In 2000, the 22-person Hydra ship was demonstrated, and in 2003 the Duffy-Herreshoff watertaxi went into service. 2003 saw the debut of Yacht No. 1, as well Hydroxy3000. The AUV DeepC and Yacht XV 1 were shown in 2004. In 2005 the first example of the Type 212 submarine, which is powered underwater by fuel cells, went into service with the German navy. In 2006 the 12-person Xperiance was debuted, as well as the Zebotec. In 2007 both the 8-person Tuckerboot and the Canal boat Ross Barlow debuted, and in 2008 the 100-passenger Zemships project Alsterwasser went into service in Hamburg. Also, in 2009 the Nemo H2 and the Frauscher 600 Riviera HP went into service. In 2013 the Hydrogenesis Passenger Ferry project went into service.
Hjalti Pall Ingolfsson from Icelandic New Energy has commented that ships are fast becoming the biggest source of air pollution in the European Union. It is estimated that by 2020 emissions of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxides from ships will exceed land-based emissions in Europe. A big issue to be dealt with would be the storage of hydrogen on ships, given that there would be no opportunity to refill them when out at sea, although one can use wind power and solar panels to generate electricity from the ocean while they are far from the shores and produce onboard hydrogen.
The need for a hydrogen infrastructure varies, where the Yacht No. 1 was fueled by a mobile hydrogen station, the prototype Haveblue Yacht XV 1 was intended to have onboard hydrogen generation, the Xperiance and Tuckerboot have exchangeable high-pressure hydrogen tanks which can be refilled at a local hydrogen station, the canal boat Ross Barlow uses fixed onboard low-pressure solid-state metal hydride storage tanks and depends on a refilling station on the waterside, the Zemships Alsterwasser refills at a fixed waterside storage tank with 17,000 liters of hydrogen which is refuelled by a compressed hydrogen tube trailer.
Codes and standards
Hydrogen codes and standards have repeatedly been identified as a major institutional barrier to the deployment of hydrogen technologies and the development of a hydrogen economy. To enable the commercialization of hydrogen in consumer products, new model building codes and equipment, as well as other technical standards are developed and recognized by federal, state, and local governments. The Germanischer Lloyd guidelines for fuel cells on ships and boats is used for the Hydra, Tuckerboot, Yacht No. 1, Zebotec and Zemships.
The NEW H SHIP project was a 15-month project that started February 2004. FC-SHIP was funded by the European Commission under FP5 - GROWTH from 2002 to 2004. The Viking Fellowship is a Nordic project. The SMART H2 project started in 2007 by placing a fuel cell in the existing whale-watching ship Elding. Other studies have also considered various ways of combining fuel cell operations on board with air conditioning systems for operations while in harbour. In order to gain a commercial advantage, the Norwegian government scheduled money for a regular hydrogen car ferry in 2016, to be operational in 2021. New rules are viewed as more challenging than developing the technology.
- Hydroxy 3000
- Hydrogen for Frauscher Riviera 600 Archived 2011-07-22 at the Wayback Machine.
- Hydrogenesis passenger ferry, United Kingdom
- NEW H SHIP
- Hytra Archived 2007-06-10 at the Wayback Machine.
- Zemships Archived 2012-12-03 at the Wayback Machine.
- DOE codes and standards
- Guidelines for the use of fuel cell systems on board of ships and boats[permanent dead link]
- DNV Fellowship
- Kar Chung Tse, Lawrence (2011). "Solid oxide fuel cell/gas turbine trigeneration system for marine applications". Journal of Power Sources. 196: 3149–3162. doi:10.1016/j.jpowsour.2010.11.099.
- "Hydrogenfergen vil koste 100 millioner kroner ekstra - det sponser staten". Teknisk Ukeblad. Retrieved 25 November 2016.