Hyperpnea (forced respiration) is increased volume of air during breathing. It can occur with or without an increase in respiration rate. It is characterized by deep breathing. It may be physiologic—as when required to meet metabolic demand of body tissues (for example, during or after exercise, or when the body lacks oxygen at high altitude or as a result of anemia)—or it may be pathologic, as when sepsis is severe.
Hyperpnea is distinguished from tachypnea, which is a respiratory rate greater than normal, resulting in rapid and shallow breaths. Hyperpnea is also distinguished from hyperventilation, which is over-ventilation (an increase in minute ventilation), which involves an increase in volume and respiration rate, resulting in rapid and deep breaths.
Etymology and pronunciation