Hypophosphatasia

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Hypophosphatasia
Classification and external resources
Specialty endocrinology
ICD-10 E83.3
ICD-9-CM 275.3
OMIM 146300 240500 240510
DiseasesDB 6516
eMedicine ped/1126
MeSH D007014

Hypophosphatasia (also called deficiency of alkaline phosphatase or phosphoethanolaminuria[1]) is a rare, and sometimes fatal, metabolic bone disease.[2] Clinical symptoms are heterogeneous, ranging from the rapidly fatal, perinatal variant, with profound skeletal hypomineralization and respiratory compromise, to a milder, progressive osteomalacia later in life. Tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP) deficiency in osteoblasts and chondrocytes impairs bone mineralization, leading to rickets or osteomalacia. The pathognomonic finding is subnormal serum activity of the TNSALP enzyme, which is caused by one of 200 genetic mutations identified to date, in the gene encoding TNSALP. Genetic inheritance is autosomal recessive for the perinatal and infantile forms but either autosomal recessive or autosomal dominant in the milder forms. The prevalence of hypophosphatasia is not known; one study estimated the live birth incidence of severe forms to be 1:100,000.[3]

Clinical symptoms[edit]

There is a remarkable variety of symptoms that depends, largely, on the age of the patient at initial presentation, ranging from death in utero to relatively mild problems with dentition in adult life. Although several clinical sub-types of the disease have been characterized, based on the age at which skeletal lesions are discovered, the disease is best understood as a single continuous spectrum of severity.

Perinatal hypophosphatasia[edit]

Perinatal hypophosphatasia is the most lethal form. Profound hypomineralization results in caput membranaceum (a soft calvarium), deformed or shortened limbs during gestation and at birth, and rapid death due to respiratory failure.[4] Stillbirth is not uncommon and long-term survival is rare. Neonates who manage to survive suffer increasing respiratory compromise due to softening of the bones (osteomalacia) and underdeveloped lungs (hypoplastic). Ultimately, this leads to respiratory failure. Epilepsy (seizures) can occur and can prove lethal.[5] Regions of developing, unmineralized bone (osteoid) may expand and encroach on the marrow space, resulting in myelophthisic anemia.

In radiographic examinations, perinatal hypophosphatasia can be distinguished from even the most severe forms of osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital dwarfism. Some stillborn skeletons show almost no mineralization; others have marked undermineralization and severe osteomalacia. Occasionally, there can be a complete absence of ossification in one or more vertebrae. In the skull, individual bones may calcify only at their centers. Another unusual radiographic feature is bony spurs that protrude laterally from the shafts of the ulnae and fibulae. Despite the considerable patient-to-patient variability and the diversity of radiographic findings, the X-ray can be considered diagnostic.

Infantile hypophosphatasia[edit]

Infantile hypophosphatasia presents in the first 6 months of life, with the onset of poor feeding and inadequate weight gain. Clinical manifestations of rickets often appear at this time. Although cranial sutures appear to be wide, this reflects hypomineralization of the skull, and there is often “functional” craniosynostosis. If the patient survives infancy, these sutures can permanently fuse. Defects in the chest, such as flail chest resulting from rib fractures, lead to respiratory compromise and pneumonia. Elevated calcium in the blood (hypercalcemia) and urine (hypercalcenuria) are also common, and may explain the renal problems and recurrent vomiting seen is this disease.[6]

Radiographic features in infants are generally less severe than those seen in perinatal hypophosphatasia. In the long bones, there is an abrupt change from a normal appearance in the shaft (diaphysis) to uncalcified regions near the ends (metaphysis), which suggests the occurrence of an abrupt metabolic change. In addition, serial radiography studies suggest that defects in skeletal mineralization (i.e. rickets) persist and become more generalized. Mortality is estimated to be 50% in the first year of life.

Childhood hypophosphatasia[edit]

Hypophosphatasia in childhood has variable clinical expression. As a result of defects in the development of the dental cementum, the deciduous teeth (baby teeth) are often lost fore the age of 5. Frequently, the incisors are lost first; occasionally all of the teeth are lost prematurely. Dental radiographs can show the enlarged pulp chambers and root canals that are characteristic of rickets.

Patients may experience delayed walking, a characteristic waddling gait, stiffness and pain, and muscle weakness (especially in the thighs) consistent with nonprogressive myopathy. Typically, radiographs show defects in calcification and characteristic bony defects near the ends of major long bones. Growth retardation, frequent fractures, and low bone density (osteopenia) are common. In severely-affected infants and young children, cranial bones can fuse prematurely, despite the appearance of open fontanels on radiographic studies. The illusion of open fontanels results from hypomineralization of large areas of the calvarium. Premature bony fusion of the cranial sutures may elevate intracranial pressure.

Adult hypophosphatasia[edit]

Adult hypophosphatasia can be associated with rickets, premature loss of deciduous teeth, or early loss of adult dentation followed by relatively good health. Osteomalacia results in painful feet due to poor healing of metatarsal stress fractures. Discomfort in the thighs or hips due to femoral pseudofractures can be distinguished from other types of osteomalacia by their location in the lateral cortices of the femora.

Some patients suffer from calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate crystal depositions with occasional attacks of arthritis (pseudogout), which appears to be the result of elevated endogenous inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels. These patients may also suffer articular cartilage degeneration and pyrophosphate arthropathy. Radiographs reveal pseudofractures in the lateral cortices of the proximal femora and stress fractures, and patients may experience osteopenia, chondrocalcinosis, features of pyrophosphate arthropathy, and calcific periarthritis.

Odontohypophosphatasia is present when dental disease is the only clinical abnormality, and radiographic and/or histologic studies reveal no evidence of rickets or osteomalacia. Although hereditary leukocyte abnormalities and other disorders usually account for this condition, odontohypophosphatasia may explain some “early-onset periodontitis” cases.

Causes[edit]

Hypophosphatasia is associated with a molecular defect in the gene encoding tissue non-specific alkaline phosphatase (TNSALP). TNSALP is an enzyme that is tethered to the outer surface of osteoblasts and chondrocytes. TNSALP hydrolyzes several substances, including inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) and pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP), a major form of vitamin B6.

When TSNALP is low, inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) accumulates outside of cells, and inhibits formation of hydroxyapatite, one of the main components of bone, causing rickets in infants and children and osteomalacia (soft bones) in adults. PLP is the principal form of vitamin B6 and must be dephosphorylated by TNSALP before it can cross the cell membrane. Vitamin B6 deficiency in the brain impairs synthesis of neurotransmitters, which can cause seizures. In some cases, a build-up of calcium pyrophosphate dihydrate (CPPD) crystals in the joint can cause pseudogout.

Diagnosis[edit]

Dental findings[edit]

Hypophosphatasia is often discovered because of an early loss of deciduous (baby or primary) teeth with the root intact. Researchers have recently documented a positive correlation between dental abnormalities and clinical phenotype. Poor dentition is also noted in adults.[7]

Laboratory testing[edit]

The symptom that best characterizes hypophosphatasia is low serum activity of alkaline phosphatase enzyme (ALP). In general, lower levels of enzyme activity correlate with more severe symptoms. The decrease in ALP activity leads to an increase in pyridoxal 5’-phosphate (PLP) in the blood, and correlates with disease severity. Urinary inorganic pyrophosphate (PPi) levels are elevated in most hypophosphatasia patients and, although it remains only a research technique, this increase has been reported to accurately detect carriers of the disease. In addition, most patients have an increased level of urinary phosphoethanolamine (PEA). Tests for serum ALP levels are part of the standard comprehensive metabolic panel (CMP) that is used in routine exams.

Radiography[edit]

Despite patient-to-patient variability and the diversity of radiographic findings, the X-ray is diagnostic in infantile hypophosphatasia.[8] Skeletal defects are found in nearly all patients and include hypomineralization, rachitic changes, incomplete vertebrate ossification and, occasionally, lateral bony spurs on the ulnae and fibulae.

In newborns, X-rays readily distinguish hypophosphatasia from osteogenesis imperfecta and congenital dwarfism. Some stillborn skeletons show almost no mineralization; others have marked undermineralization and severe rachitic changes. Occasionally there can be peculiar complete or partial absence of ossification in one or more vertebrae. In the skull, individual membranous bones may calcify only at their centers, making it appear that areas of the unossified calvarium have cranial sutures that are widely separated when, in fact, they are functionally closed. Small protrusions (or "tongues") of radiolucency often extend from the metaphyses into the bone shaft.

In infants, radiographic features of hypophosphatasia are striking, though generally less severe than those found in perinatal hypophosphatasia. In some newly diagnosed patients, there is an abrupt transition from relatively normal-appearing diaphyses to uncalcified metaphases, suggesting an abrupt metabolic change has occurred. Serial radiography studies can reveal the persistence of impaired skeletal mineralization (i.e. rickets), instances of sclerosis, and gradual generalized demineralization.

In adults, X-rays may reveal bilateral femoral pseudofractures in the lateral subtrochanteric diaphysis. These pseudofractures may remain for years, but they may not heal until they break completely or the patient receives intramedullary fixation. These patients may also experience recurrent metatarsal fractures.

Genetic analysis[edit]

All clinical sub-types of hypophosphatasia have been traced to genetic mutations in the gene encoding TNSALP, which is localized on chromosome 1p36.1-34 in humans (ALPL; OMIM#171760). Approximately 204 distinct mutations have been described in the TNSALP gene. An up-to-date list of mutations is available online at The Tissue Nonspecific Alkaline Phosphatase Gene Mutations Database. About 80% of the mutations are missense mutations. The number and diversity of mutations results in highly variable phenotypic expression, and there appears to be a correlation between genotype and phenotype in hypophosphatasia”.[9] Mutation analysis is possible and available in 3 laboratories.[10]

Inheritance[edit]

Perinatal and infantile hypophosphatasia are inherited as autosomal recessive traits with homozygosity or compound heterozygosity for two defective TNSALP alleles. The mode of inheritance for childhood, adult, and odonto forms of hypophosphatasia can be either autosomal dominant or recessive. Autosomal transmission accounts for the fact that the disease affects males and females with equal frequency. Genetic counseling is complicated by the disease’s variable inheritance pattern, and by incomplete penetration of the trait.[11]

Hypophosphatasia is a rare disease that has been reported worldwide and appears to affect individuals of all ethnicities.[3] The prevalence of severe hypophosphatasia is estimated to be 1:100,000 in a population of largely Anglo-Saxon origin. The frequency of mild hypophosphatasia is more challenging to assess because the symptoms may escape notice or be misdiagnosed. The highest incidence of hypophosphatasia has been reported in the Mennonite population in Manitoba, Canada where one in every 25 individuals are considered carriers and one in every 2,500 newborns exhibits severe disease.[12] Hypophosphatasia is considered particularly rare in people of African ancestry in the U.S.[13]

Treatment[edit]

As of October 2015, asfotase alfa (Strensiq) has been approved by the FDA for the treatment of hypophosphatasia. Current management consists of palliating symptoms, maintaining calcium balance and applying physical, occupational, dental and orthopedic interventions, as necessary.[2]

  • Hypercalcemia in infants may require restriction of dietary calcium or administration of calciuretics. This should be done carefully so as not to increase the skeletal demineralization that results from the disease itself.[14] Vitamin D sterols and mineral supplements, traditionally used for rickets or osteomalacia, should not be used unless there is a deficiency, as blood levels of calcium ions (Ca2+), inorganic phosphate (Pi) and vitamin D metabolites usually are not reduced.[15]
  • Craniosynostosis, the premature closure of skull sutures, may cause intracranial hypertension and may require neurosurgical intervention to avoid brain damage in infants.[16]
  • Bony deformities and fractures are complicated by the lack of mineralization and impaired skeletal growth in these patients. Fractures and corrective osteotomies (bone cutting) can heal, but healing may be delayed and require prolonged casting or stabilization with orthopedic hardware. A load-sharing intramedullary nail or rod is the best surgical treatment for complete fractures, symptomatic pseudofractures, and progressive asymptomatic pseudofractures in adult hypophosphatasia patients.[17]
  • Dental problems: Children particularly benefit from skilled dental care, as early tooth loss can cause malnutrition and inhibit speech development. Dentures may ultimately be needed. Dentists should carefully monitor patients’ dental hygiene and use prophylactic programs to avoid deteriorating health and periodontal disease.[7]
  • Physical Impairments and pain: Rickets and bone weakness associated with hypophosphatasia can restrict or eliminate ambulation, impair functional endurance, and diminish ability to perform activities of daily living. Nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs may improve pain-associated physical impairment and can help improve walking distance[18]]
  • Bisphosphonate (a pyrophosphate synthetic analog) in one infant had no discernible effect on the skeleton, and the infant’s disease progressed until death at 14 months of age.[19]
  • Bone marrow cell transplantation in two severely affected infants produced radiographic and clinical improvement, although the mechanism of efficacy is not fully understood and significant morbidity persisted.[20][21]
  • Enzyme replacement therapy with normal, or ALP-rich serum from patients with Paget’s bone disease, was not beneficial.[22][23]
  • Phase 2 clinical trials of bone targeted enzyme-replacement therapy for the treatment of hypophosphatasia in infants and juveniles have been completed, and a phase 2 study in adults is ongoing.[24][25]

Discovery[edit]

It was discovered initially in 1936 but was fully named and documented by a Canadian Pediatrician, John Campbell Rathbun (1915-1972) while examining and treating a baby boy with very low levels of alkaline phosphatase in 1948. The genetic basis of the disease was mapped out only some 40 years later. This condition is sometimes called "Rathbun's Syndrome" after its principal documenter.[26]

See also[edit]

References[edit]

  1. ^ "hypophosphatasia". Genetics Home Reference. 
  2. ^ a b Whyte MP (2001). "Hypophosphatasia". In Scriver CR, Beaudet AL, Sly WS, Valle D, Vogelstein B. The Metabolic & Molecular Bases of Inherited Disease. 4 (8th ed.). New York: McGraw-Hill. pp. 5313–29. ISBN 0-07-913035-6. 
  3. ^ a b Fraser D (May 1957). "Hypophosphatasia". Am. J. Med. 22 (5): 730–46. doi:10.1016/0002-9343(57)90124-9. PMID 13410963. 
  4. ^ Jaruratanasirikul, S; Chanvitan, P (December 1999). "Hypophosphatasia: the importance of alkaline phosphatase in bone mineralization". Journal of the Medical Association of Thailand. 82 (12): 1268–72. PMID 10659574. 
  5. ^ Baumgartner-Sigl, S; Haberlandt, E; Mumm, S; Scholl-Bürgi, S (June 2007). "Pyridoxine-responsive seizures as the first symptom of infantile hypophosphatasia caused by two novel missense mutations". Bone. 6 (6): 1655–61. doi:10.1016/j.bone.2007.01.020. PMID 17395561. 
  6. ^ "Hypophosphatasia Signs and Symptoms". Hypophosphatasia.com. Retrieved 10 September 2014. 
  7. ^ a b Reibel A, Manière MC, Clauss F, et al. (2009). "Orodental phenotype and genotype findings in all subtypes of hypophosphatasia". Orphanet J Rare Dis. 4: 6. doi:10.1186/1750-1172-4-6. PMC 2654544Freely accessible. PMID 19232125. 
  8. ^ Shohat M, Rimoin DL, Gruber HE, Lachman RS (1991). "Perinatal lethal hypophosphatasia; clinical, radiologic and morphologic findings". Pediatr Radiol. 21 (6): 421–7. doi:10.1007/BF02026677. PMID 1749675. 
  9. ^ Zurutuza L, Muller F, Gibrat JF, et al. (June 1999). "Correlations of genotype and phenotype in hypophosphatasia". Hum. Mol. Genet. 8 (6): 1039–46. doi:10.1093/hmg/8.6.1039. PMID 10332035. 
  10. ^ geneteset.org homepage
  11. ^ Simon-Bouy B, Taillandier A, Fauvert D, et al. (November 2008). "Hypophosphatasia: molecular testing of 19 prenatal cases and discussion about genetic counseling". Prenat. Diagn. 28 (11): 993–8. doi:10.1002/pd.2088. PMID 18925618. 
  12. ^ Greenberg CR, Taylor CL, Haworth JC, et al. (July 1993). "A homoallelic Gly317-->Asp mutation in ALPL causes the perinatal (lethal) form of hypophosphatasia in Canadian mennonites". Genomics. 17 (1): 215–7. doi:10.1006/geno.1993.1305. PMID 8406453. 
  13. ^ Whyte MP, Essmyer K, Geimer M, Mumm S (June 2006). "Homozygosity for TNSALP mutation 1348c>T (Arg433Cys) causes infantile hypophosphatasia manifesting transient disease correction and variably lethal outcome in a kindred of black ancestry". J. Pediatr. 148 (6): 753–8. doi:10.1016/j.jpeds.2006.01.031. PMID 16769381. 
  14. ^ Barcia JP, Strife CF, Langman CB (May 1997). "Infantile hypophosphatasia: treatment options to control hypercalcemia, hypercalciuria, and chronic bone demineralization". J. Pediatr. 130 (5): 825–8. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(97)80029-7. PMID 9152296. 
  15. ^ Opshaug O, Maurseth K, Howlid H, Aksnes L, Aarskog D (May 1982). "Vitamin D metabolism in hypophosphatasia". Acta Paediatr Scand. 71 (3): 517–21. doi:10.1111/j.1651-2227.1982.tb09466.x. PMID 6291316. 
  16. ^ Collmann H, Mornet E, Gattenlöhner S, Beck C, Girschick H (February 2009). "Neurosurgical aspects of childhood hypophosphatasia". Childs Nerv Syst. 25 (2): 217–23. doi:10.1007/s00381-008-0708-3. PMID 18769927. 
  17. ^ Coe JD, Murphy WA, Whyte MP (September 1986). "Management of femoral fractures and pseudofractures in adult hypophosphatasia". J Bone Joint Surg Am. 68 (7): 981–90. PMID 3745261. 
  18. ^ Girschick HJ, Seyberth HW, Huppertz HI (November 1999). "Treatment of childhood hypophosphatasia with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs". Bone. 25 (5): 603–7. doi:10.1016/S8756-3282(99)00203-3. PMID 10574582. 
  19. ^ Deeb AA, Bruce SN, Morris AA, Cheetham TD (June 2000). "Infantile hypophosphatasia: disappointing results of treatment". Acta Paediatr. 89 (6): 730–3. doi:10.1080/080352500750044106. PMID 10914973. 
  20. ^ Whyte MP, Kurtzberg J, McAlister WH, et al. (April 2003). "Marrow cell transplantation for infantile hypophosphatasia". J. Bone Miner. Res. 18 (4): 624–36. doi:10.1359/jbmr.2003.18.4.624. PMID 12674323. 
  21. ^ Cahill RA, Wenkert D, Perlman SA, et al. (August 2007). "Infantile hypophosphatasia: transplantation therapy trial using bone fragments and cultured osteoblasts". J. Clin. Endocrinol. Metab. 92 (8): 2923–30. doi:10.1210/jc.2006-2131. PMID 17519318. 
  22. ^ Whyte MP, Valdes R, Ryan LM, McAlister WH (September 1982). "Infantile hypophosphatasia: enzyme replacement therapy by intravenous infusion of alkaline phosphatase-rich plasma from patients with Paget bone disease". J. Pediatr. 101 (3): 379–86. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(82)80061-9. PMID 7108657. 
  23. ^ Whyte MP, McAlister WH, Patton LS, et al. (December 1984). "Enzyme replacement therapy for infantile hypophosphatasia attempted by intravenous infusions of alkaline phosphatase-rich Paget plasma: results in three additional patients". J. Pediatr. 105 (6): 926–33. doi:10.1016/S0022-3476(84)80079-7. PMID 6502342. 
  24. ^ "Clinical Trials website". U.S. National Institutes of Health. 
  25. ^ "Alexion Pharmaceuticals website". 
  26. ^ http://softbonescanada.ca/our-story/

Further reading[edit]

External links[edit]