Troschel's tree frog
|Troschel's tree frog|
|H. calcaratus in Yasuni National Park|
Troschel's treefrog, blue-flanked treefrog or the convict treefrog, Hypsiboas calcaratus or Boana calcarata, is a species of frog in the family Hylidae. It is widely distributed in the Amazon Basin (except in the southeast) and the Guianas; it is found in Brazil, Bolivia, Peru, Ecuador, Colombia, Venezuela, Guyana, Suriname, and French Guiana. Colombian, Venezuelan, and Surinamese records need confirmation.
This species was originally described by Franz Hermann Troschel as Hyla calcarata in 1848. After Edward Drinker Cope transferred it to the genus Hypsiboas as Hypsiboas calcaratus in 1867, it was variously recognized with either name until Faivovich and colleagues validated Hypsiboas in 2005. However, in 2017 Alain Dubois showed that Hypsiboas was a junior synonym of Boana, the latter then being the valid name. Many sources, however, still use the old name. (This includes Wikipedia, for the time being.)
Adult males measure 28–43 mm (1.1–1.7 in) and adult females 46–56 mm (1.8–2.2 in) in snout–vent length. The fingers have only basal webbing while the toes are webbed. Males have pre-pollical spines. The dorsal coloration varies from light brown to reddish brown or brown. There is a dark brown middorsal line, and some specimens have brown diffuse transversal bands. The limbs bear pale brown transversal bars dorsally. Scattered minute white and black dots, or large dark brown blotches, might be present on the dorsum. The flanks are white, light blue or blue and have dark brown vertical bars. The venter is creamy white and the belly is yellowish white.
Habitat and conservation
This species occurs in tropical rainforest at elevations up to 1,000 m (3,300 ft) above sea level, but mostly below 400 m (1,300 ft). It is an arboreal frog. During the rainy season, adults can be seen perched on stems and small branches above slow-moving streams. The eggs are deposited in water where the larvae will then develop. Habitat loss associated with forest conversion, logging, clear cutting, and fire is a threat to this species. However, it is abundant in parts of its range, is present in protected areas, and is not threatened overall.
- Azevedo-Ramos, C.; La Marca, E.; Coloma, L.A. & Ron, S. (2010). "Hypsiboas calcaratus". IUCN Red List of Threatened Species. 2010: e.T55426A11308862. doi:10.2305/IUCN.UK.2010-2.RLTS.T55426A11308862.en.
- Frost, Darrel R. (2017). "Boana calcarata (Troschel, 1848)". Amphibian Species of the World: an Online Reference. Version 6.0. American Museum of Natural History. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- "Hypsiboas calcaratus Convict Treefrog". AmphibiaWeb. University of California, Berkeley. 2017. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- Acosta Galvis, A. R. & Cuentas, D. (2017). "Boana calcarata (Troschel, 1848)". Lista de los Anfibios de Colombia V.07.2017.0. www.batrachia.com. Retrieved 22 November 2017.
- Caminer, Marcel; Ron, Santiago (2014). "Systematics of treefrogs of the Hypsiboas calcaratus and Hypsiboas fasciatus species complex (Anura, Hylidae) with the description of four new species". ZooKeys (370): 1–68. doi:10.3897/zookeys.370.6291. PMC 3904076. PMID 24478591.