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Otocinclus cocama.jpg
Otocinclus cocama
Scientific classification e
Kingdom: Animalia
Phylum: Chordata
Class: Actinopterygii
Order: Siluriformes
Family: Loricariidae
Subfamily: Hypoptopomatinae
C. H. Eigenmann & R. S. Eigenmann, 1890

Tribe Hypoptopomatini
Tribe Otothyrini (sometimes elevated to subfamily as Otothyrinae)
incertae sedis
  Chauliocheilos [1]
  Plesioptopoma [2]
  Rhinolekos [3]

The Hypoptopomatinae are a subfamily of catfishes (order Siluriformes) of the family Loricariidae,[4] composed of 17 genera and approximately 80 species.[5] This subfamily represents about one-tenth of all loricariid species.[6]

It has been divided into two tribes, Hypoptopomatini and Otothyrini.[4] However, in a 2005 analysis, Otothyrini was found to not be monophyletic, with its representatives comprising a paraphyletic group in relation to the tribe Hypoptopomatini.[7] More recent phylogenetic evidence shows that Hypoptopomatini and Otothyrini, while each are monophyletic tribes, do not form a monophyletic subfamily, and therefore should each be recognized as their own individual subfamilies.[8] Problematically, the most recent hypoptopomatine genera, Gymnotocinclus and Rhinolekos, were not classified in either of the tribes.[3][9]

Almost all species of Hypoptopomatinae have a diploid number of 2n = 54; this group is karyotypically very conserved.[10]

Hypoptopomatinae are distributed east of the Andes in South America from Venezuela to northern Argentina.[5] Most of the hypoptopomatine species are usually found at or near the water surface, typically in close association with riverbank vegetation or some subsurface structure.[11]


  1. ^ Martins, F.O.; Andrade, B.N.; Rosa, A.C.; Langeani, F. (2014). "Chauliocheilos saxatilis, a new genus and species of Hypoptopomatinae from rio Jequitinhonha basin, with a unique labial appendix (Teleostei: Loricariidae)". Ichthyological Exploration of Freshwaters. 25 (3): 193–204.(Abstract)
  2. ^ Reis, R.E., Pereira, E.H.L. & Lehmann A., P. (2012): A New Genus and Species of Hypoptopomatine Catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from the Upper Rio São Francisco Basin, Brazil. Copeia, 2012 (1): 6–11.
  3. ^ a b de Oliveira Martins, F. & Langeani, F. (2011): Rhinolekos, a new genus with three new species of Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from upper rio Paraná. Neotropical Ichthyology, 9 (1): 65-78.
  4. ^ a b Ribeiro, Alexandre C.; Carvalho, Murilo; Melo, Alex L. A. (2005). "Description and relationships of Otothyropsis marapoama, a new genus and species of Hypoptopomatine catfish (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from rio Tietê basin, southeastern Brazil" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 3 (4): 489–498. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252005000400006. Archived from the original (PDF) on 2007-09-30.
  5. ^ a b Ferreira, Katiane M.; Ribeiro, Alexandre C. (2007). "Corumbataia britskii (Siluriformes: Loricariidae: Hypoptopomatinae) a new species from the upper Rio Paraná basin, Mato Grosso do Sul, Central Brazil" (PDF). Zootaxa. 1386: 59–68.
  6. ^ Reis, Roberto E.; Schaefer, Scott A. (December 21, 1998). "New Cascudinhos from Southern Brazil: Systematics, Endemism, and Relationships (Siluriformes, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae)" (PDF). American Museum Novitates. 3254: 1–25.
  7. ^ Gauger, Marco F. W.; Buckup, Paulo Andreas (2005). "Two new species of Hypoptopomatinae from the rio Paraíba do Sul basin, with comments on the monophyly of Parotocinclus and the Otothyrini (Siluriformes: Loricariidae)" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 3 (4): 509–518. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252005000400008.[permanent dead link]
  8. ^ Cramer, Christian A.; Bonatto, Sandro L.; Reis, Roberto E. "Molecular phylogeny of the Neoplecostominae and Hypoptopomatinae (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) using multiple genes". doi:10.1016/j.ympev.2011.01.002.
  9. ^ Carvalho, Tiago Pinto; Lehmann A., Pablo; Reis, Roberto E. (2008). "Gymnotocinclus anosteos, a new uniquely-plated genus and species of loricariid catfish (Teleostei: Siluriformes) from the upper rio Tocantins basin, central Brazil". Neotropical Ichthyology. 6 (3): 329–338. doi:10.1590/S1679-62252008000300006.
  10. ^ Andreata, Artur Antonio; Oliveira, Claudio; Foresti, Fausto (2006). "Karyological characterization of four Neotropical fish species of the genus Hisonotus (Teleostei, Loricariidae, Hypoptopomatinae) from distinct Brazilian river basins" (PDF). Genet. Mol. Biol. 29 (1): 62–66. doi:10.1590/S1415-47572006000100013.
  11. ^ de Brito, Marcelo F. G.; Caramaschi, Érica P. "An albino armored catfish Schizolecis guntheri (Siluriformes: Loricariidae) from an Atlantic Forest coastal basin" (PDF). Neotropical Ichthyology. 3 (1): 2005. doi:10.1590/s1679-62252005000100009.[permanent dead link]