Hypokalemia

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Hypokalemia
Synonyms hypopotassaemia, hypopotassemia
LowKECG.JPG
An ECG in a person with a potassium level of 1.1 meq/l showing the classical changes of ST segment depression, inverted T waves, large U waves, and a slightly prolonged PR interval
Classification and external resources
Specialty Critical care medicine
ICD-10 E87.6
ICD-9-CM 276.8
DiseasesDB 6445
MedlinePlus 000479
eMedicine article/242008 emerg/273
Patient UK Hypokalemia
MeSH D007008

Hypokalemia, also spelled hypokalaemia, is a low level of potassium (K+) in the blood serum.[1] Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L (3.5 and 5.0 mEq/L) with levels below 3.5 mmol/L defined as hypokalemia.[1][2] Mildly low levels do not typically cause symptoms.[3] Symptoms may include feeling tired, leg cramps, weakness, and constipation.[1] It increases the risk of an abnormal heart rhythm such as bradycardia and cardiac arrest.[1][3]

Causes of hypokalemia include diarrhea, medications like furosemide and steroids, dialysis, diabetes insipidus, hyperaldosteronism, hypomagnesemia, and not enough intake in the diet. It is classified as severe when levels are less than 2.5 mmol/L. Low levels can also be detected on an electrocardiogram (ECG). Hyperkalemia refers to a high level of potassium in the blood serum.[1]

The speed at which potassium should be replaced depends on whether or not there are symptoms or ECG changes.[1] Mildly low levels can be managed with changes in the diet. Potassium supplements can be either taken by mouth or intravenously.[3] If given by intravenous, generally less than 20 mmol are given over an hour.[1] High concentration solutions (>40 mmol/L) should be given in a central line if possible.[3] Magnesium replacement may also be required.[1]

Hypokalemia is one of the most common water–electrolyte imbalances. It affects about 20% of people admitted to hospital.[4] The word "hypokalemia" is from hypo- means "under"; kalium meaning potassium, and -emia means "condition of the blood".[5]

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Mild hypokalemia is often without symptoms, although it may cause elevation of blood pressure,[6] and can provoke the development of an abnormal heart rhythm. Severe hypokalemia, with serum potassium concentrations of 2.5–3 meq/l (Nl: 3.5–5.0 meq/l), may cause muscle weakness, myalgia, tremor, and muscle cramps (owing to disturbed function of skeletal muscle), and constipation (from disturbed function of smooth muscle). With more severe hypokalemia, flaccid paralysis and hyporeflexia may result. Reports exist of rhabdomyolysis occurring with profound hypokalemia with serum potassium levels less than 2 meq/l.[citation needed] Respiratory depression from severe impairment of skeletal muscle function is found in many patients.[citation needed]

Causes[edit]

Hypokalemia can result from one or more of these medical conditions:

Inadequate potassium intake[edit]

Perhaps the most obvious cause is insufficient consumption of potassium (that is, a low-potassium diet) or starvation. However, without excessive potassium loss from the body, this is a rare cause of hypokalemia. Usually only seen in anorexia nervosa patients and people on a ketogenic diet.

Gastrointestinal or skin loss[edit]

A more common cause is excessive loss of potassium, often associated with heavy fluid losses that "flush" potassium out of the body. Typically, this is a consequence of diarrhea, excessive perspiration, or losses associated with muscle-crush injury, or surgical procedures. Vomiting can also cause hypokalemia, although not much potassium is lost from the vomitus. Rather, heavy urinary losses of K+ in the setting of postemetic bicarbonaturia force urinary potassium excretion (see Alkalosis below). Other GI causes include pancreatic fistulae and the presence of adenoma.

Urinary loss[edit]

  • Certain medications can cause excess potassium loss in the urine. Blood pressure medications such as loop diuretics (e.g. furosemide) and thiazide diuretics (e.g. hydrochlorothiazide) commonly cause hypokalemia. Other medications such as the antifungal, amphotericin B, or the cancer drug, cisplatin, can also cause long-term hypokalemia.
  • A special case of potassium loss occurs with diabetic ketoacidosis. Hypokalemia is observed with low total body potassium and a low intracellular concentration of potassium. In addition to urinary losses from polyuria and volume contraction, also an obligate loss of potassium from kidney tubules occurs as a cationic partner to the negatively charged ketone, β-hydroxybutyrate.
  • A low level of magnesium in the blood can also cause hypokalemia. Magnesium is required for adequate processing of potassium. This may become evident when hypokalemia persists despite potassium supplementation. Other electrolyte abnormalities may also be present.
  • An increase in the pH of the blood (alkalosis) can cause temporary hypokalemia by causing a shift of potassium out of the plasma and interstitial fluids into the the urine via a number of interrelated mechanisms. 1) Type B intercalated cells in the collecting duct reabsorb H+ and secrete HCO3. Protons are reabsorbed via both H+-K+ATPases and H+ ATP-ases on the basolateral surface of the cell. By definition, the H+-K+ATPase takes in one potassium ion into the cell for every proton is extrudes into the blood. In addition, when H+ is expelled from the cell (by H+ ATP-ase), cations--in this case potassium--are taken up by the cell in order to maintain electroneutrality (but not through direct exchange as with the H+-K+ATPase). [7] In order to correct the pH during alkalosis, these cells will use these mechanisms to reabsorb great amounts of H+, which will concomitantly increase their intracellular concentrations of potassium. This concentration gradient drives potassium to be secreted across the apical surface of the cell into the tubular lumen through potassium channels (this facilitated diffusion occurs in both Type B intercalated cells and Principal cells in the collecting duct). 2) Metabolic alkalosis is often present in states of volume depletion, such as vomiting, so potassium is also lost via aldosterone-mediated mechanisms. 3) During metabolic alkalosis, the acute rise of plasma HCO3 concentration (caused by vomiting, for example) will exceed the capacity of the renal proximal tubule to reabsorb this anion, and potassium will be excreted as an obligate cation partner to the bicarbonate.[8]
  • Disease states that lead to abnormally high aldosterone levels can cause hypertension and excessive urinary losses of potassium. These include renal artery stenosis and tumors (generally nonmalignant) of the adrenal glands, e.g., Conn's syndrome (primary hyperaldosteronism). Cushing's syndrome can also lead to hypokalemia due to excess cortisol binding the Na+/K+ pump and acting like aldosterone. Hypertension and hypokalemia can also be seen with a deficiency of the 11-beta-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 2 enzyme which allows cortisols to stimulate aldosterone receptors. This deficiency—known as apparent mineralocorticoid excess syndrome—can either be congenital or caused by consumption of glycyrrhizin, which is contained in extract of licorice, sometimes found in herbal supplements, candies, and chewing tobacco.
  • Rare hereditary defects of renal salt transporters, such as Bartter syndrome or Gitelman syndrome, can cause hypokalemia, in a manner similar to that of diuretics. As opposed to disease states of primary excesses of aldosterone, blood pressure is either normal or low in Bartter's or Gitelman's.

Distribution away from extracellular fluid[edit]

Other[edit]

  • A handful of published reports describe individuals with severe hypokalemia related to chronic extreme consumption (4–10 l/day) of colas.[11] The hypokalemia is thought to be from the combination of the diuretic effect of caffeine[12] and copious fluid intake, although it may also be related to diarrhea caused by heavy fructose ingestion.[13][14]

Pseudohypokalemia[edit]

  • Pseudohypokalemia is a decrease in the amount of potassium that occurs due to excessive uptake of potassium by metabolically active cells in a blood sample after it has been drawn. It is a laboratory artifact that may occur when blood samples remain in warm conditions for several hours before processing.[15]

Pathophysiology[edit]

About 98% of the body's potassium is found inside cells, with the remainder in the extracellular fluid including the blood. This concentration gradient is maintained principally by the Na+/K+ pump.

Potassium is essential for many body functions, including muscle and nerve activity. The electrochemical gradient of potassium between the intracellular and extracellular space is essential for nerve function; in particular, potassium is needed to repolarize the cell membrane to a resting state after an action potential has passed. Lower potassium levels in the extracellular space cause hyperpolarization of the resting membrane potential. This hyperpolarization is caused by the effect of the altered potassium gradient on resting membrane potential as defined by the Goldman equation. As a result, a greater than normal stimulus is required for depolarization of the membrane to initiate an action potential.

In the heart, hypokalemia causes hyperpolarization in the myocytes' resting membrane potential. The more negative membrane potentials in the atrium may cause arrhythmias because of more complete recovery from sodium-channel inactivation, making the triggering of an action potential less likely. In addition, the reduced extracellular potassium (paradoxically) inhibits the activity of the IKr potassium current[16] and delays ventricular repolarization. This delayed repolarization may promote reentrant arrhythmias.

Diagnosis[edit]

Blood[edit]

Normal potassium levels are between 3.5 and 5.0 mmol/L with levels below 3.5 mmol/L (less than 3.5 mEq/L) defined as hypokalemia.[1][17]

Electrocardiogram[edit]

Some electrocardiographic (ECG) findings associated with hypokalemia include flattened or inverted T waves, a U wave, ST depression, and a wide PR interval. Due to prolonged repolarization of ventricular Purkinje fibers, a prominent U wave occurs, frequently superimposed upon the T wave and therefore produces the appearance of a prolonged QT interval.[18]

Treatment[edit]

The most important treatment in severe hypokalemia is addressing the cause, such as improving the diet, treating diarrhea, or stopping an offending medication. Patients without a significant source of potassium loss and who show no symptoms of hypokalemia may not require treatment.

Mild hypokalemia (>3.0 meq/l) may be treated with oral potassium chloride supplements (Klor-Con, Sando-K, Slow-K). As this is often part of a poor nutritional intake, potassium-containing foods may be recommended, such as leafy green vegetables, avocados, tomatoes, coconut water, citrus fruits, oranges, or bananas.[19] Both dietary and pharmaceutical supplements are used for people taking diuretic medications.

Severe hypokalemia (<3.0 meq/l) may require intravenous supplementation. Typically, a saline solution is used, with 20–40 meq/l KCl per liter over 3–4 hours. Giving IV potassium at faster rates (20–25 meq/hr) may predispose to ventricular tachycardias and requires intensive monitoring. A generally safe rate is 10 meq/hr. Even in severe hypokalemia, oral supplementation is preferred given its safety profile. Sustained-release formulations should be avoided in acute settings.

Difficult or resistant cases of hypokalemia may be amenable to a potassium-sparing diuretic, such as amiloride, triamterene, spironolactone, or eplerenone. Concomittant hypomagnesemia will inhibit potassium replacement, as magnesium is a cofactor for potassium uptake.[20]

When replacing potassium intravenously, infusion by a central line is encouraged to avoid the frequent occurrence of a burning sensation at the site of a peripheral infusion, or the rare occurrence of damage to the vein. When peripheral infusions are necessary, the burning can be reduced by diluting the potassium in larger amounts of fluid, or mixing 3 ml of 1% lidocaine to each 10 meq of KCl per 50 ml of fluid. The practice of adding lidocaine, however, raises the likelihood of serious medical errors.[21]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Soar, J; Perkins, GD; Abbas, G; Alfonzo, A; Barelli, A; Bierens, JJ; Brugger, H; Deakin, CD; Dunning, J; Georgiou, M; Handley, AJ; Lockey, DJ; Paal, P; Sandroni, C; Thies, KC; Zideman, DA; Nolan, JP (October 2010). "European Resuscitation Council Guidelines for Resuscitation 2010 Section 8. Cardiac arrest in special circumstances: Electrolyte abnormalities, poisoning, drowning, accidental hypothermia, hyperthermia, asthma, anaphylaxis, cardiac surgery, trauma, pregnancy, electrocution.". Resuscitation. 81 (10): 1400–33. doi:10.1016/j.resuscitation.2010.08.015. PMID 20956045. 
  2. ^ Pathy, M.S. John (2006). Principles and practice of geriatric medicine (4. ed.). Chichester [u.a.]: Wiley. p. Appendix. ISBN 9780470090558. 
  3. ^ a b c d Zieg, J; Gonsorcikova, L; Landau, D (July 2016). "Current views on the diagnosis and management of hypokalaemia in children.". Acta paediatrica (Oslo, Norway : 1992). 105 (7): 762–72. doi:10.1111/apa.13398. PMID 26972906. 
  4. ^ Marx, John; Walls, Ron; Hockberger, Robert (2013). Rosen's Emergency Medicine - Concepts and Clinical Practice (8 ed.). Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 1639. ISBN 1455749877. 
  5. ^ Herlihy, Barbara (2014). The Human Body in Health and Illness. Elsevier Health Sciences. p. 487. ISBN 9781455756421. 
  6. ^ Krishna, GG; Miller, E; Kapoor, S (1989). "Increased blood pressure during potassium depletion in normotensive men". The New England Journal of Medicine. 320 (18): 1177–82. doi:10.1056/NEJM198905043201804. PMID 2624617. 
  7. ^ Silverthorn, Dee Unglaub. Human Physiology: An Integrated Approach (7th ed.). Pearson Education. pp. 646–647. ISBN 978-0-321-98122-6. 
  8. ^ Walmsley RN, White GH (August 1984). "Occult causes of hypokalaemia". Clin. Chem. 30 (8): 1406–8. PMID 6744598. 
  9. ^ Halperin, ML; Kamel, KS (1998). "Potassium". Lancet. 352 (9122): 135–40. doi:10.1016/S0140-6736(98)85044-7. PMID 9672294. 
  10. ^ Whyte KF, Addis GJ, Whitesmith R, Reid JL (April 1987). "Failure of chronic theophylline therapy to alter circulating catecholamines". Eur J Respir Dis. 70 (4): 221–8. PMID 3582518. 
  11. ^ Tsimihodimos V, Kakaidi V, Elisaf M (June 2009). "Cola-induced hypokalaemia: pathophysiological mechanisms and clinical implications". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (6): 900–2. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02051.x. PMID 19490200. 
  12. ^ Shirley DG, Walter SJ, Noormohamed FH (November 2002). "Natriuretic effect of caffeine: assessment of segmental sodium reabsorption in humans". Clin. Sci. 103 (5): 461–6. doi:10.1042/CS20020055. PMID 12401118. 
  13. ^ Packer, C.D. (June 2009). "Cola-induced hypokalaemia: a super-sized problem". International Journal of Clinical Practice. 63 (6): 833–5. doi:10.1111/j.1742-1241.2009.02066.x. PMID 19490191. 
  14. ^ HealthGuru (2012-03-01). "Health.yahoo.com". Health.yahoo.com. Retrieved 2012-03-10. 
  15. ^ Sodi R, Davison AS, Holmes E, Hine TJ, Roberts NB (June 2009). "The phenomenon of seasonal pseudohypokalemia: effects of ambient temperature, plasma glucose and role for sodium-potassium-exchanging-ATPase". Clin. Biochem. 42 (9): 813–8. doi:10.1016/j.clinbiochem.2009.01.024. PMID 19232334. 
  16. ^ Sanguinetti, MC; Jurkiewicz, NK (February 1992). "Role of external Ca2+ and K+ in gating of cardiac delayed rectifier K+ currents". Pflugers Archiv : European journal of physiology. 420 (2): 180–6. doi:10.1007/BF00374988. PMID 1620577. 
  17. ^ "Potassium (Unit Conversion)". MediCalc. Retrieved 27 September 2016. 
  18. ^ Goldman, M.J. (1973). Principles of Clinical Electrocardiography 8th ed. Los Altos, California: LANGE medical Publications. p. 293. 
  19. ^ "Sources of Dietary Potassium" (PDF). University of Massachusetts Medical School. Retrieved 3 February 2017. 
  20. ^ "New Guidelines for Potassium Replacement in Clinical Practice". Retrieved 2011-02-16. 
  21. ^ "Safety Issues With Adding Lidocaine to IV Potassium Infustions (Excerpt)". Retrieved 2009-05-09. 

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