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Tolypocladium sp.
Scientific classification Edit this classification
Domain: Eukaryota
Kingdom: Fungi
Division: Ascomycota
(unranked): Sordariomyceta
Class: Sordariomycetes
Subclass: Hypocreomycetidae
Order: Hypocreales
Lindau (1897)

The Hypocreales are an order of fungi within the class Sordariomycetes. In 2008, it was estimated that it contained some 237 genera, and 2647 species in seven families.[1] Since then, a considerable number of further taxa have been identified, including an additional family, the Stachybotryaceae.[2] Wijayawardene et al. in 2020 added more families and genera to the order.[3] According to the Catalog of Life, As of April 2021 the Hypocreales contains 6 families, 137 genera, and 1411 species.[4] Hyde et al. (2020a) listed 14 families under Hypocreales, while, Wijayawardene et al. (2022) accepted 15 families in the order,[5] where Cylindriaceae was additionally added. Earlier, Hyde et al. (2020a) had placed Cylindriaceae in class Xylariomycetidae.[6] Samarakoon et al. (2022) agreed.[7] Hence, Cylindriaceae should have been excluded from Hypocreales and placed in Xylariomycetidae. Xiao et al. (2022) recently introduced a new family Polycephalomycetaceae to Hypocreales.[8]


Species of Hypocreales are usually recognized by their brightly colored, perithecial ascomata, or spore-producing structures. These are often yellow, orange or red.


(with amount of genera);[3][5]

Genera incertae sedis[edit]

According to a 2020 review of fungal classification, the following genera within the Hypocreales have an uncertain taxonomic placement (incertae sedis), and have not been assigned to any family:[3]


  1. ^ Kirk PM, Cannon PF, Minter DW, Stalpers JA (2008). Dictionary of the Fungi (10th ed.). Wallingford, UK: CAB International. p. 332. ISBN 978-0-85199-826-8.
  2. ^ Lombard, L; Houbraken, J; Decock, C; Samson, RA; Meijer, M; Réblová, M; Groenewald, JZ; Crous, PW (2016). "Generic hyper-diversity in Stachybotriaceae". Persoonia. 36: 156–246. doi:10.3767/003158516X691582. PMC 4988370. PMID 27616791.
  3. ^ a b c Wijayawardene, Nalin; Hyde, Kevin; Al-Ani, Laith Khalil Tawfeeq; Somayeh, Dolatabadi; Stadler, Marc; Haelewaters, Danny; et al. (2020). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa". Mycosphere. 11: 1060–1456. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/8. hdl:10481/61998.
  4. ^ Source dataset. Species Fungorum Plus: Species Fungorum for CoL+. "Sordariales". Catalog of Life. Retrieved 27 April 2021.
  5. ^ a b Wijayawardene, N.N.; Hyde, K.D.; Dai, D.Q.; Sánchez-García, M.; Goto, B.T.; Saxena, R.K.; et al. (2022). "Outline of Fungi and fungus-like taxa – 2021". Mycosphere. 13 (1): 53–453 [160]. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/13/1/2. hdl:10481/76378. S2CID 249054641.
  6. ^ Hyde, Kevin D.; Norphanphoun, C.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.N.; Bhat, D.J.; Jones, E.B.G.; Bundhun, D.; Chen, Y.J.; Bao, D.F.; Boonmee, S.; Calabon, M.S.; Chaiwan, N.; Chethana, K.W.T.; Dai, D.Q.; Dayarathne, M.C.; Devadatha, B.; Dissanayake, A.J.; Dissanayake, L.S.; Doilom, M.; Dong, W.; Fan, X.L.; Goonasekara, I.D.; Hongsanan, S.; Huang, S.K.; Jayawardena, R.S.; Jeewon, R.; Karunarathna, A.; Konta, S.; Kumar, V.; Lin, C.G.; Liu, J.K.; Liu, N.G.; Luangsa-ard, J.; Lumyong, S.; Luo, Z.L.; Marasinghe, D.S.; McKenzie, E.H.C.; Niego, A.G.T.; Niranjan, M.; Perera, R.H.; Phukhamsakda, C.; Rathnayaka, A.R.; Samarakoon, M.C.; Samarakoon, S.M.B.C.; Sarma, V.V.; Senanayake, I.C.; Shang, Q.J.; Stadler, M.; Tibpromma, S.; Wanasinghe, D.N.; Wei, D.P.; Wijayawardene, N.N.; Xiao, Y.P.; Yang, J.; Zeng, X.Y.; Zhang, S.N.; Xiang, M.M. (2020). "Refined families of Sordariomycetes". Mycosphere. 11: 305–1059. doi:10.5943/mycosphere/11/1/7. hdl:10033/622756. S2CID 219808477.
  7. ^ Samarakoon, M.C.; Hyde, Kevin D.; Maharachchikumbura, S.S.M.; Stadler, M.; Jones, E.B.G.; Promputtha, I.; Suwannarach, N.; Camporesi, E.; Bulgakov, T.S.; Liu, J.K. (2022). "Taxonomy, phylogeny, molecular dating and ancestral state reconstruction of Xylariomycetidae (Sordariomycetes)". Fungal Divers. 112 (1): 1–88. doi:10.1007/s13225-021-00495-5. S2CID 244244648.
  8. ^ Xiao YP, Wang YB, Hyde KD, Eleni G, Sun JZ, Yang Y, Meng J, Yu H, Wen TC (2023), Polycephalomycetaceae, a new family of clavicipitoid fungi segregates from Ophiocordycipitaceae. Fungal divers, In progress
  9. ^ "Species Fungorum - GSD Species". www.speciesfungorum.org. Retrieved 28 December 2022.
  10. ^ a b Poinar GO, Buckley R (2007). "Evidence of mycoparasitism and hypermycoparasitism in Early Cretaceous amber". Mycological Research. 111 (4): 503–506. doi:10.1016/j.mycres.2007.02.004. PMID 17512712.

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