Hypoptopomatinae

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Hypoptopomatinae
Otocinclus cocama.jpg
Otocinclus cocama
Scientific classification
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Loricariidae
Subfamily: Hypoptopomatinae
C. H. Eigenmann & R. S. Eigenmann, 1890
Genera

Tribe Hypoptopomatini
  Acestridium
  Hypoptopoma
  Lampiella
  Macrotocinclus
  Niobichthys
  Otocinclus
  Oxyropsis
Tribe Otothyrini (sometimes elevated to subfamily as Otothyrinae)
  Corumbataia
  Epactionotus
  Eurycheilichthys
  Hisonotus
  Microlepidogaster
  Otothyris
  Otothyropsis
  Parotocinclus
  Pseudotocinclus
  Pseudotothyris
  Schizolecis
incertae sedis
  Chauliocheilos [1]
  Gymnotocinclus
  Plesioptopoma [2]
  Rhinolekos [3]

The Hypoptopomatinae are a subfamily of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Loricariidae,[4] composed of 17 genera and approximately 80 species.[5] This subfamily represents about one-tenth of all loricariid species.[6]

It has been divided into two tribes, Hypoptopomatini and Otothyrini.[4] However, in a 2005 analysis, Otothyrini was found to not be monophyletic, with its representatives comprising a paraphyletic group in relation to the tribe Hypoptopomatini.[7] More recent phylogenetic evidence shows that Hypoptopomatini and Otothyrini, while each are monophyletic tribes, do not form a monophyletic subfamily, and therefore should each be recognized as their own individual subfamilies.[8] Problematically, the most recent hypoptopomatine genera, Gymnotocinclus and Rhinolekos, were not classified in either of the tribes.[3][9]

Almost all species of Hypoptopomatinae have a diploid number of 2n = 54; this group is karyotypically very conserved.[10]

Hypoptopomatinae are distributed east of the Andes in South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina.[5] Most of the hypoptopomatine species are usually found at or near the water surface, typically in close association with riverbank vegetation or some subsurface structure.[11]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Martins, F.O.; Andrade, B.N.; Rosa, A.C.; Langeani, F. (2014). "Chauliocheilos saxatilis, a new genus and species of Hypoptopomatinae from rio Jequitinhonha basin, with a unique labial appendix (Teleostei: Loricariidae)". Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 25 (3): 193–204. (Abstract)
  2. ^ Reis, R.E., Pereira, E.H.L. & Lehmann A., P. (2012): A New Genus and Species of Hypoptopomatine Catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Upper Rio São Francisco Basin, Brazil. Copeia, 2012 (1): 6–11.
  3. ^ a b de Oliveira Martins, F. & Langeani, F. (2011): Rhinolekos, a new genus with three new species of Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from upper rio Paraná. Neotropical Ichthyology, 9 (1): 65-78.
  4. ^ a b Ribeiro, Alexandre C.; Carvalho, Murilo; Melo, Alex L. A. (2005). "Description and relationships of Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species of Hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from rio Tietê basin, southeastern Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 3 (4): 489–498. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252005000400006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30. 
  5. ^ a b Ferreira, Katiane M.; Ribeiro, Alexandre C. (2007). "Corumbataia britskii (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae) a new species from the upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1386: 59–68. 
  6. ^ Reis, Roberto E.; Schaefer, Scott A. (December 21, 1998). "New Cascudinhos from Southern Brazil: Systematics, Endemism, and Relationships (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3254: 1–25. 
  7. ^ Gauger, Marco F. W.; Buckup, Paulo Andreas (2005). "Two new species of Hypoptopomatinae from the rio Paraíba do Sul basin, with comments on the monophyly of Parotocinclus and the Otothyrini (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 3 (4): 509–518. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252005000400008. [permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Cramer, Christian A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Reis, Roberto E. "Molecular phylogeny of the Neoplecostominae and Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) using multiple genes". doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.01.002. 
  9. ^ Carvalho, Tiago Pinto; Lehmann A., Pablo; Reis, Roberto E. (2008). "Gymnotocinclus anosteos, a new uniquely-plated genus and species of loricariid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from the upper rio Tocantins basin, central Brazil". Neotropical Ichthyology. 6 (3): 329–338. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252008000300006. 
  10. ^ Andreata, Artur Antonio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto (2006). "Karyological characterization of four Neotropical fish species of the genus Hisonotus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae) from distinct Brazilian river basins" (PDF). Genet. Mol. Biol. 29 (1): 62–66. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572006000100013. 
  11. ^ de Brito, Marcelo F. G.; Caramaschi, Érica P. "An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 3 (1): 2005. doi:10.1590/s1679-62252005000100009. [permanent dead link]