Hyperthymic temperament

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Hyperthymic temperament, or hyperthymia, from Ancient Greek ὑπέρ ("over", meaning here excessive) + θυμός ("spirited"), is a proposed personality type characterized by an exceptionally, or in some cases, abnormally positive or irritated mood and disposition. It is generally defined by increased energy, vividness and enthusiasm for life activities, as opposed to dysthymia. Hyperthymia is similar to but more stable than hypomania.[1][2]

Other namesHyperthymic temperament, hyperthymic personality-type, chronic hypomania
Graph showing hyperthymia in comparison to bipolar spectrum disorders
SpecialtyPsychiatry, clinical psychology -although its classification as a disorder is still disputed
SymptomsHigh self-esteem, high energy, decreased need for sleep, optimism, impulsivity, talkativeness, high libido[3]
ComplicationsIncreased risk of bipolar disorder, substance abuse[4]
Usual onsetBefore 21 years old[5]
CausesGenetic, environmental, and psychological factors
Risk factorsUnknown, family history
Diagnostic methodBased on symptoms
TreatmentOften not needed, unless potential complications develop

Characteristics of the hyperthymic temperament include:[6]

  • increased energy and productivity
  • short sleep patterns
  • vividness, activity extroversion
  • self-assurance, self-confidence
  • strong will
  • extreme talkativeness
  • tendency to repeat oneself
  • risk-taking/sensation seeking
  • breaking social norms
  • very strong libido
  • love of attention
  • low threshold for boredom
  • generosity and tendency to overspend
  • emotion sensitivity
  • cheerfulness and joviality
  • unusual warmth
  • expansiveness
  • tirelessness
  • irrepressibility, irresistible, and infectious quality

The clinical, psychiatric understanding of hyperthymia is evolving. Studies have suggested that hyperthymic temperament may be associated with efficient performance of complex tasks under time pressure or extreme conditions.[7][medical citation needed] Despite this positive characterization, hyperthymia can be complicated with depressive episodes manifesting as a softer form of bipolar illness, such as cyclothymia.[8][9] Research also suggests a familial genetic connection of the temperament to bipolar I.[10]

Aside from references in historical and more recent writings on the spectrum of mood disorders, further literature on the temperament is lacking.[11][12] There is a lack of agreement on its definition, implications or whether it is pathological. It is not known where to place hyperthymia on the affective spectrum.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ "hyperthymia - Wiktionary". en.wiktionary.org. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  2. ^ Dubovsky, S.L.; Dubovsky, A.N. (2008). Concise Guide to Mood Disorders. American Psychiatric Publishing. p. 39. ISBN 9781585627653. Retrieved 2015-05-13.
  3. ^ "Hyperthymic Temperament". Psychiatric Times Vol 36, Issue 9. 13 September 2019.
  4. ^ Karam, Elie G.; Salamoun, Mariana M.; Yeretzian, Joumana S.; Mneimneh, Zeina N.; Karam, Aimee N.; Fayyad, John; Hantouche, Elie; Akiskal, Kareen; Akiskal, Hagop S. (June 2010). "The role of anxious and hyperthymic temperaments in mental disorders: a national epidemiologic study". World Psychiatry. 9 (2): 103–110. doi:10.1002/j.2051-5545.2010.tb00287.x. PMC 2911090. PMID 20671899.
  5. ^ "Hyperthymic Temperament". Psychiatric Times Vol 36, Issue 9. 13 September 2019.
  6. ^ http://www.medscape.org/viewarticle/418724(subscription required)[clarification needed]
  7. ^ Jaracz, Marcin; Paciorek, Przemysław; Buciński, Adam; Borkowska, Alina (2014). "Affective temperament and executive functions in emergency medicine professionals". Journal of Affective Disorders. 168: 192–6. doi:10.1016/j.jad.2014.07.004. PMID 25063957.
  8. ^ Manning, J. Sloan. "Beyond Antidepressants: Bipolar Spectrum Illness Presenting as Complicated or Refractory Mood Disorders in Primary Care". www.medscape.org. Retrieved 2018-04-30.
  9. ^ Manning, J. Sloan (February 2000). "Refractory Depressed and Anxious States in Hyperthymic Women: A Case Series Generated by a Speaking Engagement". Primary Care Companion to the Journal of Clinical Psychiatry. 2 (1): 16–19. doi:10.4088/pcc.v02n0105. ISSN 1523-5998. PMC 181104. PMID 15014663.
  10. ^ Chiaroni, P.; Hantouche, E. G.; Gouvernet, J.; Azorin, J. M.; Akiskal, H. S. (November 2004). "[Hyperthymic and depressive temperaments study in controls, as a function of their familial loading for mood disorders]". L'Encephale. 30 (6): 509–515. doi:10.1016/s0013-7006(04)95464-4. ISSN 0013-7006. PMID 15738852.
  11. ^ Féline, A (1993). "Hyperthymic disorders". L'Encéphale. 19 (2): 103–7. PMID 8275895.
  12. ^ Fritze, F; Ehrt, U; Brieger, P (2002). "The concept of hyperthymia". Fortschritte der Neurologie · Psychiatrie. 70 (3): 117–25. doi:10.1055/s-2002-20530. PMID 11880944.

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