Hypothalamic–pituitary hormone

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Hypothalamic–pituitary hormones are hormones that are produced by the hypothalamus and pituitary gland. Although the organs in which they are produced are relatively small, the effects of these hormones cascade throughout the body. They can be classified as a hypothalamic–pituitary axis (HP axis) of which the adrenal (HPA), gonadal (HPG), thyroid (HPT), somatotropic (HPS), and prolactin (HPP) axes are branches.

Hormones of the hypothalamic-pituitary-end organ axis[1]
HPT axis HPA axis HPG axis HPS axis HPP axis
Hypothalamic hormone TRH CRH GnRH GHRH Dopamine (inhibitor)
Pituitary cells Thyrotrope Corticotrope Gonadotrope Somatotrope Lactotrope
Pituitary hormone TSH ACTH LH and FSH GH Prolactin
End organ
 
Thyroid
 
Adrenal
 
Gonads
(testes or ovaries)
Liver
 
Mammary gland
 
Product
 
Thyroxine
 
Cortisol
 
Testosterone,
estradiol
IGF-1
 
Milk
(no feedback)

It is possible for the function of these hormones to be altered by physical activity.[2]

References[edit]

  1. ^ Melmed S, Jameson JL (2005). "Disorders of the anterior pituitary and hypothalamus". In Kasper DL, Braunwald E, Fauci AS, et al. Harrison's Principles of Internal Medicine (16th ed.). New York, NY: McGraw-Hill. pp. 2076–97. ISBN 0-07-139140-1.
  2. ^ Bobbert T, Brechtel L, Mai K, et al. (November 2005). "Adaptation of the hypothalamic-pituitary hormones during intensive endurance training". Clinical endocrinology. 63 (5): 530–6. doi:10.1111/j.1365-2265.2005.02377.x. PMID 16268805.