From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
Hymenoxys hoopesii
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Subfamily: Asteroideae
Tribe: Helenieae[1]
Genus: Hymenoxys
Cass. 1828
Type species
Hymenoxys anthemoides (Juss.) Cass.[2]
  • Plummera A.Gray
  • Dugaldia Cass.
  • Actinella Juss. ex Nutt.
  • Phileozera Buckley
  • Macdougalia A.Heller

Hymenoxys (rubberweed or bitterweed) is a genus of plants in the sunflower family, native to North and South America.[3][4][5] It was named by Alexandre Henri Gabriel de Cassini in 1828.[4]

Plants of this genus are toxic to sheep due to the presence of the sesquiterpene lactone hymenoxon.[6][7][8]

  1. Hymenoxys ambigens - Pinaleno Mountain rubberweed - Arizona New Mexico
  2. Hymenoxys anthemoides - Rio Grande do Sul, Rio de Janeiro, Paraguay, Uruguay, Argentina
  3. Hymenoxys biennis - Utah
  4. Hymenoxys bigelovii - Utah Arizona New Mexico
  5. Hymenoxys brachyactis - East View rubberweed - New Mexico
  6. Hymenoxys brandegeei - Arizona New Mexico Colorado
  7. Hymenoxys cabrerae - Argentina
  8. Hymenoxys californica - California, Baja California
  9. Hymenoxys chrysanthemoides - San Luis Potosí, Veracruz, Zacatecas, México State, Puebla, Oaxaca, Hidalgo
  10. Hymenoxys cooperi - Cooper's rubberweed - California Nevada Arizona Utah Idaho Oregon New Mexico
  11. Hymenoxys grandiflora - New Mexico Colorado Wyoming Montana Utah Idaho
  12. Hymenoxys helenioides - intermountain rubberweed - Arizona New Mexico Colorado Utah
  13. Hymenoxys hoopesii - owl claws - New Mexico Colorado Wyoming Montana Utah Idaho Oregon Nevada California
  14. Hymenoxys insignis - Nuevo León, Coahuila, Chihuahua
  15. Hymenoxys jamesii - Arizona
  16. Hymenoxys lemmonii - Lemmon's rubberweed - Arizona Oregon Nevada California
  17. Hymenoxys multiflora - Texas New Mexico
  18. Hymenoxys mutica - California
  19. Hymenoxys odorata - bitter rubberweed - California Arizona New Mexico Texas Oklahoma Colorado Kansas Maine South Carolina Alabama, Baja California, Baja California Sur, Sonora, Chihuahua, Coahuila, Durango, Nuevo León, San Luis Potosí, Tamaulipas
  20. Hymenoxys quinquesquamata - rincon rubberweed - Arizona New Mexico
  21. Hymenoxys richardsonii - pingue rubberweed, Colorado rubberweed - Alberta, Saskatchewan, Montana Idaho Wyoming Utah Colorado New Mexico Arizona Texas Nebraska North Dakota Nevada
  22. Hymenoxys robusta - Bolivia, Argentina, Peru
  23. Hymenoxys rusbyi - Arizona New Mexico
  24. Hymenoxys subintegra - Arizona rubberweed - Arizona Utah
  25. Hymenoxys texana - prairie dawn - Texas
  26. Hymenoxys tweediei - Argentina
  27. Hymenoxys vaseyi - Texas New Mexico
formerly included[12]


  1. ^ a b c Flann, C (ed) 2009+ Global Compositae Checklist
  2. ^ Tropicos, Hymenoxys Cass.
  3. ^ Cassini, Alexandre Henri Gabriel de, in Cuvier, F. 1828. Dictionnaire des Sciences Naturelles [Second edition] 55: 278–279in French
  4. ^ a b Tropicos, Hymenoxys Cass.
  5. ^ Flora of North America, Bitterweed, rubberweed, Hymenoxys Cassini 1828.
  6. ^ Everitt, J.H.; Lonard, R.L.; Little, C.R. (2007). Weeds in South Texas and Northern Mexico. Lubbock: Texas Tech University Press.  ISBN 0-89672-614-2
  7. ^ Pfeiffer, F. A. and M. C. Calhoun. (1987). Effects of environmental, site, and phenological factors on hymenoxon content of bitterweed, Hymenoxys odorata. Journal of Animal Science 65 1553-62.
  8. ^ Texas A&M University, Toxicity: H. odorata
  9. ^ Biota of North America Program 2013 county distribution maps
  10. ^ Turner, B. L. 2013. The comps of Mexico. A systematic account of the family Asteraceae (chapter 11: tribe Helenieae). Phytologia Memoirs 16: 1–100.
  11. ^ The Plant List search for Hymenoxys
  12. ^ a b The Plant List, search for Hymenoxys

External links[edit]