Hyeokgeose of Silla
|King of Silla|
|Tenure||57 BC – 4 AD|
|Died||4 AD (age 73)|
|Issue||Namhae of Silla|
|Hyeokgeose of Silla|
|Revised Romanization||Bak Hyeokgeose Geoseogan|
|McCune–Reischauer||Pak Hyŏkkŏse Kŏsŏgan|
|Monarchs of Korea|
Hyeokgeose of Silla (69 BC – 4 AD, r. 57 BC–4 AD), also known by his personal full name as Bak (Park, Pak) Hyeokgeose, was the founding monarch of Silla, one of the Three Kingdoms of Korea. He was the progenitor of all Bak (Park) clans in Korea.
His title Geoseogan (Hangul:거서간 Hanja:居西干) or Geoseulhan (Hangul:거슬한 Hanja:居瑟邯), means "king" in the language of the Jinhan confederacy, the group of chiefdoms in the southeast of the Korean Peninsula.
"Hyeokgeose" was not a personal name, but the hanja for his honorific name, pronounced "Bulgeunae" (Hangul:불그내 Hanja:弗矩内) in archaic Korean, meaning "bright world." 赫 hyeok, a Chinese character that means "bright, radiant, glowing" (from doubling the character for 赤 jeok "red"), is used to transcribe the Korean adjective stem 븕 bylg- > 붉 bulg- "red" (< ancient Korean word for "red; brightly colored; bright"). 居 geo, a Chinese character that means "live, dwell, reside, sit," is used to transcribe the Korean prenominal adjective inflection ㄴ -n ~ 은 -eun "~ that is (bright/red), ~ which is (bright/red)." 世 se, a Chinese character that means "generation; world; era," is used to transcribe an ancient word related to the obsolescent Korean word 뉘 nuy ~ 누리 nuri "world."
Refugees of Gojoseon lived in the valleys of present-day Gyeongsang-do, South Korea, in six villages called Yangsan (Hangul:양산촌 Hanja:楊山村), Goheo (Hangul:고허촌 Hanja:高墟村), Jinji (Hangul:진지촌 Hanja:珍支村), Daesu (Hangul:대수촌 Hanja:大樹村), Gari (Hangul:가리촌 Hanja:加利村), and Goya (Hangul:고야촌 Hanja:高耶村).
In 69 BC, the heads of the six chiefdoms gathered to discuss forming a kingdom and selecting a king. In the forest, at a well called Najeong at Yangsan, a strange light shone from the sky, and a white horse was bowed down. Chief Sobeolgong of Goheo discovered a large egg there. A boy came out of the egg, and when bathed, his body radiated light and birds and beasts danced.
Sobeolgong raised him, and the six chieftains revered him. The chieftains made him king when he became 13 years old. The state was named Seorabeol.
This legend reflects developments in the city-state stage, the six chieftains representing a loose group of Gojoseon refugees. The story implies the ascendency of the Bak clan over the native peoples, and may indicate horse and sun worship.
The founding date is widely questioned today, as the Samguk Sagi was written from the viewpoint of Silla, claiming Silla's superiority and antiquity over Goguryeo and Baekje. Silla in this traditional thinking is thought to have been founded first, followed by Goguryeo, and then Baekje. Archaeological evidence, however, paints a different picture, and it is suspected that Goguryeo is the oldest of the three kingdoms, with Silla developing either concurrently with Baekje or after it.
According to the Samguk Sagi, Hyeokgeose and his queen traveled the realm in 41 BC, helping the people improve their harvests. The people praised them as the Two Saints or Two Holy Ones (Hangul:이성 Hanja:二聖).
In 20 BC, the king of the Mahan confederacy demanded a tribute. Silla sent Hogong, who was a minister of Silla. The king was angry that Silla sent Hogong and not a tribute. Hogong criticized the king's impoliteness with fortitude. The king was angry at him and tried to kill him, but nearby subordinates stopped the king, and he was permitted to return to Silla.
In 20 BC, Hyeokgeose also sent an emissary upon the death of the Mahan king in 19 BC. In 5 BC, East Okjeo (a small state to the north, later conquered by Goguryeo) sent an emissary, and Hyeokgeose presented him with 20 horses.
Death and succession
Hyeokgeose maintained control over his kingdom and was one of the few Park rulers to hold complete power over Silla. He died at age 73, and was buried in Sareung, north of Dameomsa (south of Namcheon). Hyeokgeose was succeeded by his eldest son Namhae.
Though not much is known about Hyeokgeose, his many legacies and reminders survive to this day. One of them being his numerous descendants, the Park clans of Korea, who are numbered as the third largest group of people with a common last name. Another legacy was the kingdom that he established. Despite the fact that his descendants eventually lost power over Silla, the fact that he founded it remained under high respects and great consideration.
- Chinese Wikisource has original text related to this article: 三國遺事/卷第五#仙桃聖母隨喜佛事Samguk Yusa (Memorabilia of the three Kingdoms), volume 5, clause 7.
〈Sacred mother was called SaSo and she was born in Chinese royal family. She got sacred power and came to Hae Dong (해동/Korea), lived there and stayed there for long time. Her tied a letter to the feet of kite and told her “Let’s make a house where the kite stops”. Once she read letter and release a kite, a kite flew to Mt. Seondo (West mountain of Gyeongju/慶州) and stopped there. She decided to live there and became Xian (仙) of the land. That mountain was named as West Kite mountain and Sacred mother of SaSo stayed there as her base for quite long time and rule the country. There are a lot of miracles around that mountain as well.〉
〈She came to Jinhan confederacy at beginning, gave birth for sacred children and became first king of East country. Probably those children were Aryeong and Hyeokgeose of Silla. That’s why they are called as Gye-Nong (계농), Gye-Rim (계림), Baek-Ma (백마) and so on. This is because Gye (계) belongs to west side. One day, SaSo make fairy of heavens to weave silk cloth, dyed in scarlet and made Korean garment. She sent this garment to her husband. This was the first time for people in the country to know her miracle.〉
Hyeokgeose of SillaBorn: 69 BC Died: 4
|New creation|| Ruler of Silla
57 BC – 4