Hypercoaster

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The world's first full-circuit hypercoaster, Magnum XL-200 at Cedar Point

A hypercoaster is any complete circuit roller coaster with a height measuring greater than 200 feet (61 m).[1][2] The term was first coined by Arrow Dynamics and Cedar Point in 1989 with the release of the first full-circuit hypercoaster in the world, Magnum XL-200. Other roller coaster manufacturers developed their own models with custom names, including Mega Coasters from Intamin, Hyper Coasters from Bolliger & Mabillard, and Hyper-Hybrid Coasters from Rocky Mountain Construction.[3] The competition between amusement parks to build increasingly taller roller coasters eventually led to giga coasters which exceed 300 feet (91 m) and strata coasters which exceed 400 feet (120 m).

History[edit]

The world's first hypercoaster was Magnum XL-200 by Cedar Point, costing $8,000,000 USD. Cedar Point chose Arrow Dynamics to design and construct Magnum XL-200. Construction on Magnum XL-200 began in 1988, and the ride opened on May 6, 1989. Since its debut, Magnum XL-200 has served more than 36 million guests.[4] Cedar Point's official blog states that after building the ride, "discussion was focused on just what a roller coaster such as Magnum should be called. After all, it had no loops like most of the other large steel coasters of the time and was so much bigger and faster than its non-looping brethren. After a couple of years, the name everyone agreed upon was hypercoaster."[5]

Description[edit]

Hypercoasters were originally built for speed and airtime, to counter the trend of constructing bigger and bigger looping coasters. To accomplish this the elements of a hypercoaster often include a large first drop, several additional drops of declining height, a large turn or helix and then many airtime-inducing hills. Hypercoasters are commonly designed with an out and back layout, although there are occasionally hypercoasters that use a twisted layout, such as Raging Bull at Six Flags Great America, and others that combine both, such as Diamondback at Kings Island.

Hypercoasters dominate the Amusement Today Golden Ticket Awards. For 2006, Superman: Ride of Steel, now known as Superman the Ride (formerly Bizarro), located at Six Flags New England was ranked highest at #1. Several hypercoasters followed such as Magnum XL-200 (#3), Nitro (#4), Apollo's Chariot (#5). The hypercoasters make up the majority of the 2006 Top 10 Steel Coasters, filling 8/10 positions.[6] By 2010, hypercoasters held all of the top 10 spots on Amusement Today's list of "Top 50 Steel Roller Coasters" and 16 of the top 20.[7]

Hypercoasters were first manufactured by Arrow Dynamics in the late 1980s to early 1990s. Since then, a number of companies, including Bolliger & Mabillard, Intamin, D. H. Morgan Manufacturing, Giovanola and others have designed and constructed hypercoasters.

Though hypercoasters are typically steel roller coasters, Son of Beast at Kings Island was the first and only wooden hypercoaster. Due to a number of issues, the ride was eventually demolished in 2012.[8][9] In 2018, Cedar Point opened the first hybrid hypercoaster, Steel Vengeance. Steel Vengeance will also be the first hypercoaster manufactured by Rocky Mountain Construction.[10].

List of hypercoasters[edit]

The hypercoaster Nitro at Six Flags Great Adventure

The following is a list of roller coasters with a height of at least 200 feet (61 m). Some enthusiasts do not consider shuttle-type roller coasters to be hypercoasters, so those are listed separately.

Complete circuit[edit]

Name Park Country Manufacturer Height Opened Status Ref
Magnum XL-200 Cedar Point United States Arrow Dynamics 205 ft (62 m) May 1989 Operating [11]
Big One Blackpool Pleasure Beach United Kingdom Arrow Dynamics 213 ft (65 m) May 1994 Operating [12]
Desperado Buffalo Bill's United States Arrow Dynamics 209 ft (64 m) August 1994 Operating [13]
Wild Thing Valleyfair United States D. H. Morgan Manufacturing 207 ft (63 m) May 1996 Operating [14]
Fujiyama Fuji-Q Highland Japan TOGO 259 ft (79 m) July 1996 Operating [15]
Big Apple Coaster New York-New York Hotel & Casino United States TOGO 203 ft (62 m)[note 1] January 1997 Operating [16]
Steel Force Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom United States D. H. Morgan Manufacturing 200 ft (61 m)[note 2] May 1997 Operating [17]
Mamba Worlds of Fun United States D. H. Morgan Manufacturing 205 ft (62 m) April 1998 Operating [18]
Apollo's Chariot Busch Gardens Williamsburg United States Bolliger & Mabillard 170 ft (52 m)[note 3] March 1999 Operating [19]
Raging Bull Six Flags Great America United States Bolliger & Mabillard 202 ft (62 m)[note 4] May 1999 Operating [20]
Ride of Steel Darien Lake United States Intamin 208 ft (63 m) May 1999 Operating [21]
Goliath Six Flags Magic Mountain United States Giovanola 235 ft (72 m) February 2000 Operating [22]
Superman the Ride Six Flags New England United States Intamin 208 ft (63 m) May 2000 Operating [23]
Superman – Ride of Steel Six Flags America United States Intamin 197 ft (60 m)[note 5] May 2000 Operating [24]
Millennium Force* Cedar Point United States Intamin 310 ft (94 m) May 2000 Operating [25]
Son of Beast Kings Island United States Roller Coaster Corporation of America 218 ft (66 m) May 2000 Defunct [26]
Steel Dragon 2000* Nagashima Spa Land Japan D. H. Morgan Manufacturing 318.3 ft (97.0 m) August 2000 Operating [27]
Nitro Six Flags Great Adventure United States Bolliger & Mabillard 230 ft (70 m) April 2001 Operating [28]
Titan Six Flags Over Texas United States Giovanola 245 ft (75 m) April 2001 Operating [29]
Phantom's Revenge Kennywood United States D. H. Morgan Manufacturing/Arrow Dynamics 160 ft (49 m)[note 6] May 2001 Operating [30]
X2 Six Flags Magic Mountain United States Arrow Dynamics 175 ft (53 m)[note 7] January 2002 Operating [31]
Silver Star Europa-Park Germany Bolliger & Mabillard 239.5 ft (73.0 m) March 2002 Operating [32]
Xcelerator Knott's Berry Farm United States Intamin 205 ft (62 m) June 2002 Operating [33]
Thunder Dolphin Tokyo Dome City Attractions Japan Intamin 262.5 ft (80.0 m) May 2003 Operating [34]
Top Thrill Dragster** Cedar Point United States Intamin 420 ft (130 m) May 2003 Operating [35]
Superman el Último Escape Six Flags México Mexico Chance Morgan 219.8 ft (67.0 m) November 2004 Operating [36]
SheiKra Busch Gardens Tampa United States Bolliger & Mabillard 200 ft (61 m) May 2005 Operating [37]
Kingda Ka** Six Flags Great Adventure United States Intamin 456 ft (139 m) May 2005 Operating [38]
Stealth Thorpe Park United Kingdom Intamin 205.1 ft (62.5 m) March 2006 Operating [39]
Goliath Six Flags Over Georgia United States Bolliger & Mabillard 200 ft (61 m) April 2006 Operating [40]
Zaturn Space World Japan Intamin 205 ft (62 m) April 2006 Operating [41]
Eejanaika Fuji-Q Highland Japan S&S Worldwide 249 ft (76 m) July 2006 Operating [42]
Griffon Busch Gardens Williamsburg United States Bolliger & Mabillard 205 ft (62 m) 2007, May 18 Operating [43]
Behemoth Canada's Wonderland Canada Bolliger & Mabillard 230 ft (70 m) May 2008 Operating [44]
Diamondback Kings Island United States Bolliger & Mabillard 230 ft (70 m) April 2009 Operating [45]
Diving Coaster Happy Valley Shanghai China Bolliger & Mabillard 213.3 ft (65.0 m) August 2009 Operating [46]
Intimidator Carowinds United States Bolliger & Mabillard 232 ft (71 m) March 2010 Operating [47]
Intimidator 305* Kings Dominion United States Intamin 305 ft (93 m) April 2010 Operating [48]
Wild Eagle Dollywood United States Bolliger & Mabillard 210 ft (64 m) March 2012 Operating [49][50]
Leviathan* Canada's Wonderland Canada Bolliger & Mabillard 306 ft (93 m) April 2012 Operating [51]
Dinoconda China Dinosaurs Park China S&S Worldwide 226.4 ft (69.0 m) April 2012 Operating [52]
Shambhala PortAventura Park Spain Bolliger & Mabillard 249.3 ft (76.0 m) May 2012 Operating [53]
Skyrush Hershey Park United States Intamin 200 ft (61 m) May 2012 Operating [54]
Bullet Coaster Happy Valley Shenzhen China S&S Worldwide 196.8 ft (60.0 m)[note 8] July 2012 Operating [55]
OCT Thrust SSC1000 Happy Valley Wuhan China S&S Worldwide 196.8 ft (60.0 m)[note 9] March 2014 Operating [56]
Fury 325* Carowinds United States Bolliger & Mabillard 325 ft (99 m) March 2015 Operating [57]
Kärnan Hansa Park Germany Gerstlauer 239.5 ft (73.0 m) July 2015 Operating [58]
Cannibal Lagoon Amusement Park United States Lagoon Amusement Park 208 ft (63 m) July 2015 Operating [59]
Flash Lewa Adventure China Mack Rides 200.2 ft (61.0 m) January 2016 Operating [60]
Flying Aces Ferrari World Abu Dhabi United Arab Emirates Intamin 206.7 ft (63.0 m) February 2016 Operating [61]
Valravn Cedar Point United States Bolliger & Mabillard 223 ft (68 m) May 2016 Operating [62]
Coaster Through the Clouds Nanchang Wanda Park China Intamin 242.8 ft (74.0 m) May 2016 Operating [63]
Mako SeaWorld Orlando United States Bolliger & Mabillard 200 ft (61 m) June 2016 Operating [64]
Red Force Ferrari Land Spain Intamin 367 ft (112 m) April 2017 Operating [65]
DC Rivals HyperCoaster Warner Brothers Movie World Australia MACK Rides 202.1 ft (61.6 m) September 2017 Operating [66]
Steel Vengeance Cedar Point United States Rocky Mountain Construction 205 ft (62 m) May 2018 Operating [67]
Yukon Striker Canada's Wonderland Canada Bolliger & Mabillard 223 ft (68 m)[note 10] N/A Under construction [68]

Shuttle[edit]

Name Park Country Manufacturer Height Opened Status Ref
Moonsault Scramble Fuji-Q Highland Japan Meisho Amusement Machines 229.7 ft (70.0 m) June 1983 Defunct [69]
Tower of Terror II Dreamworld Australia Intamin 377.3 ft (115.0 m) January 1997 Operating [70]
Superman: Escape from Krypton Six Flags Magic Mountain United States Intamin 415 ft (126 m) March 1997 Operating [71]
Batman & Robin: The Chiller Six Flags Great Adventure United States Premier Rides 200 ft (61 m) June 1997 Defunct [72]
Mr. Freeze Reverse Blast Six Flags Over Texas United States Premier Rides 218 ft (66 m) March 1998 Operating [73][74]
Mr. Freeze Reverse Blast Six Flags St. Louis United States Premier Rides 218 ft (66 m) April 1998 Operating [75]
Speed – The Ride Nascar Café United States Premier Rides 224 ft (68 m) April 2000 Defunct [76]
Wicked Twister Cedar Point United States Intamin 215 ft (66 m) May 2002 Operating [77]
Big Air E-DA Theme Park Taiwan Vekoma 209.3 ft (63.8 m) December 2010 Operating [78]

* Denotes a hypercoaster that is also a giga coaster, a roller coaster that exceeds 300 ft (91 m) in height.

** Denotes a hypercoaster that is also a strata coaster, a roller coaster that exceeds 400 ft (120 m) in height.

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ Drop height is 144 ft (44 m)
  2. ^ Drop height is 205 ft (62 m)
  3. ^ Drop height is 210 ft (64 m)
  4. ^ Drop height is 208 ft (63 m)
  5. ^ Drop height is 205 ft (62 m)
  6. ^ Drop height is 228 ft (69 m)
  7. ^ Drop height is 215 ft (66 m)
  8. ^ Drop height is 221.2 ft (67.4 m)
  9. ^ Drop height is 221.2 ft (67.4 m)
  10. ^ Drop height is 245 ft (75 m)

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Hypercoasters". bbc.co.uk. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  2. ^ "Millennium Force: The Hypercoaster Rules No More". Thrillride.com. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  3. ^ https://www.cedarpoint.com/explore/steel-vengeance
  4. ^ "CP Mobile". Cedarpoint.com. Archived from the original on 2010-12-26. Retrieved 2011-03-01. 
  5. ^ "More Thoughts on Magnum". Cedarpoint.com. Archived from the original on 2011-09-28. Retrieved 2011-05-12. 
  6. ^ "The List: 2006 Top 50 Steel Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. September 2006. p. 26. Archived from the original (PDF) on 24 July 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  7. ^ "The List: 2010 Top 50 Steel Roller Coasters" (PDF). Amusement Today. September 11, 2010. p. 34. Archived from the original (PDF) on July 24, 2011. Retrieved 14 May 2011. 
  8. ^ "What's next for Son of Beast? Future of Kings Island roller coaster unclear". Cincinnati.com. 2011-04-23. Retrieved May 14, 2011. 
  9. ^ "Son of Beast roller coaster to be removed to make room for future park expansion". Kings Island. July 27, 2012. Archived from the original on July 29, 2012. Retrieved July 27, 2012. 
  10. ^ http://www.cleveland.com/travel/index.ssf/2017/08/steel_vengeance_is_cedar_point.html
  11. ^ Marden, Duane. "Magnum XL-200  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  12. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big One  (Blackpool Pleasure Beach)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  13. ^ Marden, Duane. "Desperado  (Buffalo Bill's Resort & Casino)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  14. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Thing  (Valleyfair!)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  15. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fujiyama  (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  16. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Apple Coaster  (New York, New York Hotel & Casino)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  17. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Force  (Dorney Park & Wildwater Kingdom)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  18. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mamba  (Worlds of Fun)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  19. ^ Marden, Duane. "Apollo's Chariot  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  20. ^ Marden, Duane. "Raging Bull  (Six Flags Great America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  21. ^ Marden, Duane. "Ride of Steel  (Darien Lake)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  22. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  23. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman the Ride  (Six Flags New England)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  24. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman – Ride of Steel  (Six Flags America)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  25. ^ Marden, Duane. "Millennium Force  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  26. ^ Marden, Duane. "Son of Beast  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  27. ^ Marden, Duane. "Steel Dragon 2000  (Nagashima Spa Land)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  28. ^ Marden, Duane. "Nitro  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  29. ^ Marden, Duane. "Titan  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  30. ^ Marden, Duane. "Phantom's Revenge  (Kennywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  31. ^ Marden, Duane. "X2  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  32. ^ Marden, Duane. "Silver Star  (Europa Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  33. ^ Marden, Duane. "Xcelerator  (Knott's Berry Farm)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  34. ^ Marden, Duane. "Thunder Dolphin  (Tokyo Dome City)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  35. ^ Marden, Duane. "Top Thrill Dragster  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  36. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman el Último Escape  (ix Flags Mexico)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  37. ^ Marden, Duane. "SheiKra  (Busch Gardens Tampa)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  38. ^ Marden, Duane. "Kingda Ka  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  39. ^ Marden, Duane. "Stealth  (horpe Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  40. ^ Marden, Duane. "Goliath  (Six Flags Over Georgia)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  41. ^ Marden, Duane. "Zaturn  (Space World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  42. ^ Marden, Duane. "Eejanaika  (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  43. ^ Marden, Duane. "Griffon  (Busch Gardens Williamsburg)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  44. ^ Marden, Duane. "Behemoth  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  45. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diamondback  (Kings Island)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  46. ^ Marden, Duane. "Diving Coaster  (Happy Valley Shanghai)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  47. ^ Marden, Duane. "Intimidator  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  48. ^ Marden, Duane. "Intimidator 305  (Kings Dominion)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  49. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wild Eagle  (Dollywood)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  50. ^ "Wild Eagle". Ultimate Rollercoaster.com. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  51. ^ Marden, Duane. "Leviathan  (Canada's Wonderland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  52. ^ Marden, Duane. "Dinoconda  (China Dinosaurs Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  53. ^ Marden, Duane. "Shambhala  (PortAventura Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  54. ^ Marden, Duane. "Skyrush  (Hershey Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  55. ^ Marden, Duane. "Bullet Coaster  (Happy Valley Shenzhen)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  56. ^ Marden, Duane. "OCT Thrust SSC1000  (Happy Valley Wuhan)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  57. ^ Marden, Duane. "Fury 325  (Carowinds)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  58. ^ Marden, Duane. "Schwur des Kärnan  (Hansa Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  59. ^ Marden, Duane. "Cannibal  (Lagoon Amusement Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  60. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flash  (Lewa Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  61. ^ Marden, Duane. "Flying Aces  (Ferrari World Abu Dhabi)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  62. ^ Marden, Duane. "Valravn  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  63. ^ Marden, Duane. "Coaster Through the Clouds  (Nanchang Wanda Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  64. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mako  (SeaWorld Orlando)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  65. ^ Marden, Duane. "Red Force  (Ferrari Land])". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  66. ^ Marden, Duane. "DC Rivals HyperCoaster  (Warner Brothers Movie World)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  67. ^ http://www.mlive.com/travel/index.ssf/2017/08/cedar_points_new_roller_coaste.html
  68. ^ http://www.mlive.com/travel/index.ssf/2017/08/cedar_points_new_roller_coaste.html
  69. ^ Marden, Duane. "Moonsault Scramble  (Fuji-Q Highland)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  70. ^ Marden, Duane. "Tower of Terror II  (Dreamworld)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  71. ^ Marden, Duane. "Superman: Escape from Krypton  (Six Flags Magic Mountain)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  72. ^ Marden, Duane. "Batman & Robin: The Chiller  (Six Flags Great Adventure)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  73. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mr. Freeze Reverse Blast  (Six Flags Over Texas)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  74. ^ "Six Flags hit by 'Freeze' yesterday". Dallas Business Journal. March 25, 1998. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  75. ^ Marden, Duane. "Mr. Freeze Reverse Blast  (Six Flags St. Louis)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  76. ^ Marden, Duane. "Speed – The Ride  (Nascar Café)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  77. ^ Marden, Duane. "Wicked Twister  (Cedar Point)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 
  78. ^ Marden, Duane. "Big Air  (E-DA Theme Park)". Roller Coaster DataBase. Retrieved August 5, 2017. 

External links[edit]