|Classification and external resources|
Hypoestrogenism, or estrogen deficiency, refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen, the primary sex hormone in women. In general, lower levels of estrogen may cause differences in the breasts, genitals, urinary tract, and skin.
Hypoestrogenism is most commonly found in women who are postmenopausal, have premature ovarian failure, or are suffering from amenorrhea; however, it is also associated with hyperprolactinemia and the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues in treatment of endometriosis. It has also been linked to scoliosis and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.
- Hypogonadotropic hypogonadism such as due to hyperandrogenism, lactation, certain medications (e.g., androgens/anabolic steroids, progestogens, prolactin releasers, GnRH analogues), pituitary gland/hypothalamus damage, or isolated hypogonadotropic hypogonadism (e.g., Kallmann syndrome, CHARGE syndrome, GnRH insensitivity)
- Hypergonadotropic hypogonadism such as due to menopause, premature ovarian failure, certain medications (e.g., aromatase inhibitors, CYP17A1 inhibitors), gonadotropin insensitivity, or inborn errors of steroid metabolism (e.g., aromatase deficiency, 17α-hydroxylase deficiency, 17,20-lyase deficiency, 3β-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase deficiency, and cholesterol side-chain cleavage enzyme or steroidogenic acute regulatory protein deficiency)
Presentations of low estrogen levels include hot flashes, headaches, lowered libido, and breast atrophy. Reduced bone density leading to secondary osteoporosis and atrophic changes such as pH change in the vagina is also linked to hypoestrogenism.
- Aromatase deficiency
- Estrogen insensitivity syndrome
- Aromatase excess syndrome
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- Lara, L. A.; Useche, B; Ferriani, R. A.; Reis, R. M.; De Sá, M. F.; De Freitas, M. M.; Rosa e Silva, J. C.; Rosa e Silva, A. C. (2009). "The effects of hypoestrogenism on the vaginal wall: Interference with the normal sexual response". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 6 (1): 30–9. PMID 19170834. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01052.x.