It rarely occurs in the absence of other abnormalities. Its sometimes associated with hypoventilation. It can be associated with chronic respiratory acidosis. If it occurs together with metabolic alkalosis (decreased blood acidity) it is often due to vomiting. It is usually the result of hyponatremia or elevated bicarbonate concentration. It occurs in cystic fibrosis.
- Lavie CJ, Crocker EF, Key KJ, Ferguson TG (October 1986). "Marked hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis with severe compensatory hypoventilation". South. Med. J. 79 (10): 1296–9. doi:10.1097/00007611-198610000-00025. PMID 3764530.
- Levitin H, Branscome W, Epstein FH (December 1958). "The pathogenesis of hypochloremia in respiratory acidosis". J. Clin. Invest. 37 (12): 1667–75. doi:10.1172/JCI103758. PMC 1062852. PMID 13611033.
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