|Other names||Polyhidrosis, sudorrhea|
Hyperhidrosis is a condition characterized by abnormally increased sweating, in excess of that required for regulation of body temperature. Although primarily a benign physical burden, hyperhidrosis can deteriorate quality of life from a psychological, emotional, and social perspective. In fact, hyperhidrosis almost always leads to psychological as well as physical and social consequences. People suffering from it present difficulties in the professional field, more than 80% experiencing a moderate to severe emotional impact from the disease and half are subject to depression.
This excess of sweat happens even if the person is not engaging in tasks that require muscular effort, and it does not depend on the exposure to heat. Common places to sweat can include underarms, face, neck, back, groin, feet, and hands. It has been called by some researchers 'the silent handicap'.
Both diaphoresis and hidrosis can mean either perspiration (in which sense they are synonymous with sweating) or excessive perspiration, in which case they refer to a specific, narrowly defined, clinical disorder.
Hyperhidrosis can either be generalized, or localized to specific parts of the body. Hands, feet, armpits, groin, and the facial area are among the most active regions of perspiration due to the high number of sweat glands (eccrine glands in particular) in these areas. When excessive sweating is localized (e.g. palms, soles, face, underarms, scalp) it is referred to as primary hyperhidrosis or focal hyperhidrosis. Excessive sweating involving the whole body is termed generalized hyperhidrosis or secondary hyperhidrosis. It is usually the result of some other, underlying condition.
Primary or focal hyperhidrosis may be further divided by the area affected, for instance, palmoplantar hyperhidrosis (symptomatic sweating of only the hands or feet) or gustatory hyperhidrosis (sweating of the face or chest a few moments after eating certain foods).
Hyperhidrosis can also be classified by onset, either congenital (present at birth) or acquired (beginning later in life). Primary or focal hyperhidrosis usually starts during adolescence or even earlier and seems to be inherited as an autosomal dominant genetic trait. It must be distinguished from secondary hyperhidrosis, which can start at any point in life. Secondary hyperhidrosis may be due to a disorder of the thyroid or pituitary glands, diabetes mellitus, tumors, gout, menopause, certain drugs, or mercury poisoning.
One classification scheme uses the amount of skin affected. In this scheme, excessive sweating in an area of 100 square centimeters (16 square inches) or more is differentiated from sweating that affects only a small area.
Another classification scheme is based on possible causes of hyperhidrosis.
The cause of primary hyperhidrosis is unknown. Anxiety or excitement can exacerbate the condition. A common complaint of people is a nervous condition associated with sweating, then sweat more because the person is nervous. Other factors can play a role, including certain foods and drinks, nicotine, caffeine, and smells.
Primary (focal) hyperhidrosis has many causes.
- Idiopathic unilateral circumscribed hyperhidrosis
- Reported association with:
- Gustatory sweating associated with:
A variety of cancers have been associated with the development of secondary hyperhidrosis including lymphoma, pheochromocytoma, carcinoid tumors (resulting in carcinoid syndrome), and tumors within the thoracic cavity.
Certain endocrine conditions are also known to cause secondary hyperhidrosis including diabetes mellitus (especially when blood sugars are low), acromegaly, hyperpituitarism, pheochromocytoma (tumor of the adrenal glands, present in 71% of patients) and various forms of thyroid disease.
Use of selective serotonin reuptake inhibitors (e.g., sertraline) is a common cause of medication-induced secondary hyperhidrosis. Other medications associated with secondary hyperhidrosis include tricyclic antidepressants, stimulants, opioids, nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs), glyburide, insulin, anxiolytic agents, adrenergic agonists, and cholinergic agonists.
- In people with a history of spinal cord injuries
- Associated with peripheral neuropathies
- Associated with probable brain lesions
- Associated with systemic medical problems
- Febrile diseases
- Vigorous exercise
- A hot, humid environment
Symmetry of excessive sweating in hyperhidrosis is most consistent with primary hyperhidrosis. To diagnose this condition, a dermatologist gives the person a physical exam. This includes looking closely at the areas of the body that sweat excessively. A dermatologist also asks very specific questions. This helps the physician understand why the person has excessive sweating. Sometimes medical testing is necessary. Some patients require a test called the sweat test. This involves coating some of their skin with a powder that turns purple when the skin gets wet. Excessive sweating affecting only one side of the body is more suggestive of secondary hyperhidrosis and further investigation for a neurologic cause is recommended.
Antihydral cream is one of the solutions prescribed for hyperhidrosis for palms. Topical agents for hyperhidrosis therapy include formaldehyde lotion, topical anticholinergics etc. These agents reduce perspiration by denaturing keratin, in turn occluding the pores of the sweat glands. They have a short-lasting effect. Formaldehyde is classified as a probable human carcinogen. Contact sensitization is increased, especially with formalin. Aluminium chlorohydrate is used in regular antiperspirants. However, hyperhidrosis requires solutions or gels with a much higher concentration. These antiperspirant solutions or hyperhidrosis gels are especially effective for treatment of axillary or underarm regions. Normally it takes around three to five days to see improvement. The most common side-effect is skin irritation. For severe cases of plantar and palmar hyperhidrosis, there has been some success with conservative measures such as higher strength aluminium chloride antiperspirants. Treatment algorithms for hyperhidrosis recommend topical antiperspirants as the first line of therapy for hyperhidrosis. Both the International Hyperhidrosis Society and the Canadian Hyperhidrosis Advisory Committee have published treatment guidelines for focal hyperhidrosis that are said to be evidence-based.
Prescription medications called anticholinergics, often taken by mouth, are sometimes used in the treatment of both generalized and focal hyperhidrosis. Anticholinergics used for hyperhidrosis include propantheline, glycopyrronium bromide or glycopyrrolate, oxybutynin, methantheline, and benzatropine. Use of these drugs can be limited, however, by side-effects, including dry mouth, urinary retention, constipation, and visual disturbances such as mydriasis (dilation of the pupils) and cycloplegia. For people who find their hyperhidrosis is made worse by anxiety-provoking situations (public speaking, stage performances, special events such as weddings, etc.), taking an anticholinergic medicine before the event may be helpful.
Several anticholinergic drugs can reduce hyperhidrosis. Oxybutynin (brand name Ditropan) is one that has shown promise, although it can have side-effects, such as drowsiness, visual symptoms and dryness of the mouth and other mucous membranes. Glycopyrrolate is another drug sometimes used. It is said to be nearly as effective as oxybutynin, but has similar side-effects. In 2018, the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA) approved the topical anticholinergic glycopyrronium tosylate (brand name Qbrexza) for the treatment of primary axillary hyperhidrosis.
For peripheral hyperhidrosis, some people have found relief by simply ingesting crushed ice water. Ice water helps to cool excessive body heat during its transport through the blood vessels to the extremities, effectively lowering overall body temperature to normal levels within ten to thirty minutes.
Injections of botulinum toxin type A can be used to block neural control of sweat glands. The effect can last from 3–9 months depending on the site of injections. This use has been approved by the U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). The duration of the beneficial effect in primary palmar hyperhidrosis has been found to increase with repetition of the injections. The Botox injections tend to be painful. Various measures have been tried to minimize the pain, one of which is the application of ice.
This was first demonstrated by Khalaf Bushara and colleagues as the first nonmuscular use of BTX-A in 1993. BTX-A has since been approved for the treatment of severe primary axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive underarm sweating of unknown cause), which cannot be managed by topical agents.[when?]
A microwave-based device has been tried for excessive underarm perspiration and appears to show promise. With this device, rare but serious side effects exist and are reported in the literature, such as paralysis of the upper limbs and brachial plexus.
Tap water iontophoresis as a treatment for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis was originally described in the 1950s. Studies showed positive results and good safety with tap water iontophoresis. One trial found it decreased sweating by about 80%.
Sweat gland removal or destruction is one surgical option available for axillary hyperhidrosis (excessive underarm perspiration). There are multiple methods for sweat gland removal or destruction, such as sweat gland suction, retrodermal curettage, and axillary liposuction, Vaser, or Laser Sweat Ablation. Sweat gland suction is a technique adapted for liposuction.
The other main surgical option is endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy (ETS), which cuts, burns, or clamps the thoracic ganglion on the main sympathetic chain that runs alongside the spine. Clamping is intended to permit the reversal of the procedure. ETS is generally considered a "safe, reproducible, and effective procedure and most patients are satisfied with the results of the surgery". Satisfaction rates above 80% have been reported, and are higher for children. The procedure brings relief from excessive hand sweating in about 85–95% of people. ETS may be helpful in treating axillary hyperhidrosis, facial blushing and facial sweating, but failure rates in people with facial blushing and/or excessive facial sweating are higher and such people may be more likely to experience unwanted side effects.
ETS side-effects have been described as ranging from trivial to devastating. The most common side-effect of ETS is compensatory sweating (sweating in different areas than prior to the surgery). Major problems with compensatory sweating are seen in 20–80% of people undergoing the surgery. Most people find the compensatory sweating to be tolerable while 1–51% claim that their quality of life decreased as a result of compensatory sweating." Total body perspiration in response to heat has been reported to increase after sympathectomy. The original sweating problem may recur due to nerve regeneration, sometimes as early as 6 months after the procedure.
Other possible side-effects include Horner's Syndrome (about 1%), gustatory sweating (less than 25%) and excessive dryness of the palms (sandpaper hands). Some people have experienced cardiac sympathetic denervation, which can result in a 10% decrease in heart rate both at rest and during exercise, resulting in decreased exercise tolerance.
Percutaneous sympathectomy is a minimally invasive procedure similar to the botulinum method, in which nerves are blocked by an injection of phenol. The procedure provides temporary relief in most cases. Some physicians advocate trying this more conservative procedure before resorting to surgical sympathectomy, the effects of which are usually not reversible.
Hyperhidrosis can have physiological consequences such as cold and clammy hands, dehydration, and skin infections secondary to maceration of the skin. Hyperhidrosis can also have devastating emotional effects on one's individual life.
Those with hyperhidrosis may have greater stress levels and more frequent depression.
Excessive sweating or focal hyperhidrosis of the hands interferes with many routine activities, such as securely grasping objects. Some people with focal hyperhidrosis sufferers avoid situations where they will come into physical contact with others, such as greeting a person with a handshake. Hiding embarrassing sweat spots under the armpits limits the affected person's arm movements and pose. In severe cases, shirts must be changed several times during the day and require additional showers both to remove sweat and control body odor issues or microbial problems such as acne, dandruff, or athlete's foot. Additionally, anxiety caused by self-consciousness to the sweating may aggravate the sweating. Excessive sweating of the feet makes it harder for people to wear slide-on or open-toe shoes, as the feet slide around in the shoe because of sweat.
Some careers present challenges for people with hyperhidrosis. For example, careers that require the use of a knife may not be safely performed by people with excessive sweating of the hands. The risk of dehydration can limit the ability of some to function in extremely hot (especially if also humid) conditions. Even the playing of musical instruments can be uncomfortable or difficult because of sweaty hands.
It is estimated that the incidence of focal hyperhidrosis may be as high as 2.8% of the population of the United States. It affects men and women equally, and most commonly occurs among people aged 25–64 years, though some may have been affected since early childhood. About 30–50% of people have another family member affected, implying a genetic predisposition.
- James, William; Berger, Timothy; Elston, Dirk (2006). Andrews' Diseases of the Skin: Clinical Dermatology (10th ed.). Saunders. pp. 777–8. ISBN 978-0-7216-2921-6.
- Loureiro, Marcelo de Paula; Campos, José Ribas M. de; Wolosker, Nelson; Kauffman, Paulo, eds. (2018). Hyperhidrosis: A Complete Guide to Diagnosis and Management. Cham: Springer International Publishing. doi:10.1007/978-3-319-89527-7. ISBN 978-3-319-89526-0. S2CID 215522371.
- "Hyperhidrosis". Sweat Fighter. Sweat Fighter. Retrieved 25 June 2015.
- Vary JC Jr (November 2015). "Selected Disorders of Skin Appendages-Acne, Alopecia, Hyperhidrosis". The Medical Clinics of North America. 99 (6): 1195–1211. doi:10.1016/j.mcna.2015.07.003. PMID 26476248.
- Kamudoni, P.; Mueller, B.; Halford, J.; Schouveller, A.; Stacey, B.; Salek, M.S. (2017-06-08). "The impact of hyperhidrosis on patients' daily life and quality of life: a qualitative investigation". Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. 15 (1): 121. doi:10.1186/s12955-017-0693-x. ISSN 1477-7525. PMC 5465471. PMID 28595584.
- Mary Lenefsky, PharmD; Zakiya P. Rice, M. D. (2018-12-20). "Hyperhidrosis and Its Impact on Those Living With It". Supplements and Featured Publications. Examining Hyperhidrosis (Excessive Sweating): A Managed Markets Update on New Treatments, Featuring a Patient Perspective. 24 (23).
- Samuel Sánchez Amador (9 November 2020), Cirugía de la hiperhidrosis (sudor en las manos), Estilonext.
- Swartling, Carl; et al. (2011). "Hyperhidros – det "tysta" handikappet". Läkartidningen (in Swedish). 108 (47): 2428–2432.
- Elsevier, Dorland's Illustrated Medical Dictionary, Elsevier.
- Wolters Kluwer, Stedman's Medical Dictionary, Wolters Kluwer.
- "Two Types of Hyperhidrosis – International Hyperhidrosis Society | Official Site". International Hyperhidrosis Society. Retrieved 2017-08-16.
- Freedberg, Irwin M.; Eisen, Arthur Z.; Wolff, Klaus; Austen, K. Frank; Goldsmith, Lowell A.; Katz, Stephen I., eds. (2003). Fitzpatrick's Dermatology in General Medicine (6th ed.). McGraw-Hill. p. 700. ISBN 978-0-07-138066-9.
- "Two Types of Hyperhidrosis – International Hyperhidrosis Society | Official Site". International Hyperhidrosis Society. Retrieved 2016-08-16.
- "Lots of scars, scabs that never heal, short nails, and plenty of calluses".
- "When it comes to Olympic sport climbing, hands are the ultimate 'problem' solvers". Los Angeles Times. 4 August 2021.
- Reisfeld, Rafael; Berliner, Karen I. (2008). "Evidence-Based Review of the Nonsurgical Management of Hyperhidrosis". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 18 (2): 157–66. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2008.01.004. PMID 18557589.
- Togel B, Greve B, Raulin C (May–June 2002). "Current therapeutic strategies for hyperhidrosis: a review". European Journal of Dermatology. National Institutes of Health. 12 (3): 219–23. PMID 11978559.
- Böni, R (2002). "Generalized hyperhidrosis and its systemic treatment". Current Problems in Dermatology. 30: 44–7. doi:10.1159/000060676. ISBN 3-8055-7306-5. PMID 12471697.
- Mijnhout, GS; Kloosterman, H; Simsek, S; Strack Van Schijndel, RJ; Netelenbos, JC (2006). "Oxybutynin: Dry days for patients with hyperhidrosis". The Netherlands Journal of Medicine. 64 (9): 326–8. PMID 17057269.
- "Qbrexza- glycopyrronium cloth". DailyMed. 17 January 2022. Retrieved 2 November 2022.
- "Drug Approval Package: Qbrexza (glycopyrronium)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration (FDA). 20 November 2018. Retrieved 1 November 2022.
- Brearly, Matt (April 2012). "Crushed ice ingestion – a practical strategy for lowering core body temperature". Journal of Military and Veterans' Health. Australasian Military Medicine Association.
- Togel, B (2002). "Current therapeutic strategies for hyperhidrosis: a review". Eur J Dermatol. 12 (3): 219–23. PMID 11978559.
- "Information for Healthcare Professionals: OnabotulinumtoxinA (marketed as Botox/Botox Cosmetic), AbobotulinumtoxinA (marketed as Dysport) and RimabotulinumtoxinB (marketed as Myobloc)". U.S. Food and Drug Administration.
- Comite SL, Smith K (2015). "Commenting on: "Duration of efficacy increases with the repetition of botulinum toxin A injections in primary palmar hyperhidrosis"". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 72 (1): 201. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2014.08.053. PMID 25497933.
- Bushara KO, Park DM (November 1994). "Botulinum toxin and sweating". Journal of Neurology, Neurosurgery, and Psychiatry. 57 (11): 1437–38. doi:10.1136/jnnp.57.11.1437. PMC 1073208. PMID 7964832.
- Eisenach JH, Atkinson JL, Fealey RD (May 2005). "Hyperhidrosis: evolving therapies for a well-established phenomenon". Mayo Clinic Proceedings. 80 (5): 657–66. doi:10.4065/80.5.657. PMID 15887434.
- Felber ES (October 2006). "Botulinum toxin in primary care medicine". The Journal of the American Osteopathic Association. 106 (10): 609–14. PMID 17122031.
- Jacob, C (March 2013). "Treatment of hyperhidrosis with microwave technology". Seminars in Cutaneous Medicine and Surgery. 32 (1): 2–8. PMID 24049923.
- Puffer, Ross C.; Bishop, Allen T.; Spinner, Robert J.; Shin, Alexander Y. (2019). "Bilateral Brachial Plexus Injury After MiraDry Procedure for Axillary Hyperhidrosis". World Neurosurgery. 124: 370–372. doi:10.1016/j.wneu.2019.01.093.
- Kreyden, Oliver P (2004). "Iontophoresis for palmoplantar hyperhidrosis". Journal of Cosmetic Dermatology. 3 (4): 211–4. doi:10.1111/j.1473-2130.2004.00126.x. PMID 17166108. S2CID 8088671.
- Hornberger, John; Grimes, Kevin; Naumann, Markus; et al. (2004-08-01). "Recognition, diagnosis, and treatment of primary focal hyperhidrosis". Journal of the American Academy of Dermatology. 51 (2): 274–286. doi:10.1016/j.jaad.2003.12.029. ISSN 1097-6787. PMID 15280848.
- Kurta, AO; Glaser, DA (November 2016). "Emerging Nonsurgical Treatments for Hyperhidrosis". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 26 (4): 395–402. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2016.06.003. PMID 27692197.
- Bieniek, A; Białynicki-Birula, R; Baran, W; Kuniewska, B; Okulewicz-Gojlik, D; Szepietowski, JC (2005). "Surgical treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis with liposuction equipment: Risks and benefits". Acta Dermatovenerologica Croatica. 13 (4): 212–8. PMID 16356393.
- Henteleff, Harry J.; Kalavrouziotis, Dimitri (2008). "Evidence-Based Review of the Surgical Management of Hyperhidrosis". Thoracic Surgery Clinics. 18 (2): 209–16. doi:10.1016/j.thorsurg.2008.01.008. PMID 18557593.
- Steiner, Zvi; Cohen, Zahavi; Kleiner, Oleg; Matar, Ibrahim; Mogilner, Jorge (2007). "Do children tolerate thoracoscopic sympathectomy better than adults?". Pediatric Surgery International. 24 (3): 343–7. doi:10.1007/s00383-007-2073-9. PMID 17999068. S2CID 26037254.
- Dumont, Pascal; Denoyer, Alexandre; Robin, Patrick (2004). "Long-Term Results of Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy for Hyperhidrosis". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 78 (5): 1801–7. doi:10.1016/j.athoracsur.2004.03.012. PMID 15511477.
- Prasad, A; Ali, M; Kaul, S (2010). "Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for primary palmar hyperidrosis". Surgical Endoscopy. 24 (8): 1952–7. doi:10.1007/s00464-010-0885-5. PMID 20112111. S2CID 14844101.
- Reisfeld, Rafael (2006). "Sympathectomy for hyperhidrosis: Should we place the clamps at T2–T3 or T3–T4?". Clinical Autonomic Research. 16 (6): 384–9. doi:10.1007/s10286-006-0374-z. PMID 17083007. S2CID 24177139.
- Schott, G D (1998). "Interrupting the sympathetic outflow in causalgia and reflex sympathetic dystrophy". BMJ. 316 (7134): 792–3. doi:10.1136/bmj.316.7134.792. PMC 1112764. PMID 9549444.
- Gossot, Dominique; Galetta, Domenico; Pascal, Antoine; Debrosse, Denis; Caliandro, Raffaele; Girard, Philippe; Stern, Jean-Baptiste; Grunenwald, Dominique (2003). "Long-term results of endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for upper limb hyperhidrosis". The Annals of Thoracic Surgery. 75 (4): 1075–9. doi:10.1016/S0003-4975(02)04657-X. PMID 12683540.
- Yano, Motoki; Kiriyama, Masanobu; Fukai, Ichiro; Sasaki, Hidefumi; Kobayashi, Yoshihiro; Mizuno, Kotaro; Haneda, Hiroshi; Suzuki, Eriko; et al. (2005). "Endoscopic thoracic sympathectomy for palmar hyperhidrosis: Efficacy of T2 and T3 ganglion resection". Surgery. 138 (1): 40–5. doi:10.1016/j.surg.2005.03.026. PMID 16003315.
- Boscardim, PC (2011). "Thoracic sympathectomy at the level of the fourth and fifth ribs for the treatment of axillary hyperhidrosis". J Bras. Pneumol. 37 (1): 6–12. doi:10.1590/s1806-37132011000100003. PMID 21390426.
- Kopelman, Doron; Assalia, Ahmad; Ehrenreich, Marina; Ben-Amnon, Yuval; Bahous, Hany; Hashmonai, Moshe (2000). "The Effect of Upper Dorsal Thoracoscopic Sympathectomy on the Total Amount of Body Perspiration". Surgery Today. 30 (12): 1089–92. doi:10.1007/s005950070006. PMID 11193740. S2CID 23980585.
- Walles, T.; Somuncuoglu, G.; Steger, V.; Veit, S.; Friedel, G. (2008). "Long-term efficiency of endoscopic thoracic sympathicotomy: Survey 10 years after surgery". Interactive Cardiovascular and Thoracic Surgery. 8 (1): 54–7. doi:10.1510/icvts.2008.185314. PMID 18826967.
- Fredman, B (2000). "Video-assisted transthoracic sympathectomy in the treatment of primary hyperhidrosis: friend or foe?". Surg Laparosc Endosc Percutan Tech. 10 (4): 226–9. doi:10.1097/00129689-200008000-00009. PMID 10961751. S2CID 31327456.
- Abraham, P; Picquet, J; Bickert, S; Papon, X; Jousset, Y; Saumet, JL; Enon, B (2001). "Infra-stellate upper thoracic sympathectomy results in a relative bradycardia during exercise, irrespective of the operated side". European Journal of Cardio-Thoracic Surgery. 20 (6): 1095–100. doi:10.1016/S1010-7940(01)01002-8. PMID 11717010.
- Wang, Yeou-Chih; Wei, Shan-Hua; Sun, Ming-Hsi; Lin, Chi-Wen (2001). "A New Mode of Percutaneous Upper Thoracic Phenol Sympathicolysis: Report of 50 Cases". Neurosurgery. 49 (3): 628–34, discussion 634–6. doi:10.1097/00006123-200109000-00017. PMID 11523673. S2CID 25964524.
- Kamudoni, P.; Mueller, B.; Halford, J.; Schouveller, A.; Stacey, B.; Salek, M.S. (2017). "The impact of hyperhidrosis on patients' daily life and quality of life: A qualitative investigation". Health and Quality of Life Outcomes. BioMed Central. 15 (1): 121. doi:10.1186/s12955-017-0693-x. PMC 5465471. PMID 28595584.
- Gross KM, Schote AB, Schneider KK, Schulz A, Meyer J (2014). "Elevated social stress levels and depressive symptoms in primary hyperhidrosis". PLOS ONE. 9 (3): e92412. Bibcode:2014PLoSO...992412G. doi:10.1371/journal.pone.0092412. PMC 3960246. PMID 24647796.
- Haider, A.; Solish, N (2005). "Focal hyperhidrosis: Diagnosis and management". Canadian Medical Association Journal. 172 (1): 69–75. doi:10.1503/cmaj.1040708. PMC 543948. PMID 15632408.
- "Sweaty Feet". American Podiatric Medical Association. Archived from the original on 2013-05-10. Retrieved 2017-08-17.
- "Disorders of Sweating".
- "Sweaty Hands – International Hyperhidrosis Society | Official Site". International Hyperhidrosis Society. Retrieved 2017-08-17.
- Higashimoto, Ikuyo; Yoshiura, Koh-Ichiro; Hirakawa, Naomi; Higashimoto, Ken; Soejima, Hidenobu; Totoki, Tadahide; Mukai, Tsunehiro; Niikawa, Norio (2006). "Primary palmar hyperhidrosis locus maps to 14q11.2-q13". American Journal of Medical Genetics Part A. 140A (6): 567–72. doi:10.1002/ajmg.a.31127. PMID 16470694. S2CID 43382712.