Hyrcania

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This article is about the land near the Caspian Sea. For the fortress in Judea, see Hyrcania (fortress).
Map of Iran and surrounding countries (including Turkmenistan), showing location of Hyrcania

Hyrcania or Verkâna was the name of a satrapy located in the territories of the present day Gilan, Mazandaran and Golestan provinces of Iran and part of Turkmenistan, lands south of the Caspian Sea. To the Greeks, the Caspian Sea was the "Hyrcanian Sea".

Achaemenid Provinces during the rule of Darius I

Etymology[edit]

Hyrcania (Ὑρκανία) is the Greek name for the region in historiographic accounts. It is a calque of the Old Persian Verkâna as recorded in Darius the Great's Behistun Inscription, as well as in other Old Persian cuneiform inscriptions. Verkā means "wolf" in Old Iranian, cf. Avestan vəhrkō, Gilaki and Mazandarani Verk, Modern Persian gorg, and Sanskrit Vŗka (वृक). See also Warg. Consequently, Hyrcania means "Wolf-land". The name was extended to the Caspian Sea and underlie the name of the city Sari (Zadracarta), the first and then-largest city in northern Iran ( Mazandaran, Golestan and Gilan ) and the capital of ancient Hyrcania.

Geography[edit]

The province of Hyrcania, strictly speaking, was the small tract also known as Gorgan (or Zadracarta) in ancient Persia. Gorgan, according to the British historian Sir William Ouseley (who quotes the medieval Persian geographer Hamdallah Mustawfi), and James Morier, was a Farsi name that (like Hyrcania) signified "land of wolves." [1] Sometimes the name Hyrcania was also applied to Golestan.

Hyrcania had a tropical climate and was situated on a plain between the Caspian Sea (which was sometimes known as the Hyrcanian Ocean), in the north and the Alborz mountains in the south and west. [2] To the northeast, Hyrcania was open to the Central Asian steppes, where nomadic tribes had been living for centuries.[1]

It was regarded as one of the most fertile and beautiful provinces of the Persian Empire and was sometimes known as Belad-al-Irem, or "Land of the Terrestrial Paradise".[1] The Ancient Persians also considered that one of "the good lands and countries", which their supreme god Ahura Mazda had created personally. Ouseley cites a ode to Hyrcania supposedly commissioned from a minstrel by themythological Persian king, Kay Kāvus (or "Kaikus).

Let the king consider the delights of Golestan province, and may that country flourish during all eternity, for in its gardens roses ever blow, and even its mountains are covered with hyacinths and tulips. Its land abounds in all the beauties of nature; its climate is salubrious and temperate, neither too warm nor too cold, a region of perpetual spring; there, in shady bowers, the nightingale ever sings. There the fawn and antelope incessantly wander among the valleys; every spot, throughout the whole year, is embellished and perfumed with flowers. The very brooks of that country seem to be rivulets of rose water, so much does this exquisite fragrance delight the soul. During the winter months, as at all other seasons, the ground is enamelled, and the banks of murmuring streams smile with variegated flowers; everywhere the pleasures of the chase may be enjoyed. All places abound with money, fine stuffs for garments, and every other article necessary for comfort or luxury; there all the attendants are lovely damsels, wearing golden coronets; and all the men illustrious warriors, whose girdles are studded with gold; and nothing but a wilful perversity of mind, or corporeal infirmity, can hinder a person from being cheerful and happy in Gorgan.[1]

Numerous rivers watered Hyrcania, unlike the rest of Persia. The German traveller Johann Friedrich Gmelin, who visited in 1771, claimed that in the space of 13 kilometres (eight miles), on the road from Sari to Rasht, 250 streams were to be seen, many of them being so exceedingly broad and deep, that the passage across was sometimes impracticable for weeks.[1]

Ancient and medieval sources, such as Strabo (who claimed that Hyrcania extended as far north as the Oxus), citing Aristobulus[disambiguation needed], reported that the forests of Golestan included: oaks, pines, sweetbriar, honeysuckle, acacias, lindens, and chestnut trees. The summits of the mountains were covered with cedars, cypresses, and various species of pines. Such was the climate of Hyrcania that it permitted the growing of sugar cane.[1]

Of the wildlife, Ouseley states that Hyrcania included species or sub-species of: tiger (babr), wild boar (guraz), fox (rubah), jackal (shegkal) and wolf. Accordingly, the very first thing that he saw, on entering a village of Hyrcania, was the carcasse of a large wolf, which had been shot just half an hour before his arrival, and which "grinned horribly a ghastly grin"; thus confirming the mistrel's claim that "everywhere the pleasures of the chase may be enjoyed."[1] In antiquity, Hyrcania was infested with panthers and tigers so fierce and cruel as to give rise to a proverb concerning fierce and unrelenting men: that they had suckled from Hyrcanian tigers. The poet Virgil refers to this in his Aenead. Representing Dido chiding Aeneas, he states: "False as thou art, and more than false, forsworn, Not sprung from noble blood, nor goddess born, But hewn from harden'd entrails of a rock! And rough Hyrcanian tigers gave thee suck!"[1]

Hyrcania was also famed for an axe called the tabr. A people called the Tapyri or Tabari, inhabited a district in Hyrcania, and may have taken their name from the axe. According to Ouseley, the name of the part in which the Tabari lived, namely, Tabristan, or Tabaristan, signifies the country of wood.[1]

History[edit]

Achaemenid era[edit]

Map of Achaemenid Empire showing Hyrcania

Hyrcania became part of the Persian Empire during the reign of Cyrus the Great (559-530 BC) or Cambyses (530-522 BC). Under the Achaemenids, it seems to have been administered as a sub-province of Parthia and is not named separately in the provincial lists of Darius and Xerxes. The capital and also the largest city and site of the “royal palace” of Hyrcania was Zadracarta.[3] From the Behistun inscription we know that it was Persian by 522. The story is as follows: After the death of Cambyses, the Magian usurper Gaumâta, who did not belong to the Achaemenian dynasty, usurped the throne. The adherents of the Persian royal house, however, helped Darius to become king; he killed the usurper on September 29, 522 BC. Almost immediately, the subjects of the empire revolted. When Darius was suppressing these rebellions and stayed in Babylon, the Median leader Phraortes made his bid for power (December 522). His revolt soon spread to Armenia, Assyria, Parthia and Hyrcania. However the Persian garrison in Parthia still held out. It was commanded by Darius' father Hystaspes. On March 8, 521 BC, the Parthians and their allies, the Hyrcanians, attacked the Persian garrison, but they were defeated. Not much later, Darius was able to relieve his father. This was the first appearance in history of the Hyrcanians.

In the 5th century BC, the Greek researcher Herodotus of Halicarnassus mentions them several times in his Histories. He has a confused report on irrigation (3.117), which may be compared to the statement of the second-century historian Polybius that the Persians had built large irrigation works (World history 10.28.3). Herodotus also tells us that Hyrcanian soldiers were part of the large army which king Xerxes I (486-465) commanded against the Greeks in 480. The historian notes that they carried the same arms as the Persians.

In the confused years after the death of king Artaxerxes I Makrocheir (465-434), three of his sons succeeded to the throne: Xerxes II, Sogdianus and Darius II. The latter was a satrap in Hyrcania and may have used troops from Hyrcania and the 'upper satrapies' - that is Aria, Parthia, Arachosia, Bactria, and Sogdiana.[citation needed]

Hyrcania makes its reappearance in history when the Macedonian king Alexander the Great (336-323) invaded Asia. Hyrcanians are mentioned during the battle of Gaugamela (October 1, 331), and in August 329, when the last Persian king, Darius III Codomannus, was dead, many Persian noblemen fled to Hyrcania, where they surrendered to Alexander (a.o. Artabazus).

Seleucid era[edit]

After Alexander's reign, his empire fell apart and Hyrcania became part of the new Seleucid Empire. At the end of the 3rd century BC, northeastern nomads belonging to the tribe of the Parni, invaded Parthia and Hyrcania. Although Parthia was forever lost to the Seleucids, Hyrcania was in the last decade of the third century reconquered by Antiochus III the Great (223-187). After a generation, however, Hyrcania was lost again.

Arsacid era[edit]

To the Arsacid Parthians - the new name of the Parni tribe - Hyrcania was an important part of the empire, situated between their Parthian territories and their homeland on the steppe. It is certain that the Parthian kings used a Hyrcanian town as their summer residence. They were also responsible for the 'Wall of Alexander', which is 180 km long and has forty castles. Nonetheless, it was not an uncontested part of their empire; for example, an uprising is known to have started in AD 58 and lasted at least until AD 61, ending with a compromise treaty.[4]

Sassanid era[edit]

Hyrcania was a province of the Sassanid Empire until its conquest by the Arabs. It was an important territory in that it kept out inner Asian tribes from invading. Due to this, the Sassanids built many fortresses in the region.[5]

Post-Sassanid era[edit]

After the fall of the Sassanian Empire to Muslim Arab invaders, many noblemen fled to Hyrcania, where they settled permanently. In the 8th century, the caliphate did not manage to conquer Hyrcania. This was mostly because of the geographical location but also due to significant resistance from notables such as Vandad Hormozd, Mâziar, and Babak Khorramdin. Under the leadership of a few remaining aristocratic families such as the Karens and the Bavands, Hyrcania remained independent or semi-independent for many years after the collapse of the Sassanids.

Literary references[edit]

In Latin literature, Hyrcania is often mentioned in relationship to tigers, which were apparently particularly abundant there during the Classical Age (though extinct in the area since the early 1970s). Virgil, in the Aeneid, had the abandoned Dido accuse Aeneas:

Nec tibi diva parens generis nec Dardanus auctor,
perfide, sed duris genuit te cautibus horrens
Caucasus Hyrcanaeque admorunt ubera tigres. (IV.365-7)

"You had neither a goddess for a parent, nor was Dardanus the author of your race, faithless one, but the horrible Caucasus produced you from hard crags, and Hyrcanian tigers nursed you."

Following its geographical listing by Isidore of Seville in the early 7th century Etymologiae (a standard Mediaeval textbook), the name of Hyrcania became known and taught as far off as Ireland, where it was included in poems such as Cú-cen-máthair by Luccreth moccu Chiara (665 AD), the Auraicept na n-Éces, and Lebor Gabála Érenn (11th century).

Hyrcania is mentioned in the short story "Rinconete y Cortadillo" by Cervantes, and constitutes one of his exemplary stories which were published in 1613. Cervantes uses this reference to portray the illiteracy of Juliana la Cariharta, a member of Monipodio's guild. She is intending to make reference to Ocaña, a provincial town in Toledo, Spain; but she has misheard it and does not realise the difference.

Shakespeare, relying on his Latin sources, makes repeated references in his plays to the "Hyrcan tiger" (Macbeth, III.iv.1281) or "th' Hyrcanian beast" (Hamlet, II.ii.447) as an emblem of bloodthirsty cruelty. In Henry VI, Part 3, the Duke of York compares Queen Margaret unfavorably to "Tygers of Hyrcania" (I.iv.622) for her inhumanity.[6]

Even in Shakespeare's Merchant of Venice, the Prince of Morocco also made references to Hyrcania. He said (an excerpt), "The Hyrcanian deserts and the vasty wilds/Of wild Arabia are as throughfares now."

The comic book heroine Red Sonja is described as coming from Hyrkania, an imaginary locale bordering an inland sea based loosely on Hyrcania and set in Robert E. Howard's fictional Hyborian Age. Howard's Conan the barbarian also has various adventures set in this locale, including as a pirate on the inland sea.

See also[edit]

Notes[edit]

  1. ^ a b c d e f g h i Britannica, "Hyrcania"
  2. ^ Regarding the mountains, Ouseley says: "The Coh-Alburz is an immense mountain adjacent to Bab-al-abwab (Derbend), and many mountains are connected with Alburz, so that from Turkestan to Hejas, it forms a range extending in length 1000 farsangs, about 130 miles, more or less, and on this account some regard it as the mountain of Kaf [Caucasus]. Its western side, connected with the mountains of Georgia, is called the Coh Lagzi (Daghestan), and the Sur a lakaeim relates, that in the Coh Lagzi there are various races of people, so that about seventy different languages or dialects are used among them. In that mountain are many wonderful objects, and when [the range] reaches Shemshat and Malatiah (Samosata Melitene), it is called Kali Kala. At Antakia and Sakeliah ( Antioch and Seleucia), it is called Lekam; there it divides Sham (Syria) from Room (Asia Minor). When it reaches between Hems (Emesa) and Demishk (Damascus), it is called Lebnan (Lebanon), and near Mecca and Medina it is called Arish. Its eastern side, connected with the mountains of Arran (Eastern Armenia) and Aderbijan, it is called Keik, and when it reaches to Ghilan (the Gelae and Cadusians), and Iraq (Media), it takes the name of Terkel-diz-cuh; it is called Mauz when it reaches Kurnish and Gorgan, and originally Gorgan was named Land of Wolves, and when Alburz reaches Khorassan, it is called Lurry." From this it appears that Gorgan signifies all the region within the mountain wolves and the Caspian Sea, which lies east of Gilan and the Kizil Ozan." (Britannica, "Hyrcania" .)
  3. ^ Arrian, Anabasis Alexandri 3.23.6, 3.25.1; Itinerarium Alexandri 52, 54
  4. ^ Tacitus, Annales XV.2
  5. ^ Encyclopaedia Iranica [www.iranica.com online], article on Gorgan
  6. ^ Shakespeare, William (1623). Henry VI, Part 3. First Folio edition. Available at the Internet Shakespeare.

External links[edit]