Hydrolase

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Hydrolase is a class of enzyme that is commonly used as biochemical catalysts that utilize water to break a chemical bond. This results in a division of a larger molecule to smaller molecules. Some common examples of hydrolase enzymes are esterases including lipases, phosphatases, glycosidases, peptidases, and nucleosidases. Esterases cleave ester bonds in lipids and phosphatases cleave phosphate groups off molecules. An example of crucial esterase is the acetylcholine esterase, which assists in transforming the neuron impulse into acetic acid after it the hydrolase breaks the acetylcholine into choline and acetic acid.[1] Acetic acid is an important metabolite in the body, which becomes a nice intermediate for other reactions such as glycolysis. Lipases hydrolyze glycerides. Glycosidases cleave sugar molecules off carbohydrates and peptidases hydrolyze peptide bonds. Nucleosidases hydrolyze the bonds of nucleotides. [2]

Hydrolase enzymes are important for the body because they have degradative properties. In lipids, lipases contribute to the breakdown of fats and lipoproteins and other larger molecules into smaller molecules like fatty acids and glycerol. Fatty acids and other small molecules are used for synthesis and as a source of energy.[1]

In biochemistry, a hydrolase is an enzyme that catalyzes the hydrolysis of a chemical bond. For example, an enzyme that catalyzes the following reaction is a hydrolase:

A–B + H2O → A–OH + B–H

Nomenclature[edit]

Systematic names of hydrolases are formed as "substrate hydrolase." However, common names are typically in the form "substratease." For example, a nuclease is a hydrolase that cleaves nucleic acids.

Classification[edit]

Hydrolases are classified as EC 3 in the EC number classification of enzymes. Hydrolases can be further classified into several subclasses, based upon the bonds they act upon:

Clinical considerations[edit]

Hydrolase secreted by Lactobacillus jensenii in the human gut stimulates the liver to secrete bile salts that aids in the digestion of food.[3]

Etymology and pronunciation[edit]

The word hydrolase (/ˈhdrls, -lz/) suffixes the combining form of -ase to the hydrol syllables of hydrolysis.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Hydrolase - Chemistry Encyclopedia - water, examples, molecule". www.chemistryexplained.com. Retrieved 2018-04-29. 
  2. ^ "Hydrolase." Britannica Academic, Encyclopædia Britannica, 9 Apr. 2018. academic-eb-com.proxy.wexler.hunter.cuny.edu/levels/collegiate/article/hydrolase/41737. Accessed 29 Apr. 2018.
  3. ^ Prince, Amanda L.; Antony, Kathleen M.; Chu, Derrick M.; Aagaard, Kjersti M. (2014). "The microbiome, parturition, and timing of birth: more questions than answers". Journal of Reproductive Immunology. 104-105: 12–19. doi:10.1016/j.jri.2014.03.006. ISSN 0165-0378. PMC 4157949Freely accessible. PMID 24793619.