Hypomania

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Hypomania
Specialty psychiatry

Hypomania (literally "under mania" or "less than mania") is a mood state characterized by persistent disinhibition and elevation (euphoria). It may involve irritation, but less severely than full mania. According to DSM-V criteria, hypomania is distinct from mania in that there is no significant functional impairment; mania, by DSM-V definition, does include significant functional impairment and may have psychotic features.

Characteristic behaviors of persons experiencing hypomania are increased energy, talkativeness and confidence, commonly exhibited with a flight of creative ideas.[1] While hypomanic behavior often generates productivity and excitement, it can become troublesome if the subject engages in risky or otherwise inadvisable behaviors.[2] When manic episodes are "staged" according to symptomatic severity and associated features, hypomania constitutes the first stage of the syndrome, wherein the cardinal features (euphoria or heightened irritability, pressure of speech and activity, increased energy, decreased need for sleep, and flight of ideas) are most plainly evident.

Signs and symptoms[edit]

Individuals in a hypomanic state have a decreased need for sleep, are extremely outgoing and competitive, have a great deal of energy and are otherwise often fully functioning (unlike full mania).[3]

Distinctive markers[edit]

Specifically, hypomania is distinguished from mania by the absence of psychotic symptoms and grandiosity, and by its lesser degree of impact on functioning.[4][5]

Hypomania is a feature of bipolar II disorder and cyclothymia, but can also occur in schizoaffective disorder.[5] Hypomania is also a feature of bipolar I disorder; it arises in sequential procession as the mood disorder fluctuates between normal mood (euthymia) and mania. Some individuals with bipolar I disorder have hypomanic as well as manic episodes. Hypomania can also occur when moods progress downwards from a manic mood state to a normal mood. Hypomania is sometimes credited with increasing creativity and productive energy.[6][7]

People who experience hyperthymia, or "chronic hypomania",[8] encounter the same symptoms as hypomania but on a longer-term basis.[9]

Associated disorders[edit]

Cyclothymia, a condition of continuous mood fluctuations, is characterized by oscillating experiences of hypomania and depression that fail to meet the diagnostic criteria for either manic or major depressive episodes. These periods are often interspersed with periods of relatively normal (euthymic) functioning.[10]

When a patient presents with a history of at least one episode of both hypomania and major depression, each of which meet the diagnostic criteria, bipolar II disorder is diagnosed. In some cases, depressive episodes routinely occur during the fall or winter and hypomanic ones in the spring or summer. In such cases, one speaks of a "seasonal pattern".[11]

If left untreated, and in those so predisposed, hypomania may transition into mania, which may be psychotic, in which case bipolar I disorder is the correct diagnosis.[12] (See also, Kindling model)

Pathophysiology[edit]

Mania and hypomania are usually studied together as components of bipolar disorders, and the pathophysiology is usually assumed to be the same. Given that norepinephrine and dopaminergic drugs are capable of triggering hypomania, theories relating to monoamine hyperactivity have been proposed. A theory unifying depression and mania in bipolar individuals proposes that decreased serotonergic regulation of other monoamines can result in either depressive or manic symptoms. Lesions on the right side frontal and temporal lobes have further been associated with mania.[13]

Causes[edit]

Often in those who have experienced their first episode of hypomania – generally without psychotic features – there may be a long or recent history of depression or a mix of hypomania combined with depression (known as mixed-state) prior to the emergence of manic symptoms. This commonly surfaces in the mid to late teens. Because the teenage years are typically an emotionally charged time of life, it is not unusual for mood swings to be passed off as normal hormonal teen behavior and for a diagnosis of bipolar disorder to be missed until there is evidence of an obvious manic or hypomanic phase.[14]

Hypomania may also occur as a side effect of pharmaceuticals prescribed for conditions or diseases other than psychological states or mood disorders.[citation needed] In those instances, as in cases of drug-induced hypomanic episodes in unipolar depressives, the hypomania can almost invariably be eliminated by lowering medication dosage, withdrawing the drug entirely, or changing to a different medication if discontinuation of treatment is not possible.[15]

Hypomania may also be triggered by the occurrence of a highly exciting event in the patient's situation, such as a substantial financial gain or recognition.[citation needed]

Hypomania can be associated with narcissistic personality disorder.[16]

Diagnosis[edit]

The DSM-IV-TR defines a hypomanic episode as including, over the course of at least four days, elevated mood plus three of the following symptoms OR irritable mood plus four of the following symptoms:

Etymology[edit]

The Ancient Greek physician Hippocrates called one personality type 'hypomanic' (Greek: ὑπομαινόμενοι, hypomainómenoi).[18][19] In 19th century psychiatry, when mania had a broad meaning of insanity, hypomania was equated by some to concepts of 'partial insanity' or monomania.[20][21][22] A more specific usage was advanced by the German neuro-psychiatrist Emanuel Ernst Mendel in 1881, who wrote, "I recommend, taking into consideration the word used by Hippocrates, to name those types of mania that show a less severe phenomenological picture, 'hypomania'".[18][23] Narrower operational definitions of hypomania were developed from the 1960s/1970s.

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Mania and Hypomania
  2. ^ Understanding Hypomania and Mania
  3. ^ "Bipolar Disorder in Adults" (PDF). NIH Publication No. 12-3679. National Institute of Mental Health. 2012. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2015-05-01. 
  4. ^ Guy Goodwin (Aug 2002) "Hypomania: what's in a name?", The British Journal of Psychiatry, Vol. 181, No. 2, pp. 94–95; doi:10.1192/bjp.181.2.94
  5. ^ a b Bipolar Disorder: The Management of Bipolar Disorder in Adults, Children and Adolescents, in Primary and Secondary Care. Leicester; London: British Psychological Society; Royal College of Psychiatrists,. 2006. ISBN 9781854334411. Retrieved 3 December 2015.  |first1= missing |last1= in Authors list (help); |first2= missing |last2= in Authors list (help); |first3= missing |last3= in Authors list (help)
  6. ^ Doran, Christopher (2008). The hypomania handbook : the challenge of elevated mood. Philadelphia: Wolters Kluwer Health/Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 16. ISBN 9780781775205. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  7. ^ Kaufman, James (2014). Creativity and mental illness. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. p. 214. ISBN 9781316003626. Retrieved 3 December 2015. 
  8. ^ Ghaemi, S Nassir (2003). Mood disorders : a practical guide. Philadelphia: Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. p. 48. ISBN 9780781727839. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  9. ^ Bloch, Jon (2006). The everything health guide to adult bipolar disorder : reassuring advice to help you cope. Avon, Mass.: Adams Media,. p. 12. ISBN 9781593375850. Retrieved 4 December 2015. 
  10. ^ "Cyclothymia". BehaveNet Clinical Capsules. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  11. ^ "Bipolar II Disorder". BehaveNet Clinical Capsules. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  12. ^ Post Robert M (2007). "Kindling and sensitization as models for affective episode recurrence, cyclicity, and tolerance phenomena". Neuroscience & Biobehavioral Reviews. 31 (6): 858–873. doi:10.1016/j.neubiorev.2007.04.003. 
  13. ^ Hilty, Donald M.; Leamon, Martin H.; Lim, Russell F.; Kelly, Rosemary H.; Hales, Robert E. (8 January 2017). "A Review of Bipolar Disorder in Adults". Psychiatry (Edgmont). 3 (9): 43–55. ISSN 1550-5952. PMC 2963467Freely accessible. 
  14. ^ Drug-Induced Dysfunction in Psychiatry. Matcheri S. Keshavan and John S. Kennedy, Editors (Taylor & Francis, 1992).
  15. ^ Bipolar Disorder: A Summary of Clinical Issues and Treatment Options. Bipolar Disorder Sub-Committee, Canadian Network for Mood and Anxiety Treatments (CANMAT). April 1997
  16. ^ Daniel Fulford; Sheri L. Johnson; Charles S. Carver (December 2008). "Commonalities and differences in characteristics of persons at risk for narcissism and mania". J Res Pers. 42 (6): 1427–1438. PMC 2849176Freely accessible. PMID 20376289. doi:10.1016/j.jrp.2008.06.002. 
  17. ^ "Hypomanic Episode". BehaveNet Clinical Capsules. Retrieved 2008-01-03. 
  18. ^ a b Emanuel Mendel (1881) Die Manie, p. 36: "Hypomanie", Urban & Schwarzenberg, Vienna and Leipzig (in German)
  19. ^ P. Thomas (Apr 2004) "The many forms of bipolar disorder: a modern look at an old illness", J. Affect. Disord., Vol.79, Suppl. l, pp. 3–8, doi:10.1016/j.jad.2004.01.001
  20. ^ Baldwin et al. (1902) Dictionary of Philosophy and Psychology, p. 101: "Monomania", Macmillan: New York; London
  21. ^ James Johnson, M.D., Ed. (1843) "Notices of Some New Works: Dr.H. Johnson on Mental Disorders", The Medical-Chirurgical Review, Vol. 39, p. 460: Hypomania
  22. ^ Henry Johnson (1843) On the Arrangement and Nomenclature of Mental Disorders, Longmans, London, OCLC 706786581
  23. ^ Edward Shorter (2005) A Historical Dictionary of Psychiatry, p.132, Oxford University Press, USA ISBN 978-0-19803-923-5

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