Hypertext is text displayed on a computer display or other electronic devices with references (hyperlinks) to other text which the reader can immediately access, or where text can be revealed progressively at multiple levels of detail (also called StretchText). The hyper
The English prefix hyper- comes from the Greek prefix "ὑπερ-" and means "over" or "beyond"; it has a common origin with the prefix "super-" which comes from Latin. It signifies the overcoming of the previous linear constraints of written text. The term "hypertext" is often used where the term "hypermedia" might seem appropriate. In 1992, author Ted Nelson – who coined both terms in 1963 – wrote:
By now the word "hypertext" has become generally accepted for branching and responding text, but the corresponding word "hypermedia", meaning complexes of branching and responding graphics, movies and sound – as well as text – is much less used. Instead they use the strange term "interactive multimedia": this is four syllables longer, and does not express the idea of extending hypertext.—Nelson, Literary Machines, 1992
Types and uses of hypertext
In 1945, Vannevar Bush wrote an article in The Atlantic Monthly called "As We May Think", about a futuristic proto-hypertext device he called a Memex. This was a microfiche that stopped where instructed to, but not a punctuation nor a network document standard.
In 1963, Ted Nelson coined the terms 'hypertext' and 'hypermedia' in a model he developed for creating and using linked content (first published reference 1965). He later worked with Andries van Dam to develop the Hypertext Editing System (text editing) in 1967 at Brown University. Ted Nelson said in the 1960s that he began implementation of a hyper
Douglas Engelbart independently began working on his NLS system in 1962 at Stanford Research Institute, although delays in obtaining funding, personnel, and equipment meant that its key features were not completed until 1968. In December of that year, Engelbart demonstrated a 'hypertext' (meaning editing) interface to the public for the first time, in what has come to be known as "The Mother of All Demos". The word processor had been born.
The first hypermedia application was the Aspen Movie Map in 1977. This allowed users to choose which way they wanted to drive in a virtual cityscape.
In 1980, Tim Berners-Lee created ENQUIRE, an early hyper
In 1980 Roberto Busa, an Italian Jesuit priest and one of the pioneers in the usage of computers for linguistic and literary analysis, published the Index Thomisticus, as a tool for performing text searches within the massive corpus of Aquinas's works. Sponsored by the founder of IBM, Thomas J. Watson, the project lasted about 30 years (1949-1980), and eventually produced the 56 printed volumes of the Index Thomisticus the first important hypertext[verification needed] work about Saint Thomas Aquinas books and of a few related authors.
In 1983 Ben Shneiderman at the University of Maryland Human - Computer Interaction Lab led a group that developed the HyperTies system that was commercialized by Cognetics Corporation. Hyperties was used to create the July 1988 issue of the Communications of the ACM as a hyper
In August 1987, Apple Computer released HyperCard for the Macintosh line at the MacWorld convention. Its impact, combined with interest in Peter J. Brown's GUIDE (marketed by OWL and released earlier that year) and Brown University's Intermedia, led to broad interest in and enthusiasm for databases and new media. The first ACM Hyper
Meanwhile Nelson, who had been working on and advocating his Xanadu system for over two decades, along with the commercial success of HyperCard, stirred Autodesk to invest in his revolutionary ideas. The project continued at Autodesk for four years, but no product was released.
In 1989, Tim Berners-Lee, then a scientist at CERN, proposed and later prototyped a new hyper
Text is a way to link and access information of various kinds as a web of nodes in which the user can browse at will. Potentially, Hyper Text provides a single user-interface to many large classes of stored information such as reports, notes, data-bases, computer documentation and on-line systems help. We propose the implementation of a simple scheme to incorporate several different servers of machine-stored information already available at CERN, including an analysis of the requirements for information access needs by experiments... A program which provides access to the hyper text world we call a browser. ― T. Berners-Lee, R. Cailliau, 12 November 1990, CERN
In 1992, Lynx was born as an early Internet web browser. Its ability to provide hyper
As new web browsers were released, traffic on the World Wide Web quickly exploded from only 500 known web servers in 1993 to over 10,000 in 1994. As a result, all previous hyper
- FRESS – a 1970s multi-user successor to the Hypertext Editing System.
- ZOG – a 1970s hyper
text system developed at Carnegie Mellon University.
- Electronic Document System – an early 1980s text and graphic editor for interactive hypertexts such as equipment repair manuals and computer-aided instruction.
- Information Presentation Facility – used to display online help in IBM operating systems.
- Intermedia – a mid-1980s program for group web-authoring and information sharing.
- HyperTies - a mid-1980s program commercially applied to hundreds of projects, including July 1988 Communications of the ACM and Hyper
text Hands-On! book.
- Texinfo – the GNU help system.
- KMS – a 1980s successor to ZOG developed as a commercial product.
- Storyspace – a mid-1980s program for hyper
- Adobe's Portable Document Format – a widely used publication format for electronic documents including links.
- Amigaguide – released on the Commodore Amiga Workbench 1990.
- Windows Help
- Wikis – aim to compensate for the lack of integrated editors in most Web browsers. Various wiki software have slightly different conventions for formatting, usually simpler than HTML.
- PaperKiller – a document editor specifically designed for hypertext. Started in 1996 as IPer (educational project for ED-Media 1997).
- XML with the XLink extension – a newer hyper
text markup language that extends and expands capabilities introduced by HTML.
Among the top academic conferences for new research in hyper
On the other hand, always concerning the Italian production, the hyper
An advantage of writing a narrative using hyper
One of the most successful computer games of all time, Myst, was first written in Hypercard. The game was constructed as a series of Ages, each Age consisting of a separate Hypercard stack. The full stack of the game consists of over 2500 cards. In some ways Myst redefined interactive fiction, using puzzles and exploration as a replacement for hypertextual narrative.
Critics of hyper
Forms of hypertext
There are various forms of hypertext, each of which are structured differently. Below are four of the existing forms of hypertext:
axial hypertexts are the most simple in structure. They are situated along an axis in a linear style. These hypertexts have a straight path from beginning to end and are fairly easy for the reader to follow. An example of an axial hyper
arborescent hypertexts are more complex than the axial form. They have a branching structure which resembles a tree. These hypertexts have one beginning but many possible endings. The ending that the reader finishes on depends on their decisions whilst reading the text. This is much like gamebook novels that allow readers to choose their own ending.
networked hypertexts are more complex still than the two previous forms of hypertext. They consist of an interconnected system of nodes with no dominant axis of orientation. Unlike the arborescent form, networked hypertexts do not have any designated beginning or any designated endings. An example of a networked hyper
Critics and theorists
- Tim Berners-Lee
- Jay David Bolter
- Vannevar Bush
- Robert Coover
- N. Katherine Hayles
- Michael Joyce
- George Landow
- Lev Manovich
- Stuart Moulthrop
- Ted Nelson
- Paul Otlet
- Pierre Lévy
- Timeline of hyper
- HTML (Hyper
Text Markup Language)
- Distributed Data Management Architecture
- "Hypertext" (definition). Marriam-webster Free Online Dictionary. Retrieved February 26, 2015.
- "Internet". West's Encyclopedia of American Law (definition) (2 ed.). Free Online Law Dictionary. July 15, 2009. Retrieved November 25, 2008.
text and creative writing, The Association for Computing Machinery.
- Gary Wolf (June 1995). "The Curse of Xanadu". WIRED 3 (6).
- Joyce, MI, Did Ted Nelson first use the word "hypertext" (sic), meaning fast editing" at Vassar College?, Vassar
- (Italian) Andrea Tornielli, Padre Busa, il gesuita che ha inventato l'ipertesto, La Stampa - VaticanInsider, 11/08/2011
- Matthew Zepelin Computers and the Catholic Mind: Religion, Technology, and Social Criticism in the Postwar United States, July 5, 1914
- Morto padre Busa, è stato il pioniere dell'informatica linguistica, Corriere del Veneto, 15. August 2011
- „Religion: Sacred Electronics“, Time, 31 December 1956, 15 August 2011
- Thomas N. Winter, « Roberto Busa, S.J., and the Invention of the Machine-Generated Condordance », Digital commons, University of Nebraska 
- Hawisher, Gail E., Paul LeBlanc, Charles Moran, and Cynthia L. Selfe (1996). Computers and the Teaching of Writing in American Higher Education, 1979–1994: A History Ablex Publishing, Norwood NJ, p. 213
- WorldWideWeb: Proposal for a Hyper
Text Project, The World Wide Web consortium.
- SIGWEB Hyper
text Conference, ACM.
- "Conferences", IW3C2.
- Parrish, Jeremy. "When SCUMM Ruled the Earth". 1UP.com. Retrieved 2008-05-02.
- ¿Es el hipertexto una bendición o un…? [Is hyper
text a blessing or a…?] (in Spanish), Biblum literaria, Jul 2008.
- The Game of Reading an Electronic Sir Gawain and the Green Knight, CA: U Calgary.
- Green 2001, p. 15.
- Green, Lelia (2001), Technoculture: From Alphabet to Cybersex, Allen & Unwin Ep, ISBN 978-1-86508048-2.
- Engelbart, Douglas C (1962). "Augmenting Human Intellect: A Conceptual Framework". AFOSR-3233 Summary Report, SRI Project No. 3579.
- Nelson, Theodor H. (September 1965). "Complex information processing: a file structure for the complex, the changing and the indeterminate". ACM/CSC-ER Proceedings of the 1965 20th national conference.
- Nelson, Theodor H. (September 1970). "No More Teachers’ Dirty Looks". Computer Decisions.
- ——— (1973). "A Conceptual framework for man-machine everything". AFIPS Conference Proceedings 42. pp. M22–23.
- Yankelovich, Nicole; Landow, George P; Cody, David (1987). "Creating hypermedia materials for English literature students". SIGCUE Outlook 20 (3).
- Heim, Michael (1987). Electric Language: A Philosophical Study of Word Processing. New Haven: Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-07746-7.* van Dam, Andries (July 1988). "Hyper
text: '87 keynote address". Communications of the ACM 31 (7): 887–95. doi:10.1145/48511.48519.
- Conklin, J. (1987). "Hyper
text: An Introduction and Survey". Computer 20 (9): 17–41. doi:10.1109/MC.1987.1663693.
- Byers, T. J. (April 1987). "Built by association". PC World 5: 244–51.
- Crane, Gregory (1988). "Extending the boundaries of instruction and research". T.H.E. Journal (Technological Horizons in Education) (Macintosh Special Issue): 51–54.
- Nelson, Theodor H. (1992). Literary Machines 93.1. Sausalito, CA: Mindful Press. ISBN 0-89347-062-7.
- Cicconi, Sergio (1999). "Hypertextuality". Mediapolis (Berlino & New York: Ed. Sam Inkinen & De Gruyter): 21–43.
- Bolter, Jay David (2001). Writing Space: Computers, Hyper
text, and the Remediation of Print. New Jersey: Lawrence Erlbaum Associates. ISBN 0-8058-2919-9.
- Landow, George (2006). Hyper
text 3.0 Critical Theory and New Media in an Era of Globalization: Critical Theory and New Media in a Global Era (Parallax, Re-Visions of Culture and Society). Baltimore: The Johns Hopkins University Press. ISBN 0-8018-8257-5.
- Buckland, Michael (2006). Emanuel Goldberg and His Knowledge Machine. Libraries Unlimited. ISBN 0-313-31332-6.
- Ensslin, Astrid (2007). Canonizing Hyper
text: Explorations and Constructions. London: Continuum. ISBN 0-8264-9558-3.
- Barnet, Belinda. (2013) Memory Machines: The Evolution of Hyper
text (Anthem Press; 2013) A technological history of hyper text,
|Look up hypertext in Wiktionary, the free dictionary.|
text: Behind the Hype, Eric digests.
- Reviving Advanced Hyper
text, Use IT (whether and how concepts from hyper text research can be used on the Web).
- Ed-Media World Conference on Educational Multimedia, Hypermedia, and Telecommunications, AACE.
- The ACM Conference on Hyper
text and Hypermedia, Interaction design