Hypolipoproteinemia, hypolipidemia, or hypolipidaemia (British English) is a form of dyslipidemia that is defined by abnormally lowered levels of any or all lipids and/or lipoproteins in the blood. It occurs through genetic disease (namely, Hypoalphalipoproteinemia and Hypobetalipoproteinemia), malnutrition, malabsorption, wasting disease, cancer, hyperthyroidism, and liver disease.
Causes of low blood lipids include:
- Hypobetalipoproteinemia (low levels of LDL cholesterol or apolipoprotein B)
- Wasting disease
- Certain cancers
- Hyperthyroidism (an overactive thyroid)
- Liver disease
It can be diagnosed via blood study that identifies fat particles. The patient must fast overnight to prevent interference from fat in the blood due to food intake. The criteria for this (without the involvement of cholesterol-lowering drugs) are total cholesterol levels below 120 mg/dL and LDL cholesterol levels under 50 mg/dL.
In humans with genetic loss-of-function variants in one copy of the ANGPTL3 gene, the serum LDL-C levels are reduced. In those with loss-of-function variants in both copies of ANGPTL3, low LDL-C, low HDL-C, and low triglycerides are seen ("familial combined hypolipidemia").
Hooft disease is a rare condition evidenced by low blood lipid level, red rash and mental and physical retardation.
Vitamin E supplements have shown to help children with the deficiency.
- The Merck Manual of Diagnosis of Therapy, 18th edition. 2006.
- Gordon BR, Parker TS, Levine DM, et al. (2001). "Relationship of hypolipidemia to cytokine concentrations and outcomes in critically ill surgical patients". Crit. Care Med. 29 (8): 1563–8. doi:10.1097/00003246-200108000-00011. PMID 11505128.
- Musunuru K, Pirruccello JP, Do R, Peloso GM, Guiducci C, Sougnez C, Garimella KV, Fisher S, Abreu J, et al. (2010). "Exome Sequencing, ANGPTL3Mutations, and Familial Combined Hypolipidemia". New England Journal of Medicine. 363 (23): 2220–2227. doi:10.1056/NEJMoa1002926. PMC 3008575. PMID 20942659.
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