Hypoestrogenism

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Hypoestrogenism
Classification and external resources
Specialty endocrinology
ICD-9-CM 256.3

Hypoestrogenism, or estrogen deficiency, refers to a lower than normal level of estrogen, the primary sex hormone in women. In general, lower levels of estrogen may cause differences in the breasts, genitals, urinary tract, and skin.

Hypoestrogenism is most commonly found in women who are postmenopausal, have premature ovarian failure, or are suffering from amenorrhea; however, it is also associated with hyperprolactinemia and the use of gonadotropin-releasing hormone (GnRH) analogues in treatment of endometriosis. It has also been linked to scoliosis and young women with type 1 diabetes mellitus.

Causes[edit]

Symptoms[edit]

Presentations of low estrogen levels include hot flashes, headaches, lowered libido, and breast atrophy. Reduced bone density leading to secondary osteoporosis and atrophic changes such as pH change in the vagina[1] is also linked to hypoestrogenism.

Low levels of estrogen can lead to dyspareunia and limited genital arousal because of changes in the four layers of the vaginal wall.[2]

Hypoestrogenism is also considered one of the major risk factors for developing uncomplicated urinary tract infections (UTIs) in postmenopausal women who do not take hormone replacement therapy.

Treatment[edit]

Hormone replacement therapy (HRT) with estrogen can be used to treat hypoestrogenism both in premenopausal and postmenopausal women.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Sartori, M. G.; Feldner, P. C.; Jarmy-Di Bella, Z. I.; Aquino Castro, R; Baracat, E. C.; Rodrigues De Lima, G; Castello Girão, M. J. (2011). "Sexual steroids in urogynecology". Climacteric. 14 (1): 5–14. PMID 20839956. doi:10.3109/13697137.2010.508542. 
  2. ^ Lara, L. A.; Useche, B; Ferriani, R. A.; Reis, R. M.; De Sá, M. F.; De Freitas, M. M.; Rosa e Silva, J. C.; Rosa e Silva, A. C. (2009). "The effects of hypoestrogenism on the vaginal wall: Interference with the normal sexual response". The Journal of Sexual Medicine. 6 (1): 30–9. PMID 19170834. doi:10.1111/j.1743-6109.2008.01052.x. 

External links[edit]