Hypochaeris radicata

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Hypochaeris radicata
Hypochaeris radicata 3285.JPG
Hypochaeris radicata (Anacortes Community Forest Lands, Washington)
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Plantae
(unranked): Angiosperms
(unranked): Eudicots
(unranked): Asterids
Order: Asterales
Family: Asteraceae
Tribe: Cichorieae
Genus: Hypochaeris
Species: H. radicata
Binomial name
Hypochaeris radicata
L. 1753
Synonyms

Hypochaeris radicata (sometimes spelled Hypochoeris radicata), also known as catsear, flatweed,[1][2] cat's-ear,[3] hairy cat's ear[4] or false dandelion, is a perennial, low-lying edible herb often found in lawns. The plant is native to Europe,[5] but has also been introduced to the Americas,[6][7][8] Japan,[9] Australia[10] and New Zealand where it can be an invasive weed. It is listed as a noxious weed in Washington State, in the northwestern United States.[11]

Botany[edit]

The leaves, which may grow up to eight inches (20 cm) tall, are lobed and covered in fine hairs, forming a low-lying rosette around a central taproot. Forked stems carry bright yellow flower heads, and when mature these form seeds attached to windborne "parachutes". All parts of the plant exude a milky sap when cut.[12]

Hypochaeris radicata is distinguished by its basal rosette of lobed, finely hairy leaves (Anacortes Community Forest Lands, Washington)

Hypochaeris species are used as food plants by the larvae of some Lepidoptera species including the shark moth.

Etymology and differences from dandelions[edit]

Catsear is derived from the words cat's ear, and refers to the shape and fine hair on the leaves resembling that of the ear of a cat.

The plant is also known as "false dandelion," as it is commonly mistaken for true dandelions. Both plants carry similar flowers which form windborne seeds. However, catsear flowering stems are forked and solid, whereas dandelions possess unforked stems that are hollow. Both plants have a rosette of leaves and a central taproot. The leaves of dandelions are jagged in appearance, whereas those of catsear are more lobe-shaped and hairy. Both plants have similar uses.

Culinary uses[edit]

All parts of the catsear plant are edible; however, the leaves and roots are those most often harvested. The leaves are bland in taste but can be eaten raw in salads, steamed, or used in stir-fries. Older leaves can become tough and fibrous, but younger leaves are suitable for consumption. In contrast to the edible leaves of dandelion, catsear leaves only rarely have some bitterness. In Crete, Greece, the leaves of a variety called παχιές (pachiés) or αγριοράδικα (agriorádika) are eaten boiled or steamed by the locals.[13]

The root can be roasted and ground to form a coffee substitute.

Hypochaeris radicata

Toxicity[edit]

This species is suspected of causing stringhalt in horses if consumed in excess.[14][15]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "Factsheet - Hypochoeris radicata". Iewf.org. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  2. ^ "Glenvale Publications - Golf and Sports Turf Magazine". Golfandsportsturf.com.au. Archived from the original on 2010-09-23. Retrieved 2010-09-15. 
  3. ^ "BSBI List 2007". Botanical Society of Britain and Ireland. Archived from the original (xls) on 2015-01-25. Retrieved 2014-10-17. 
  4. ^ "Hypochaeris radicata". Natural Resources Conservation Service PLANTS Database. USDA. Retrieved 15 May 2015. 
  5. ^ Altervista Flora Italiana, Hypochaeris radicata L. includes photos and European distribution map
  6. ^ Biota of North America Program 2014 county distribution map
  7. ^ Jørgensen, P. M., M. H. Nee & S. G. Beck. (eds.) 2014. Catálogo de las plantas vasculares de Bolivia, Monographs in systematic botany from the Missouri Botanical Garden 127(1–2): i–viii, 1–1744.
  8. ^ Luteyn, J. L. 1999. Páramos, a checklist of plant diversity, geographical distribution, and botanical literature. Memoirs of The New York Botanical Garden 84: viii–xv, 1–278.
  9. ^ Flora of China, Hypochaeris radicata Linnaeus, 1753. 假蒲公英猫儿菊 jia pu gong ying mao er ju
  10. ^ Atlas of Living Australia, Hypochaeris radicata L., Cat's Ear
  11. ^ "The Washington State Noxious Weed Control Board - Catsear". Archived from the original on 2007-03-11. 
  12. ^ Flora of North America, Hypochaeris radicata Linnaeus, 1753. Hairy cat’s ear
  13. ^ Kleonikos G. Stavridakis , Κλεόνικος Γ. Σταυριδάκης (2006). Wild edible plants of Crete - Η Άγρια βρώσιμη χλωρίδα της Κρήτης. Rethymnon Crete. ISBN 960-631-179-1. 
  14. ^ John Kohnke. "Australian stringhalt" (PDF). South East Victoria Equine Network. 
  15. ^ *"Merck Veterinary Manual - Stringhalt". 

External links[edit]