Hytort process

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Hytort process
Process typechemical
Industrial sector(s)Chemical industry, oil industry
Feedstockoil shale
Product(s)shale oil
Developer(s)Institute of Gas Technology

The Hytort process is an above-ground shale oil extraction process developed by the Institute of Gas Technology. It is classified as a reactive fluid process,[1] which produces shale oil by hydrogenation.

The Hytort process has advantages when processing oil shales containing less hydrogen, such as the eastern United States Devonian oil shales. In this process, oil shale is processed at controlled heating rates in a high-pressure hydrogen environment, which allows a carbon conversion rate of around 80%.[2][3] Hydrogen reacts with coke precursors (a chemical structure in the oil shale that is prone to form char during retorting but has not yet done so). In the case of Eastern US Devonian shales, the reaction roughly doubles the yield of oil, depending on the characteristics of the oil shale and process.[4][5]

In 1980, the HYCRUDE Corporation was established to commercialize the Hytort technology. The feasibility study was conducted by HYCRUDE Corporation, Phillips Petroleum Company, Bechtel Group and the Institute of Gas Technology.[6]

See also[edit]


  1. ^ Burnham, Alan K.; McConaghy, James R. (2006-10-16). Comparison of the acceptability of various oil shale processes (PDF). 26th Oil shale symposium. Golden, Colorado: Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory. pp. 2, 17. UCRL-CONF-226717. Retrieved 2007-05-27.
  2. ^ Weil, S. A.; Feldkirchner, H. L.; Punwani, D. V.; Janka, J. C. (1979-01-01). "IGT HYTORT Process for hydrogen retorting of Devonian oil shales". Institute of Gas Technology. CONF-790571-3. Cite journal requires |journal= (help)
  3. ^ McKetta, John J. (1996). Encyclopedia of Chemical Processing and Design: Volume 56 - Supercritical Fluid Technology: Theory and Application to Technology Forecasting. CRC Press. p. 121. ISBN 978-0-8247-2607-2. Retrieved 2010-02-13.
  4. ^ Rex, R.; Janka, J. C.; Knowlton, T. (1984). Cold Flow Model Testing of the Hytort Process Retort Design. 17th Oil Shale Symposium. Colorado School of Mines Press. pp. 17–36.
  5. ^ Lippmaa, E.; Maremäe, E.; Pihlak, A.-T. (2011). "Resources, production and processing of Balstoscandian multimetal black shales" (PDF). Oil Shale. A Scientific-Technical Journal. Estonian Academy Publishers. 28 (1): 68–77. doi:10.3176/oil.2011.1.08. ISSN 0208-189X. Retrieved 2011-10-29.
  6. ^ Tippin, R. Bruce; Rex, Raymond C. (September 1985). Combined beneficiation and hydroretorting of oil shale (PDF). Symposium on Chemistry and Processing Supercritical Fluids. Chicago: American Chemical Society. pp. 237–246. Retrieved 2010-02-13.