decomposition is catalysed by various redox-active ions or compounds, including most transition metals and their compounds (e.g. manganese dioxide (MnO2), silver, and platinum).[39]

    Oxidation reactions


    The redox properties of hydrogen peroxide depend on pH. In acidic solutions, H2O2 is a powerful oxidizer.


    F2 HF 3.0
    O3 O2 2.1
    H2O2 H2O 1.8
    KMnO4 MnO2 1.7
    ClO2 HClO 1.5
    Cl2 Cl 1.4

    Sulfite (SO2−3) is oxidized to sulfate (SO2−4).

    Reduction reactions


    Under alkaline conditions, hydrogen peroxide is a reductant. When H2O2 acts as a reducing agent, oxygen gas is also produced. For example, hydrogen peroxide will reduce sodium hypochlorite and potassium permanganate, which is a convenient method for preparing oxygen in the laboratory:

    NaOCl + H2O2 → O2 + NaCl + H2O
    2 KMnO4 + 3 H2O2 → 2 MnO2 + 2 KOH + 2 H2O + 3 O2

    The oxygen produced from hydrogen peroxide and sodium hypochlorite is in the singlet state.

    Although usually a reductant, alkaline hydrogen peroxide converts Mn(II) to the dioxide:

    H2O2 + Mn2+ + 2 OH → MnO2 + 2 H2O

    In a related reaction, potassium permanganate is reduced to Mn2+ by acidic H2O2:[5]

    2 MnO4 + 5 H2O2 + 6 H+ → 2 Mn2+ + 8 H2O + 5 O2

    Organic reactions


    Hydrogen peroxide is frequently used as an oxidizing agent. Illustrative is oxidation of thioethers to sulfoxides:[40][41]

    Ph-S-CH3 + H2O2 → Ph-S(O)-CH3 + H2O

    Alkaline hydrogen peroxide is used for epoxidation of electron-deficient alkenes such as acrylic acid derivatives,[42] and for the oxidation of alkylboranes to alcohols, the second step of hydroboration-oxidation. It is also the principal reagent in the Dakin oxidation process.

    Precursor to other peroxide compounds


    Hydrogen peroxide is a weak acid, forming hydroperoxide or peroxide salts with many metals.

    It also converts metal oxides into the corresponding peroxides. For example, upon treatment with hydrogen peroxide, chromic acid (CrO3 and H2SO4) forms a blue peroxide CrO(O2)2.





    The aerobic oxidation of glucose in the presence of the enzyme glucose oxidase produces hydrogen peroxide. The conversion affords gluconolactone:[43]

    C6H12O7 + O2 → C6H10O7 + H2O2

    Superoxide dismutases (SOD)s are enzymes that promote the disproportionation of superoxide into oxygen and hydrogen peroxide.[44]

    2 O2 + 2 H+ → O2 + H2O2
    2 H2O2 → O2 + 2 H2O

    Peroxisomes are organelles found in virtually all eukaryotic cells.[45] They are involved in the catabolism of very long chain fatty acids, branched chain fatty acids, D-amino acids, polyamines, and biosynthesis of plasmalogens, ether phospholipids, which are found in mammalian brains and lungs.[46] They produce hydrogen peroxide in s process catalyzed by flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD):[47]

    R-CH2-CH2-CO-SCoA + O2 R-CH=CH-CO-SCoA + H2O2

    Hydrogen peroxide arises by the degradation of adenosine monophosphate, which yields hypoxanthine. Hypoxanthine is then oxidatively catabolized first to xanthine and then to uric acid, and the reaction is catalyzed by the enzyme xanthine oxidase:[48]

    Degradation of hypoxanthine through xanthine to uric acid to form hydrogen peroxide.

    The degradation of guanosine monophosphate yields xanthine as an intermediate product which is then converted in the same way to uric acid with the formation of hydrogen peroxide.[48]



    Catalase, another peroxisomal enzyme, uses this H2O2 to oxidize other substrates, including phenols, formic acid, formaldehyde, and alcohol, by means of a peroxidation reaction:

    H2O2 + R'H2 → R' + 2 H2O

    thus eliminating the poisonous hydrogen peroxide in the process.

    This reaction is important in liver and kidney cells, where the peroxisomes neutralize various toxic substances that enter the blood. Some of the ethanol humans drink is oxidized to acetaldehyde in this way.[49] In addition, when excess H2O2 accumulates in the cell, catalase converts it to H2O through this reaction:

    H2O2 → 0.5 O2 + H2O

    Glutathione peroxidase, a selenoenzyme, also catalyzes the disproportionation of hydrogen peroxide.

    Fenton reaction


    The reaction of Fe2+ and hydrogen peroxide is the basis of the Fenton reaction, which generates hydroxyl radicals, which are of significance in biology:

    Fe(II) + H2O2 → Fe(III)OH + HO·

    The fenton reaction explains the toxicity of hydrogen peroxides because the hydroxyl radicals rapidly and irreversibly oxidize all organic compounds, including proteins, membrane lipids, and DNA.[50] Hydrogen peroxide is a significant source of oxidative DNA damage in living cells. DNA damage includes formation of 8-Oxo-2'-deoxyguanosine among many other altered bases, as well as strand breaks, inter-strand crosslinks, and deoxyribose damage.[51] By interacting with Cl¯ hydrogen peroxide also lead to chlorinated DNA bases.[51] Hydroxyl radicals readily damage vital cellular components, especially those of the mitochondria.[52][53][54] The compound is a major factor implicated in the free-radical theory of aging, based on its ready conversion into a hydroxyl radical.


    Australian bombardier beetle

    Eggs of sea urchin, shortly after fertilization by a sperm, produce hydrogen peroxide. It is then converted to hydroxyl radicals (HO•), which initiate radical polymerization, which surrounds the eggs with a protective layer of polymer.

    The bombardier beetle combine hydroquinone and hydrogen peroxide, leading to a violent exothermic chemical reaction to produce boiling, foul-smelling liquid that partially becomes a gas (flash evaporation) and is expelled through an outlet valve with a loud popping sound.[55][56][57]

    As a proposed signaling molecule, hydrogen peroxide may regulate of a wide variety of biological processes.[58][59]

    At least one study has also tried to link hydrogen peroxide production to cancer.[60]





    About 60% of the world's production of hydrogen peroxide is used for pulp- and paper-bleaching.[30] The second major industrial application is the manufacture of sodium percarbonate and sodium perborate, which are used as mild bleaches in laundry detergents. A representative conversion is:

    Na2B4O7 + 4 H2O2 + 2 NaOH → 2 Na2B2O4(OH)4 + H2O

    Sodium percarbonate, which is an adduct of sodium carbonate and hydrogen peroxide, is the active ingredient in such laundry products as OxiClean and Tide laundry detergent. When dissolved in water, it releases hydrogen peroxide and sodium carbonate.[24] By themselves these bleaching agents are only effective at wash temperatures of 60 °C (140 °F) or above and so, often are used in conjunction with bleach activators, which facilitate cleaning at lower temperatures.

    Hydrogen peroxide has also been used as a flour bleaching agent and a tooth and bone whitening agent.

    Production of organic peroxy compounds


    It is used in the production of various organic peroxides with dibenzoyl peroxide being a high volume example.[61] Peroxy acids, such as peracetic acid and meta-chloroperoxybenzoic acid also are produced using hydrogen peroxide. Hydrogen peroxide has been used for creating organic peroxide-based explosives, such as acetone peroxide. It is used as an initiator in polymerizations. Hydrogen peroxide reacts with certain di-esters, such as phenyl oxalate ester (cyalume), to produce chemiluminescence; this application is most commonly encountered in the form of glow sticks.

    Production of inorganic peroxides


    The reaction with borax leads to sodium perborate, a bleach used in laundry detergents:

    Na2B4O7 + 4 H2O2 + 2 NaOH → 2 Na2B2O4(OH)4 + H2O

    Sewage treatment


    Hydrogen peroxide is used in certain waste-water treatment processes to remove organic impurities. In advanced oxidation processing, the Fenton reaction[62][63] gives the highly reactive hydroxyl radical (•OH). This degrades organic compounds, including those that are ordinarily robust, such as aromatic or halogenated compounds.[64] It can also oxidize sulfur-based compounds present in the waste; which is beneficial as it generally reduces their odour.[65]



    Hydrogen peroxide may be used for the sterilization of various surfaces,[66] including surgical tools,[67] and may be deployed as a vapour (VHP) for room sterilization.[68] H2O2 demonstrates broad-spectrum efficacy against viruses, bacteria, yeasts, and bacterial spores.[69][70] In general, greater activity is seen against Gram-positive than Gram-negative bacteria; however, the presence of catalase or other peroxidases in these organisms may increase tolerance in the presence of lower concentrations.[71] Lower levels of concentration (3%) will work against most spores; higher concentrations (7 to 30%) and longer contact times will improve sporicidal activity.[70][72]

    Hydrogen peroxide is seen as an environmentally safe alternative to chlorine-based bleaches, as it degrades to form oxygen and water and it is generally recognized as safe as an antimicrobial agent by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA).[73]


    Rocket-belt hydrogen-peroxide propulsion system used in a jet pack

    High-concentration H2O2 is referred to as "high-test peroxide" (HTP). It can be used as either a monopropellant (not mixed with fuel) or the oxidizer component of a bipropellant rocket. Use as a monopropellant takes advantage of the decomposition of 70–98% concentration hydrogen peroxide into steam and oxygen. The propellant is pumped into a reaction chamber, where a catalyst, usually a silver or platinum screen, triggers decomposition, producing steam at over 600 °C (1,100 °F), which is expelled through a nozzle, generating thrust. H2O2 monopropellant produces a maximal specific impulse (Isp) of 161 s (1.6 kN·s/kg). Peroxide was the first major monopropellant adopted for use in rocket applications. Hydrazine eventually replaced hydrogen-peroxide monopropellant thruster applications primarily because of a 25% increase in the vacuum specific impulse.[74] Hydrazine (toxic) and hydrogen peroxide (less-toxic [ACGIH TLV 0.01 and 1 ppm respectively]) are the only two monopropellants (other than cold gases) to have been widely adopted and utilized for propulsion and power applications.[citation needed] The Bell Rocket Belt, reaction control systems for X-1, X-15, Centaur, Mercury, Little Joe, as well as the turbo-pump gas generators for X-1, X-15, Jupiter, Redstone and Viking used hydrogen peroxide as a monopropellant.[75] The RD-107 engines (used from 1957 to present) in the R-7 series of rockets decompose hydrogen peroxide to power the turbopumps.

    In bipropellant applications, H2O2 is decomposed to oxidize a burning fuel. Specific impulses as high as 350 s (3.5 kN·s/kg) can be achieved, depending on the fuel. Peroxide used as an oxidizer gives a somewhat lower Isp than liquid oxygen but is dense, storable, and non-cryogenic and can be more easily used to drive gas turbines to give high pressures using an efficient closed cycle. It may also be used for regenerative cooling of rocket engines. Peroxide was used very successfully as an oxidizer in World War II German rocket motors (e.g., T-Stoff, containing oxyquinoline stabilizer, for both the Walter HWK 109-500 Starthilfe RATO externally podded monopropellant booster system and the Walter HWK 109-509 rocket motor series used for the Me 163B), most often used with C-Stoff in a self-igniting hypergolic combination, and for the low-cost British Black Knight and Black Arrow launchers. Presently, HTP is used on ILR-33 AMBER[76] and Nucleus[77] suborbital rockets.

    In the 1940s and 1950s, the Hellmuth Walter KG–conceived turbine used hydrogen peroxide for use in submarines while submerged; it was found to be too noisy and require too much maintenance compared to diesel-electric power systems. Some torpedoes used hydrogen peroxide as oxidizer or propellant. Operator error in the use of hydrogen-peroxide torpedoes was named as possible causes for the sinking of HMS Sidon and the Russian submarine Kursk.[78] SAAB Underwater Systems is manufacturing the Torpedo 2000. This torpedo, used by the Swedish Navy, is powered by a piston engine propelled by HTP as an oxidizer and kerosene as a fuel in a bipropellant system.[79][80]

    Household use

    Contact lenses soaking in a 3% hydrogen peroxide-based solution. The case includes a catalytic disc which neutralises the hydrogen peroxide over time.

    Hydrogen peroxide has various domestic uses, primarily as a cleaning and disinfecting agent.

    Hair bleaching

    Diluted H2O2 (between 1.9% and 12%) mixed with aqueous ammonia has been used to bleach human hair. The chemical's bleaching property lends its name to the phrase "peroxide blonde".[81] Hydrogen peroxide is also used for tooth whitening. It may be found in most whitening toothpastes. Hydrogen peroxide has shown positive results involving teeth lightness and chroma shade parameters.[82] It works by oxidizing colored pigments onto the enamel where the shade of the tooth may become lighter.[further explanation needed] Hydrogen peroxide may be mixed with baking soda and salt to make a homemade toothpaste.[83]

    Removal of blood stains

    Hydrogen peroxide reacts with blood as a bleaching agent, and so if a blood stain is fresh, or not too old, liberal application of hydrogen peroxide, if necessary in more than single application, will bleach the stain fully out. After about two minutes of the application, the blood should be firmly blotted out.[84][85]

    Acne treatment

    Hydrogen peroxide may be used to treat acne,[86] although benzoyl peroxide is a more common treatment.

    Oral cleaning agent

    The use of dilute hydrogen peroxide as a oral cleansing agent has been reviewed academically to determine its usefulness in treating gingivitis and plaque. Although there is a positive effect when compared with a placebo, it was concluded that chlorhexidine is a much more effective treatment.[87]

    Niche uses

    Chemiluminescence of cyalume, as found in a glow stick

    Some horticulturists and users of hydroponics advocate the use of weak hydrogen peroxide solution in watering solutions. Its spontaneous decomposition releases oxygen that enhances a plant's root development and helps to treat root rot (cellular root death due to lack of oxygen) and a variety of other pests.[88][89]

    For general watering concentrations, around 0.1% is in use. This can be increased up to one percent for antifungal actions.[90] Tests show that plant foliage can safely tolerate concentrations up to 3%.[91]


    Hydrogen peroxide is used in aquaculture for controlling mortality caused by various microbes. In 2019, the U.S. FDA approved it for control of Saprolegniasis in all coldwater finfish and all fingerling and adult coolwater and warmwater finfish, for control of external columnaris disease in warm-water finfish, and for control of Gyrodactylus spp. in freshwater-reared salmonids.[92] Laboratory tests conducted by fish culturists have demonstrated that common household hydrogen peroxide may be used safely to provide oxygen for small fish. The hydrogen peroxide releases oxygen by decomposition when it is exposed to catalysts such as manganese dioxide.

    Removing yellowing from aged plastics

    Hydrogen peroxide may be used in combination with a UV-light source to remove yellowing from white or light grey acrylonitrile butadiene styrene (ABS) plastics to partially or fully restore the original color. In the retrocomputing scene, this process is commonly referred to as retrobright.


    Skin shortly after exposure to 35% H2O2

    Regulations vary, but low concentrations, such as 5%, are widely available and legal to buy for medical use. Most over-the-counter peroxide solutions are not suitable for ingestion. Higher concentrations may be considered hazardous and typically are accompanied by a safety data sheet (SDS). In high concentrations, hydrogen peroxide is an aggressive oxidizer and will corrode many materials, including human skin. In the presence of a reducing agent, high concentrations of H2O2 will react violently.[93] While concentrations up to 35% produce only "white" oxygen bubbles in the skin (and some biting pain) that disappear with the blood within 30–45 minutes, concentrations of 98% dissolve paper. However, concentrations as low as 3% can be dangerous for the eye because of oxygen evolution within the eye.[94]

    High-concentration hydrogen peroxide streams, typically above 40%, should be considered hazardous due to concentrated hydrogen peroxide's meeting the definition of a DOT oxidizer according to U.S. regulations if released into the environment. The EPA Reportable Quantity (RQ) for D001 hazardous wastes is 100 pounds (45 kg), or approximately 10 US gallons (38 L), of concentrated hydrogen peroxide.

    A commercial bottle of H2O2

    Hydrogen peroxide should be stored in a cool, dry, well-ventilated area and away from any flammable or combustible substances. It should be stored in a container composed of non-reactive materials such as stainless steel or glass (other materials including some plastics and aluminium alloys may also be suitable).[95] Because it breaks down quickly when exposed to light, it should be stored in an opaque container, and pharmaceutical formulations typically come in brown bottles that block light.[96]

    Hydrogen peroxide, either in pure or diluted form, may pose several risks, the main one being that it forms explosive mixtures upon contact with organic compounds.[97] Distillation of hydrogen peroxide at normal pressures is highly dangerous. It is also corrosive, especially when concentrated, but even domestic-strength solutions may cause irritation to the eyes, mucous membranes, and skin.[98] Swallowing hydrogen peroxide solutions is particularly dangerous, as decomposition in the stomach releases large quantities of gas (ten times the volume of a 3% solution), leading to internal bloating. Inhaling over 10% can cause severe pulmonary irritation.[99]

    With a significant vapour pressure (1.2 kPa at 50 °C),[100] hydrogen-peroxide vapour is potentially hazardous. According to U.S. NIOSH, the immediately dangerous to life and health (IDLH) limit is only 75 ppm.[101] The U.S. Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA) has established a permissible exposure limit of 1.0 ppm calculated as an 8-hour time-weighted average (29 CFR 1910.1000, Table Z-1).[97] Hydrogen peroxide also has been classified by the American Conference of Governmental Industrial Hygienists (ACGIH) as a "known animal carcinogen, with unknown relevance on humans".[102] For workplaces where there is a risk of exposure to the hazardous concentrations of the vapours, continuous monitors for hydrogen peroxide should be used. Information on the hazards of hydrogen peroxide is available from OSHA[97] and from the ATSDR.[103]

    Wound healing


    Historically, hydrogen peroxide was used for disinfecting wounds, partly because of its low cost and prompt availability compared to other antiseptics.[104]

    There is conflicting evidence on hydrogen peroxide's effect on wound healing. Some research finds benefit, while other research find delays and healing inhibition.[105] Its use for home treatment of wounds is generally not recommended.[106] 1.5–3% hydrogen peroxide is used as a disinfectant in dentistry, especially in endodotic treatments together with hypochlorite and chlorhexidin and 1–1.5% is also useful for treatment of inflammation of third molars (wisdom teeth).[107]

    Use in alternative medicine


    Practitioners of alternative medicine have advocated the use of hydrogen peroxide for various conditions, including emphysema, influenza, AIDS, and in particular cancer.[108] There is no evidence of effectiveness and in some cases it has proved fatal.[109][110][111][112]

    Both the effectiveness and safety of hydrogen peroxide therapy is scientifically questionable. Hydrogen peroxide is produced by the immune system, but in a carefully controlled manner. Cells called phagocytes engulf pathogens and then use hydrogen peroxide to destroy them. The peroxide is toxic to both the cell and the pathogen and so is kept within a special compartment, called a phagosome. Free hydrogen peroxide will damage any tissue it encounters via oxidative stress, a process that also has been proposed as a cause of cancer.[113] Claims that hydrogen peroxide therapy increases cellular levels of oxygen have not been supported. The quantities administered would be expected to provide very little additional oxygen compared to that available from normal respiration. It is also difficult to raise the level of oxygen around cancer cells within a tumour, as the blood supply tends to be poor, a situation known as tumor hypoxia.

    Large oral doses of hydrogen peroxide at a 3% concentration may cause irritation and blistering to the mouth, throat, and abdomen as well as abdominal pain, vomiting, and diarrhea.[109] Ingestion of hydrogen peroxide at concentrations of 35% or higher has been implicated as the cause of numerous gas embolism events resulting in hospitalisation. In these cases, hyperbaric oxygen therapy was used to treat the embolisms.[114]

    Intravenous injection of hydrogen peroxide has been linked to several deaths.[115][111][112] The American Cancer Society states that "there is no scientific evidence that hydrogen peroxide is a safe, effective, or useful cancer treatment."[110] Furthermore, the therapy is not approved by the U.S. FDA.

    Historical incidents

    • On 16 July 1934, in Kummersdorf, Germany, a propellant tank containing an experimental monopropellant mixture consisting of hydrogen peroxide and ethanol exploded during a test, killing three people.[116]
    • During the Second World War, doctors in German concentration camps experimented with the use of hydrogen peroxide injections in the killing of human subjects.[117]
    • In December 1943, the pilot Josef Pöhs died after being exposed to the T-Stoff of his Messerschmitt Me 163.
    • In June 1955, Royal Navy submarine HMS Sidon sank after leaking high-test peroxide in a torpedo caused it to explode in its tube, killing twelve crew members; a member of the rescue party also succumbed.
    • In April 1992, an explosion occurred at the hydrogen peroxide plant at Jarrie in France, due to technical failure of the computerised control system and resulting in one fatality and wide destruction of the plant.[118]
    • Several people received minor injuries after a hydrogen peroxide spill on board a Northwest Airlines flight from Orlando, Florida to Memphis, Tennessee on 28 October 1998.[119]
    • The Russian submarine K-141 Kursk sailed to perform an exercise of firing dummy torpedoes at the Pyotr Velikiy, a Kirov-class battlecruiser. On 12 August 2000, at 11:28 local time (07:28 UTC), there was an explosion while preparing to fire the torpedoes. The only credible report to date is that this was due to the failure and explosion of one of the Kursk's hydrogen peroxide-fueled torpedoes. It is believed that HTP, a form of highly concentrated hydrogen peroxide used as propellant for the torpedo, seeped through its container, damaged either by rust or in the loading procedure on land where an incident involving one of the torpedoes accidentally touching ground went unreported. The vessel was lost with all hands.[120]
    • On 15 August 2010, a spill of about 30 US gallons (110 L) of cleaning fluid occurred on the 54th floor of 1515 Broadway, in Times Square, New York City. The spill, which a spokesperson for the New York City Fire Department said was of hydrogen peroxide, shut down Broadway between West 42nd and West 48th streets as fire engines responded to the hazmat situation. There were no reported injuries.[121]

    See also



    1. ^ Easton MF, Mitchell AG, Wynne-Jones WF (1952). "The behaviour of mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and water. Part 1.—Determination of the densities of mixtures of hydrogen peroxide and water". Transactions of the Faraday Society. 48: 796–801. doi:10.1039/TF9524800796. S2CID 96669623.
    2. ^ "Hydrogen peroxide". www.chemsrc.com. Archived from the original on 17 March 2020. Retrieved 3 May 2018.
    3. ^ a b c d NIOSH Pocket Guide to Chemical Hazards. "#0335". National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
    4. ^ a b c "Hydrogen peroxide". Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH). National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH).
    5. ^ a b Housecroft CE, Sharpe AG (2005). Inorganic Chemistry (2nd ed.). Pearson Prentice-Hall. pp. 443–44. ISBN 0130-39913-2.
    6. ^ Hill CN (2001). A Vertical Empire: The History of the UK Rocket launch and Space Programme, 1950–1971. Imperial College Press. ISBN 978-1-86094-268-6. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 24 August 2020.
    7. ^ Brauer G, ed. (1963). Handbook of preparative inorganic chemistry. Vol. 1. Translation editing by Reed F. (2nd ed.). New York: Academic Press. p. 140. ISBN 978-0-12-126601-1.
    8. ^ Chernyshov IY, Vener MV, Prikhodchenko PV, Medvedev AG, Lev O, Churakov AV (4 January 2017). "Peroxosolvates: Formation Criteria, H2O2 Hydrogen Bonding, and Isomorphism with the Corresponding Hydrates". Crystal Growth & Design. 17 (1): 214–220. doi:10.1021/acs.cgd.6b01449. ISSN 1528-7483.
    9. ^ Giguère PA (1950). "The Infra-Red Spectrum of Hydrogen Peroxide" (PDF). Journal of Chemical Physics. 18 (1): 88. Bibcode:1950JChPh..18...88G. doi:10.1063/1.1747464. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 December 2017. Retrieved 31 December 2018.
    10. ^ Giguère PA (1983). "Molecular association and structure of hydrogen peroxide". Journal of Chemical Education. 60 (5): 399–401. Bibcode:1983JChEd..60..399G. doi:10.1021/ed060p399.
    11. ^ Hunt RH, Leacock RA, Peters CW, Hecht KT (1965). "Internal-Rotation in Hydrogen Peroxide: The Far-Infrared Spectrum and the Determination of the Hindering Potential" (PDF). The Journal of Chemical Physics. 42 (6): 1931. Bibcode:1965JChPh..42.1931H. doi:10.1063/1.1696228. hdl:2027.42/71115. Archived (PDF) from the original on 9 April 2014. Retrieved 9 April 2014.
    12. ^ Ball R, Brindley J (March 2016). "The Life Story of Hydrogen Peroxide III: Chirality and Physical Effects at the Dawn of Life". Origins of Life and Evolution of the Biosphere. 46 (1): 81–93. Bibcode:2016OLEB...46...81B. doi:10.1007/s11084-015-9465-y. PMID 26399407. S2CID 9564774.
    13. ^ Dougherty DA, Anslyn EV (2005). Modern Physical Organic Chemistry. University Science. p. 122. ISBN 978-1-891389-31-3.
    14. ^ Abrahams SC, Collin RL, Lipscomb WN (1 January 1951). "The crystal structure of hydrogen peroxide". Acta Crystallographica. 4 (1): 15–20. Bibcode:1951AcCry...4...15A. doi:10.1107/S0365110X51000039.
    15. ^ "Hydrogen Peroxide Technical Library" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 29 December 2009. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
    16. ^ Li, Juan; Zhang, Qi; Chen, Baiyang; Wang, Lei; Zhu, Rongshu; Yang, Jie (2021). "Hydrogen peroxide formation in water during the VUV/UV irradiation process: Impacts and mechanisms of selected anions". Environmental Research. 195: 110751. doi:10.1016/j.envres.2021.110751.
    17. ^ a b Offermanns H, Dittrich G, Steiner N (2000). "Wasserstoffperoxid in Umweltschutz und Synthese". Chemie in unserer Zeit. 34 (3): 150. doi:10.1002/1521-3781(200006)34:3<150::AID-CIUZ150>3.0.CO;2-A.
    18. ^ Special Report No. 10. Hydrogen Peroxide. OEL Criteria Document. CAS No. 7722-84-1. July 1996.
    19. ^ Rapoport R, Hanukoglu I, Sklan D (May 1994). "A fluorimetric assay for hydrogen peroxide, suitable for NAD(P)H-dependent superoxide generating redox systems". Analytical Biochemistry. 218 (2): 309–313. doi:10.1006/abio.1994.1183. PMID 8074285. S2CID 40487242. Archived from the original on 18 March 2020. Retrieved 1 July 2019.
    20. ^ Flohé L (December 2020). "Looking Back at the Early Stages of Redox Biology". Antioxidants. 9 (12): 1254. doi:10.3390/antiox9121254. PMC 7763103. PMID 33317108. I checked Humboldt's pertinent publication carefully, but was unable to find an unambiguous proof of this assumption; the description of the starting materials ("Alaun-Erden" or "schwere Erden") were just too unprecise to understand what kind of chemical experiments he performed.
    21. ^ Gilbert LW (1820). "Der tropfbar flüssige Sauerstoff, oder das oxygenierte Wasser". Annals of Physics (in German). 65–66 (1): 3. Bibcode:1820AnP....64....1T. doi:10.1002/andp.18200640102.
    22. ^ Thénard LJ (1818). "Observations sur des nouvelles combinaisons entre l'oxigène et divers acides". Annales de chimie et de physique. 2nd series. 8: 306–312. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
    23. ^ Giguère PA. "Hydrogen peroxide". Access Science. McGraw-Hill Education. doi:10.1036/1097-8542.329200. Archived from the original on 30 November 2018. Retrieved 28 November 2018. Hydrogen peroxide was discovered in 1818 by the French chemist Louis-Jacques Thenard, who named it eau oxygénée (oxygenated water).
    24. ^ a b Jones CW, Clark JH (1999). Applications of Hydrogen Peroxide and Derivatives. Royal Society of Chemistry. ISBN 978-0-85404-536-5.
    25. ^ Wolffenstein R (October 1894). "Concentration und Destillation von Wasserstoffsuperoxyd". Berichte der Deutschen Chemischen Gesellschaft (in German). 27 (3): 3307–3312. doi:10.1002/cber.189402703127. Archived from the original on 13 February 2016. Retrieved 29 June 2014.
    26. ^ Carrara G (1892). "Sul peso molecolare e sul potere rifrangente dell' acqua ossigenata" [On the molecular weight and on the refracting power of hydrogen peroxide]. Atti della Reale Accademia dei Lincei. 1 (2): 19–24. Archived from the original on 4 September 2016.
      Carrara's findings were confirmed by: W. R. Orndorff and John White (1893) "The molecular weight of hydrogen peroxide and of benzoyl peroxide," Archived 4 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine American Chemical Journal, 15 : 347–356.
    27. ^ See, for example:
      • In 1882, Kingzett proposed as a structure H2O=O. See: Kingzett T (29 September 1882). "On the activity of oxygen and the mode of formation of hydrogen dioxide". The Chemical News. 46 (1192): 141–142. Archived from the original on 3 September 2016. Retrieved 9 February 2016.
      • In his 1922 textbook, Joseph Mellor considered three hypothetical molecular structures for hydrogen peroxide, admitting (p. 952): "... the constitution of this compound has not been yet established by unequivocal experiments". See: Joseph William Mellor, A Comprehensive Treatise on Inorganic and Theoretical Chemistry, vol. 1 (London, England: Longmans, Green and Co., 1922), p. 952–956. Archived 3 September 2016 at the Wayback Machine
      • W. C. Schumb, C. N. Satterfield, and R. L. Wentworth (1 December 1953) "Report no. 43: Hydrogen peroxide, Part two" Archived 26 February 2015 at the Wayback Machine, Office of Naval Research, Contract No. N5ori-07819 On p. 178, the authors present six hypothetical models (including cis-trans isomers) for hydrogen peroxide's molecular structure. On p. 184, the present structure is considered almost certainly correct—although a small doubt remained. (Note: The report by Schumb et al. was reprinted as: W. C. Schumb, C. N. Satterfield, and R. L. Wentworth, Hydrogen Peroxide (New York, New York: Reinhold Publishing Corp. (American Chemical Society Monograph), 1955).)
    28. ^ Penney WG, Sutherland GB (1934). "The theory of the structure of hydrogen peroxide and hydrazine". Journal of Chemical Physics. 2 (8): 492–498. Bibcode:1934JChPh...2..492P. doi:10.1063/1.1749518.
    29. ^ Penney WG, Sutherland GB (1934). "A note on the structure of H2O2 and H4N2 with particular reference to electric moments and free rotation". Transactions of the Faraday Society. 30: 898–902. doi:10.1039/tf934300898b.
    30. ^ a b Hage R, Lienke A (December 2005). "Applications of transition-metal catalysts to textile and wood-pulp bleaching". Angewandte Chemie. 45 (2): 206–222. doi:10.1002/anie.200500525. PMID 16342123. Archived from the original on 25 January 2022. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
    31. ^ a b c Campos-Martin JM, Blanco-Brieva G, Fierro JL (October 2006). "Hydrogen peroxide synthesis: an outlook beyond the anthraquinone process". Angewandte Chemie. 45 (42): 6962–6984. doi:10.1002/anie.200503779. PMID 17039551. S2CID 23286196.
    32. ^ H. Riedl and G. Pfleiderer, U.S. Patent 2,158,525 (2 October 1936 in the US, and 10 October 1935 in Germany) to I. G. Farbenindustrie, Germany
    33. ^ "Preparing to manufacture hydrogen peroxide" (PDF). IDC Technologies. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 August 2021. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
    34. ^ Mellor JW (1922). Modern Inorganic Chemistry. Longmans, Green and Co. pp. 192–195.
    35. ^ Noritaka Mizuno Gabriele Centi, Siglinda Perathoner, Salvatore Abate "Direct Synthesis of Hydrogen Peroxide: Recent Advances" in Modern Heterogeneous Oxidation Catalysis: Design, Reactions and Characterization 2009, Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/9783527627547.ch8
    36. ^ Edwards JK, Solsona B, N EN, Carley AF, Herzing AA, Kiely CJ, Hutchings GJ (February 2009). "Switching off hydrogen peroxide hydrogenation in the direct synthesis process". Science. 323 (5917): 1037–1041. Bibcode:2009Sci...323.1037E. doi:10.1126/science.1168980. PMID 19229032. S2CID 1828874.
    37. ^ Greenwood, Norman N.; Earnshaw, Alan (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Butterworth-Heinemann. p. 633-637. ISBN 978-0-08-037941-8.
    38. ^ "Decomposition of Hydrogen Peroxide - Kinetics and Review of Chosen Catalysts" (PDF). Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 December 2018. Retrieved 30 August 2019.
    39. ^ Petrucci RH (2007). General Chemistry: Principles & Modern Applications (9th ed.). Prentice Hall. p. 606. ISBN 978-0-13-149330-8.
    40. ^ Ravikumar KS, Kesavan V, Crousse B, Bonnet-Delpon D, Bégué JP (2003). "Mild and Selective Oxidation of Sulfur Compounds in Trifluoroethanol: Diphenyldisulfide and Methyl phenyl Sulfoxide". Org. Synth. 80: 184. doi:10.15227/orgsyn.080.0184.
    41. ^ Xu WL, Li YZ, Zhang QS, Zhu HS (2004). "A Selective, Convenient, and Efficient Conversion of Sulfides to Sulfoxides". Synthesis (2): 227–232. doi:10.1055/s-2004-44387.
    42. ^ Mayer RJ, Ofial AR (May 2018). "Nucleophilic Reactivities of Bleach Reagents". Organic Letters. 20 (10): 2816–2820. doi:10.1021/acs.orglett.8b00645. PMID 29741385.
    43. ^ Wong, Chun Ming; Wong, Kwun Hei; Chen, Xiao Dong (2008). "Glucose oxidase: Natural Occurrence, Function, Properties and Industrial Applications". Applied Microbiology and Biotechnology. 78 (6): 927–938. doi:10.1007/s00253-008-1407-4. PMID 18330562. S2CID 2246466.
    44. ^ Löffler G. and Petrides, P. E. Physiologische Chemie. 4 ed., pp. 321–322, Springer, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-540-18163-6 (in German)
    45. ^ Gabaldón T (March 2010). "Peroxisome diversity and evolution". Philosophical Transactions of the Royal Society of London. Series B, Biological Sciences. 365 (1541): 765–773. doi:10.1098/rstb.2009.0240. PMC 2817229. PMID 20124343.
    46. ^ Wanders RJ, Waterham HR (2006). "Biochemistry of mammalian peroxisomes revisited". Annual Review of Biochemistry. 75 (1): 295–332. doi:10.1146/annurev.biochem.74.082803.133329. PMID 16756494.
    47. ^ Nelson D, Cox C, Lehninger AL, Cox MM (2001). Lehninger Biochemie (in German). Springer. pp. 663–664. ISBN 3-540-41813-X. Archived from the original on 28 February 2017.
    48. ^ a b Nelson, David; Cox, Michael; Lehninger, Albert L. and Cox, Michael M. Lehninger Biochemie, p. 932, Springer, 2001, ISBN 3-540-41813-X (in German)
    49. ^ Riley, Edward P. et al. (ed.) Fetal Alcoholspectrum Disorder Fasd: Management and Policy Perspectives Archived 28 February 2017 at the Wayback Machine, Wiley-VCH, 2010, ISBN 3-527-32839-4 p. 112
    50. ^ Löffler G. and Petrides, P. E. Physiologische Chemie. 4 ed., p. 288, Springer, Berlin 1988, ISBN 3-540-18163-6 (in German)
    51. ^ a b Halliwell B, Adhikary A, Dingfelder M, Dizdaroglu M . Hydroxyl radical is a significant player in oxidative DNA damage in vivo. Chem Soc Rev. 2021 Aug 7;50(15):8355-8360. doi: 10.1039/d1cs00044f. Epub 2021 Jun 15. PMID 34128512; PMCID: PMC8328964
    52. ^ Giorgio M, Trinei M, Migliaccio E, Pelicci PG (September 2007). "Hydrogen peroxide: a metabolic by-product or a common mediator of ageing signals?". Nature Reviews. Molecular Cell Biology. 8 (9): 722–728. doi:10.1038/nrm2240. PMID 17700625. S2CID 6407526.
    53. ^ Gonzalez D, Bejarano I, Barriga C, Rodriguez AB, Pariente JA (2010). "Oxidative Stress-Induced Caspases are Regulated in Human Myeloid HL-60 Cells by Calcium Signal". Current Signal Transduction Therapy. 5 (2): 181–186. doi:10.2174/157436210791112172.
    54. ^ Bejarano I, Espino J, González-Flores D, Casado JG, Redondo PC, Rosado JA, et al. (September 2009). "Role of Calcium Signals on Hydrogen Peroxide-Induced Apoptosis in Human Myeloid HL-60 Cells". International Journal of Biomedical Science. 5 (3): 246–256. doi:10.59566/IJBS.2009.5246. PMC 3614781. PMID 23675144.
    55. ^ Schildknecht H, Holoubek K (1961). "The bombardier beetle and its chemical explosion". Angewandte Chemie. 73: 1–7. doi:10.1002/ange.19610730102.
    56. ^ Weber CG (Winter 1981). "The Bombardier Beetle Myth Exploded". Creation/Evolution. 2 (1): 1–5. Archived from the original on 29 September 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
    57. ^ Isaak M (30 May 2003). "Bombardier Beetles and the Argument of Design". TalkOrigins Archive. Archived from the original on 16 November 2017. Retrieved 12 November 2017.
    58. ^ Veal EA, Day AM, Morgan BA (April 2007). "Hydrogen peroxide sensing and signaling". Molecular Cell. 26 (1): 1–14. doi:10.1016/j.molcel.2007.03.016. PMID 17434122.
    59. ^ "Wie Pflanzen sich schützen, Helmholtz-Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology (in German)" (PDF) (in German). Helmholtz-Institute of Biochemical Plant Pathology. Archived from the original (PDF) on 23 July 2011. Retrieved 14 February 2022.
    60. ^ López-Lázaro M (July 2007). "Dual role of hydrogen peroxide in cancer: possible relevance to cancer chemoprevention and therapy". Cancer Letters. 252 (1): 1–8. doi:10.1016/j.canlet.2006.10.029. PMID 17150302.
    61. ^ Klenk, Herbert; Götz, Peter H.; Siegmeier, Rainer; Mayr, Wilfried. "Peroxy Compounds, Organic". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a19_199.pub2. ISBN 978-3527306732.
    62. ^ Tarr MA, ed. (2003). Chemical degradation methods for wastes and pollutants environmental and industrial applications. New York: M. Dekker. p. 165. ISBN 978-0-203-91255-3.
    63. ^ Pignatello JJ, Oliveros E, MacKay A (January 2006). "Advanced Oxidation Processes for Organic Contaminant Destruction Based on the Fenton Reaction and Related Chemistry". Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology. 36 (1): 1–84. Bibcode:2006CREST..36....1P. doi:10.1080/10643380500326564. S2CID 93052585.
    64. ^ Pera-Titus M, Garcıa-Molina V, Baños MA, Giménez J, Esplugas S (February 2004). "Degradation of chlorophenols by means of advanced oxidation processes: a general review". Applied Catalysis B: Environmental. 47 (4): 219–256. doi:10.1016/j.apcatb.2003.09.010.
    65. ^ Goor G, Glenneberg J, Jacobi S (2007). "Hydrogen Peroxide". Ullmann's Encyclopedia of Industrial Chemistry. Weinheim: Wiley-VCH. doi:10.1002/14356007.a13_443.pub2. ISBN 978-3-527-30673-2.
    66. ^ Ascenzi JM, ed. (1996). Handbook of disinfectants and antiseptics. New York: M. Dekker. p. 161. ISBN 978-0-8247-9524-5.
    67. ^ Rutala WA, Weber DJ (September 2004). "Disinfection and sterilization in health care facilities: what clinicians need to know". Clinical Infectious Diseases. 39 (5): 702–709. doi:10.1086/423182. PMID 15356786.
    68. ^ Falagas ME, Thomaidis PC, Kotsantis IK, Sgouros K, Samonis G, Karageorgopoulos DE (July 2011). "Airborne hydrogen peroxide for disinfection of the hospital environment and infection control: a systematic review". The Journal of Hospital Infection. 78 (3): 171–177. doi:10.1016/j.jhin.2010.12.006. PMID 21392848.
    69. ^ Block SS, ed. (2000). "Chapter 9: Peroxygen compounds". Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. pp. 185–204. ISBN 978-0-683-30740-5.
    70. ^ a b "Chemical Disinfectants - Disinfection & Sterilization Guidelines - Guidelines Library - Infection Control - CDC". www.cdc.gov. 4 April 2019. Archived from the original on 1 July 2017. Retrieved 12 April 2020.
    71. ^ McDonnell G, Russell AD (January 1999). "Antiseptics and disinfectants: activity, action, and resistance". Clinical Microbiology Reviews. 12 (1): 147–179. doi:10.1128/cmr.12.1.147. PMC 88911. PMID 9880479.
    72. ^ Block SS, ed. (2000). "Chapter 27: Chemical Sporicidal and Sporostatic Agents". Disinfection, sterilization, and preservation (5th ed.). Philadelphia: Lea & Febiger. pp. 529–543. ISBN 978-0-683-30740-5.
    73. ^ "Sec. 184.1366 Hydrogen peroxide". U.S. Government Printing Office via GPO Access. 1 April 2001. Archived from the original on 3 July 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
    74. ^ Wernimont EJ (9–12 July 2006). System Trade Parameter Comparison of Monopropellants: Hydrogen Peroxide vs Hydrazine and Others (PDF). 42nd AIAA/ASME/SAE/ASEE Joint Propulsion Conference & Exhibit. Sacramento, California. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2014.
    75. ^ Ventura M, Mullens P (19 June 1999). "The Use of Hydrogen Peroxide for Propulsion and Power" (PDF). General Kinetics, LLC. Archived from the original (PDF) on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 10 December 2014.
    76. ^ Cieśliński D (2021). "Polish civil rockets' development overview". Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 15 February 2022.
    77. ^ "Nucleus: A Very Different Way to Launch into Space". Nammo. Archived from the original on 6 February 2022. Retrieved 6 February 2022.
    78. ^ "Peroxide Accident – Walter Web Site". Histarmar.com.ar. Archived from the original on 10 December 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
    79. ^ Scott R (November 1997). "Homing Instincts". Jane's Navy Steam Generated by Catalytic Decomposition of 80–90% Hydrogen Peroxide Was Used for Driving the Turbopump Turbines of the V-2 Rockets, the X-15 Rocketplanes, the Early Centaur RL-10 Engines and is Still Used on Soyuz for That Purpose Today. International. Archived from the original on 17 July 2011. Retrieved 12 May 2007.
    80. ^ "Soyuz using hydrogen peroxide propellant". NASA. Archived from the original on 5 August 2013.
    81. ^ Lane N (2003). Oxygen : the molecule that made the world (First issued in paperback, repr. ed.). Oxford: Oxford University Press. p. 117. ISBN 978-0-19-860783-0. Archived from the original on 13 April 2021. Retrieved 12 November 2020.
    82. ^ Sulieman M, Addy M, MacDonald E, Rees JS (May 2004). "The effect of hydrogen peroxide concentration on the outcome of tooth whitening: an in vitro study". Journal of Dentistry. 32 (4): 295–299. doi:10.1016/j.jdent.2004.01.003. PMID 15053912.
    83. ^ Shepherd S. "Brushing Up on Gum Disease". FDA Consumer. Archived from the original on 14 May 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
    84. ^ Gibbs KB (14 November 2016). "How to remove blood stains from clothes and furniture". Today.com. Archived from the original on 20 May 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
    85. ^ Mayntz M. "Dried Blood Stain Removal". Lovetoknow.com. Archived from the original on 17 August 2021. Retrieved 5 August 2021.
    86. ^ Capizzi R, Landi F, Milani M, Amerio P (August 2004). "Skin tolerability and efficacy of combination therapy with hydrogen peroxide stabilized cream and adapalene gel in comparison with benzoyl peroxide cream and adapalene gel in common acne. A randomized, investigator-masked, controlled trial". The British Journal of Dermatology. 151 (2): 481–484. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2133.2004.06067.x. PMID 15327558. S2CID 2611939.
    87. ^ Muniz, Francisco Wilker Mustafa Gomes; Cavagni, Juliano; Langa, Gerson Pedro José; Stewart, Bernal; Malheiros, Zilson; Rösing, Cassiano Kuchenbecker (31 October 2020). "A Systematic Review of the Effect of Oral Rinsing with H2O2 on Clinical and Microbiological Parameters Related to Plaque, Gingivitis, and Microbes". International Journal of Dentistry. 2020: 8841722. doi:10.1155/2020/8841722. ISSN 1687-8728. PMC 7648695. PMID 33178277.
    88. ^ "Ways to use Hydrogen Peroxide in the Garden". Using Hydrogen Peroxide. Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
    89. ^ Bhattarai SP, Su N, Midmore DJ (2005). Oxygation Unlocks Yield Potentials of Crops in Oxygen-Limited Soil Environments. Advances in Agronomy. Vol. 88. pp. 313–377. doi:10.1016/S0065-2113(05)88008-3. ISBN 978-0-12-000786-8.
    90. ^ "Hydrogen Peroxide for Plants and Garden". 7 September 2019. Archived from the original on 10 May 2021. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
    91. ^ "Effect of hydrogen peroxide spraying on Hydrocotyle ranunculoides". Archived from the original on 24 March 2020. Retrieved 10 May 2021.
    92. ^ "FDA Approves Additional Indications for 35% PEROX-AID (hydrogen peroxide) for Use in Certain Finfish". FDA. 26 July 2019. Archived from the original on 12 December 2019. Retrieved 19 December 2019.
    93. ^ Greene B, Baker D, Frazier W. "Hydrogen Peroxide Accidents and Incidents: What we can learn from history" (PDF). NASA. Archived (PDF) from the original on 6 April 2019. Retrieved 6 April 2019.
    94. ^ see Hans Marquardt, Lehrbuch der Toxikologie
    95. ^ "Material Compatibility with Hydrogen Peroxide". Archived from the original on 4 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
    96. ^ "Hydrogen Peroxide Mouthwash is it Safe?". Archived from the original on 20 December 2013. Retrieved 30 October 2013.
    97. ^ a b c "Occupational Safety and Health Guideline for Hydrogen Peroxide". Archived from the original on 13 May 2013.
    98. ^ For example, see an "MSDS for a 3% peroxide solution". Archived from the original on 15 April 2012.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: unfit URL (link)
    99. ^ H2O2 toxicity and dangers Archived 5 June 2012 at the Wayback Machine Agency for Toxic Substances and Disease Registry website
    100. ^ CRC Handbook of Chemistry and Physics, 76th Ed, 1995–1996
    101. ^ "CDC – Immediately Dangerous to Life or Health Concentrations (IDLH): Chemical Listing and Documentation of Revised IDLH Values – NIOSH Publications and Products". 25 October 2017. Archived from the original on 17 November 2012. Retrieved 20 October 2018.
    102. ^ "Threshold Limit Values for Chemical Substances and Physical Agents & Biological Exposure Indices, ACGIH" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 2 June 2013.
    103. ^ "ATSDR – Redirect – MMG: Hydrogen Peroxide". Archived from the original on 3 March 2016. Retrieved 3 March 2016.
    104. ^ Wilgus TA, Bergdall VK, Dipietro LA, Oberyszyn TM (2005). "Hydrogen peroxide disrupts scarless fetal wound repair". Wound Repair and Regeneration. 13 (5): 513–519. doi:10.1111/j.1067-1927.2005.00072.x. PMID 16176460. S2CID 1028923.
    105. ^ Urban MV, Rath T, Radtke C (June 2019). "Hydrogen peroxide (H2O2): a review of its use in surgery". Wiener Medizinische Wochenschrift. 169 (9–10): 222–225. doi:10.1007/s10354-017-0610-2. PMID 29147868. S2CID 35739209.
    106. ^ "Cleveleand Clinic: What Is Hydrogen Peroxide Good For?". December 2021. Retrieved 25 August 2022.
    107. ^ see e.g. Detlev Heidemann, Endodontie, Urban&Fischer 2001
    108. ^ Douglass WC (1995). Hydrogen peroxide : medical miracle. Atlanta, GA: Second Opinion Pub. ISBN 978-1-885236-07-4.
    109. ^ a b Hydrogen Peroxide, 3%. 3. Hazards Identification Southeast Fisheries Science Center, daughter agency of NOAA.
    110. ^ a b "Questionable methods of cancer management: hydrogen peroxide and other 'hyperoxygenation' therapies". CA: A Cancer Journal for Clinicians. 43 (1): 47–56. 1993. doi:10.3322/canjclin.43.1.47. PMID 8422605. S2CID 36911297.
    111. ^ a b Mikkelson B (30 April 2006). "Hydrogen Peroxide". Snopes.com. Archived from the original on 15 February 2022. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
    112. ^ a b "Naturopath Sentenced For Injecting Teen With Hydrogen Peroxide – 7NEWS Denver". Thedenverchannel.com. 27 March 2006. Archived from the original on 20 March 2014. Retrieved 14 February 2015.
    113. ^ Halliwell B (January 2007). "Oxidative stress and cancer: have we moved forward?". The Biochemical Journal. 401 (1): 1–11. doi:10.1042/BJ20061131. PMID 17150040. S2CID 850978.
    114. ^ French LK, Horowitz BZ, McKeown NJ (July 2010). "Hydrogen peroxide ingestion associated with portal venous gas and treatment with hyperbaric oxygen: a case series and review of the literature". Clinical Toxicology. 48 (6): 533–538. doi:10.3109/15563650.2010.492526. PMID 20575671. S2CID 25148041. Archived from the original on 4 January 2022. Retrieved 4 January 2022.
    115. ^ Cooper A (12 January 2005). "A Prescription for Death?". CBS News. Archived from the original on 17 July 2007. Retrieved 7 July 2007.
    116. ^ "Heeresversuchsstelle Kummersdorf". UrbEx - Forgotten & Abandoned. 23 March 2008. Archived from the original on 29 June 2018. Retrieved 1 June 2018.
    117. ^ "The Nazi Doctors: Medical Killing and the Psychology of Genocide". Robert Jay Lifton. Archived from the original on 27 June 2018. Retrieved 26 June 2018.
    118. ^ "Explosion and fire in a hydrogen peroxide plant". ARIA. November 2007. Archived from the original on 14 February 2022.
    119. ^ "Accident No: DCA-99-MZ-001" (PDF). U.S. National Transportation Safety Board. Archived (PDF) from the original on 3 November 2015. Retrieved 30 October 2015.
    120. ^ Mizokami K (28 September 2018). "The True Story of the Russian Kursk Submarine Disaster". Archived from the original on 14 February 2022.
    121. ^ Wheaton S (16 August 2010). "Bleach Spill Shuts Part of Times Square". The New York Times. Archived from the original on 1 December 2017. Retrieved 24 February 2017.


    • DrabowiczJ, et al. (1994). Capozzi G, et al. (eds.). The Syntheses of Sulphones, Sulphoxides and Cyclic Sulphides. Chichester UK: John Wiley & Sons. pp. 112–6. ISBN 978-0-471-93970-2.
    • Greenwood NN, Earnshaw A (1997). Chemistry of the Elements (2nd ed.). Oxford UK: Butterworth-Heinemann. A great description of properties & chemistry of H2O2.
    • March J (1992). Advanced Organic Chemistry (4th ed.). New York: Wiley. p. 723.
    • Hess WT (1995). "Hydrogen Peroxide". Kirk-Othmer Encyclopedia of Chemical Technology. Vol. 13 (4th ed.). New York: Wiley. pp. 961–995.