Hydroxylammonium chloride

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Hydroxylammonium chloride
Ball-and-stick model of a hydroxylammonium cation (left) and a chloride anion (right)
Sample of hydroxylammonium chloride.jpg
Other names
Hydroxylamine hydrochloride
3D model (JSmol)
ECHA InfoCard 100.024.362
EC Number 226-798-2
RTECS number NC3675000
Molar mass 69.49 g/mol
Appearance white crystalline solid
Density 1.67 g/cm3
Melting point 155 to 157 °C (311 to 315 °F; 428 to 430 K) decomposes
Safety data sheet [1]
Explosive (E)
Carc. Cat. 3
Harmful (Xn)
Irritant (Xi)
Dangerous for the environment (N)
R-phrases (outdated) R2, R21/22, R36/38, R40, R43, R48/22, R50
S-phrases (outdated) (S2), S36/37, S61
NFPA 704
Flammability code 1: Must be pre-heated before ignition can occur. Flash point over 93 °C (200 °F). E.g., canola oilHealth code 3: Short exposure could cause serious temporary or residual injury. E.g., chlorine gasReactivity code 1: Normally stable, but can become unstable at elevated temperatures and pressures. E.g., calciumSpecial hazards (white): no codeNFPA 704 four-colored diamond
Except where otherwise noted, data are given for materials in their standard state (at 25 °C [77 °F], 100 kPa).
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Infobox references

Hydroxylammonium chloride is the hydrochloric acid salt of hydroxylamine. Hydroxylamine is a biological intermediate in the nitrification (biological oxidation of ammonia with oxygen into nitrite) and in the anammox (biological oxidation of nitrite and ammonium into dinitrogen gas) which are important in the nitrogen cycle in soil and in wastewater treatment plants.


Hydroxylammonium chloride is used in organic synthesis for preparation of oximes and hydroxamic acids from carboxylic acids, N- and O- substituted hydroxyamines, and addition reactions of carbon-carbon double bond.

During the acetyl bromide method of extracting lignin from lignocellulosic biomass, hydroxylammonium chloride can be used to remove bromine and polybromide from the solution.

In surface treatments, it is used in the preparation of anti-skinning agents, corrosion inhibitors, and cleaner additives. It is also a starting material for pharmaceuticals and agrochemicals manufacturing. In the rubber and plastics industries, it is an antioxidant, vulcanization accelerator, and radical scavenger.

It is also used as a fixative for textile dyes, auxiliary in some dyeing processes, as a metal extraction and flotation aid, as an antioxidant in fatty acids and soaps, and as a color stabilizer and emulsion additive in color films.

It's also used in analytic chemistry in the analysis of iron in the water combinated with α,α-dipyridyl. The hydroxylammonium chloride transform all the iron in Fe2+, that then forms a coordination complex with the dipyridyl.


  • Fukushima, R.S.; Dehority, B.A.; Loerch, S.C. (1 January 1991). "Modification of a colorimetric analysis for lignin and its use in studying the inhibitory effects of lignin on forage digestion by ruminal microorganisms". J. Anim. Sci. 69 (1): 295–304. PMID 2005024. Archived from the original on 10 October 2008.
  • Elstner, E.F.; Heupel, A. (February 1976). "Inhibition of nitrite formation from hydroxylammoniumchloride: a simple assay for superoxide dismutase". Anal. Biochem. 70 (2): 616–20. doi:10.1016/0003-2697(76)90488-7. PMID 817618.