Hyrcanis or Hyrkaneis, also known as Hyrcania (Ancient Greek: Ὑρκανία), was a Roman and Byzantine-era city and bishopric in ancient Lydia, now in western Turkey. It was situated in the Hyrcanian plain (τὸ Ὑρκάνιον πεδίον), which is said to have derived its name from a colony of Hyrcanians being settled here by the Persians. They were afterwards mingled with some Macedonians, who also settled in this district, whence they are called by Pliny the Elder and Tacitus "Macedones Hyrcani." The city minted its own coins.
The city was also the seat of an ancient bishopric. Known bishops include:
- Ruth Lindner, Mythos und Identität: Studien zur Selbstdarstellung kleinasiatischer Städte in der römischen Kaiserzeit (Franz Steiner Verlag, 1994) p128.
- Strabo. Geographica. xiii. p.629. Page numbers refer to those of Isaac Casaubon's edition.
- Stephanus of Byzantium. Ethnica. s.v. Ὑρκανία.
- Pliny. Naturalis Historia. 5.29.31.
- Tacitus. Annales. 2.47.
- Ancient Coinage of Lydia, Hyrkanis.
- Hyrkaneis at Asia Minor Coins .
- Richard Talbert, ed. (2000). Barrington Atlas of the Greek and Roman World. Princeton University Press. p. 56, and directory notes accompanying.
- Lund University. Digital Atlas of the Roman Empire.
- Michel Le Quien, Oriens christianus p887.