|Other names||Ptyalism, sialorrhea, water brash|
|Specialty||Oral and maxillofacial surgery|
Hypersalivation, or ptyalism, also known as Hypersialorrhea or hypersialosis is the excessive production of saliva. It has also been defined as increased amount of saliva in the mouth, which may also be caused by decreased clearance of saliva.
Conditions that can cause saliva overproduction include:
- Pellagra (niacin or Vitamin B3 deficiency)
- Gastroesophageal reflux disease, in such cases specifically called a water brash (a loosely defined layman term), and is characterized by a sour fluid or almost tasteless saliva in the mouth
- Gastroparesis (main symptoms are nausea, vomiting, and reflux)
- Excessive starch intake
- Anxiety (common sign of separation anxiety in dogs)
- Liver disease
- Serotonin syndrome
- Mouth ulcers[medical citation needed]
- Oral infections
- Sjögren syndrome (an early symptom in some patients) 
Medications that can cause overproduction of saliva include:
Substances that can cause hypersalivation include:
Causes of decreased clearance of saliva include:
- Infections such as tonsillitis, retropharyngeal and peritonsillar abscesses, epiglottitis and mumps.
- Problems with the jaw, e.g., fracture or dislocation
- Radiation therapy
- Neurologic disorders such as Amyotrophic lateral sclerosis, myasthenia gravis, Parkinson's disease, multiple system atrophy, rabies, bulbar paralysis, bilateral facial nerve palsy, and hypoglossal nerve palsy
In the palliative care setting, anticholinergics and similar drugs that would normally reduce the production of saliva causing a dry mouth could be considered for symptom management: scopolamine, atropine, propantheline, hyoscine, amitriptyline, glycopyrrolate.
As of 2008 it is unclear if medication for people who have too much saliva due to clozapine treatment is useful.
- thefreedictionar.com > ptyalism Citing:
- Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. 2007
- Mosby's Medical Dictionary, 8th edition. 2009
- Saunders Comprehensive Veterinary Dictionary, 3 ed. 2007
thefreedictionary.com > sialorrhea Citing:
- The American Heritage Dictionary of the English Language, Fourth Edition, Updated in 2009.
- "hypersalivation". Merriam-Webster's Medical Desk Dictionary. Springfield, Massachusetts: Merriam-Webster. 1986. p. 371 – via Internet Archive.
- Medscape > Hypersalivation By Erica Brownfield. Posted: 05/19/2004(registration required)
- Clark], [edited by Parveen Kumar, Michael (2005). Kumar & Clark clinical medicine (6th ed.). Edinburgh: Elsevier Saunders. p. 266. ISBN 978-0702027635.CS1 maint: extra text: authors list (link)
- Reynolds, Gretchen. "Well". The New York Times.
- thefreedictionary.com > water brash Citing: Dorland's Medical Dictionary for Health Consumers. 2007
-  Rheumatology
- Medical Care of the Dying, 4th Edition, 2006, Edited by G.Michael Downing MD and Wendy Wainwright, MEd
- Syed, R; Au, K; Cahill, C; Duggan, L; He, Y; Udu, V; Xia, J (16 July 2008). Syed, Rebecca (ed.). "Pharmacological interventions for clozapine-induced hypersalivation". The Cochrane Database of Systematic Reviews (3): CD005579. doi:10.1002/14651858.CD005579.pub2. PMC 4160791. PMID 18646130.