I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge
|Saint Anthony Falls Bridge|
Opening day, September 18, 2008, from south end.
|Carries||10 Lanes of I-35W; light-rail or bus-way-ready|
|Crosses||Saint Anthony Falls/Mississippi River|
|Locale||Minneapolis, Minnesota, U.S.|
|Official name||I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge|
|Maintained by||Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT)|
|ID number||NBI 27410 (Northbound), 27409 (Southbound)|
|Design||Post-Tensioned Precast Concrete box girder|
|Total length||1,216 feet (371 m)|
|Width||180 feet (55 m)|
|Height||120 feet (37 m))estimated|
|Longest span||504 feet (154 m)|
|Clearance below||70 feet (21 m)|
|Construction begin||October 30, 2007|
|Opened||September 18, 2008|
|Daily traffic||141,000 (2005 estimates)|
The I-35W Saint Anthony Falls Bridge crosses the Saint Anthony Falls of the Mississippi River in Minneapolis, Minnesota in the U.S., carrying north-south traffic on Interstate Highway 35W. The ten-lane bridge replaced the I-35W Mississippi River bridge, which collapsed on August 1, 2007. It was planned and is maintained by the Minnesota Department of Transportation (Mn/DOT). The planning, design, and construction processes were completed faster than normal because Interstate 35W is a critical artery for commuters and truck freight. The bridge opened September 18, 2008, well ahead of the original goal of December 24.
Collapse of the previous bridge
During the evening rush hour at 6:05 pm on August 1, 2007, the main spans of the I-35W Mississippi River bridge in Minneapolis collapsed and fell into the river and onto its banks, killing 13 people and injuring 145. The bridge opened in 1967, and was expected to carry 66,000 vehicles per day. Though intended to last fifty years, it collapsed after forty.
Originally, the bridge was striped for two lanes in each direction. In 1988, the four shoulders were converted to traffic lanes, accommodating four lanes in each direction. This allowed an increase in traffic flow. By 2004, an estimated 141,000 vehicles crossed the bridge each day.
Within hours of the previous bridge's demise, politicians pledged to rebuild the bridge at an accelerated pace. Federal transportation officials pledged US$5 million for the cleanup and recovery. U.S. Representative Jim Oberstar, who represented Minnesota's 8th congressional district and chaired the House Transportation Committee, introduced an earmark to direct a minimum of $250 million to help replace the bridge; the bill passed the House unanimously on August 3 as Republican Senator Norm Coleman and Democratic-Farmer-Labor (DFL) Senator Amy Klobuchar introduced companion legislation in the Senate. President George W. Bush signed the legislation on August 6, 2007, after visiting the site on August 4. After months of wrangling with Congress over spending proposals, President Bush signed the spending bill that included funding for the bridge on December 26, 2007.
Minneapolis Mayor R. T. Rybak (DFL) said that future needs and policy considerations shouldn't be ignored in the rush to build a replacement and sought a new bridge able to handle increased traffic as well as mass transit. Meetings between state transportation officials (Mn/DOT), Rybak, State Transportation Commissioner Carol Molnau, and Governor Tim Pawlenty yielded a desire to build a 10 lane bridge that will last 100 years, with the possibility of bus rapid transit or light rail lines. Rybak said, "Transit needs to play some role in this or otherwise we would need to build a much wider bridge in the future." At a public forum in Roseville, hundreds of Twin Cities residents participated in a discussion about the bridge design. The overriding theme of the crowd was a desire to plan for the bridge's use of mass transit. Commissioner Molnau, in conjunction with Metropolitan Council Chairman Peter Bell, recommended that light rail not be incorporated in the new bridge design. But Pawlenty, responding to constituents and the mayor, directed Mn/DOT to design the bridge to be light rail-ready. He said the estimated additional $20 to $35 million would be paid for by the state.
Award of contract
After the collapse of the bridge's predecessor, Mn/DOT announced to potential contractors that they should express their intention to bid on the project by August 8, 2007. A typical bridge project of this scale in Minnesota would be expected to take three years to complete, but state transportation officials hoped to open this replacement bridge in 15 months by using a design/build contract that allowed design and construction of the bridge to proceed concurrently. Mn/DOT announced on August 9 that five companies/consortia had been approved to bid on the project and requested that the bids be submitted by September 18, 2007.
Despite criticism and a lawsuit that alleged that theirs was not the best proposal, Flatiron Constructors, Inc. and Manson Construction Company were awarded the contract on September 19, 2007; Flatiron's was the highest-priced and longest schedule of the bids submitted. The lead designer was Figg Engineering, with Ayres Associates providing hydraulic and scour analyses. TKDA of Saint Paul was the engineer of record for the approach highways, second street bridges, retaining walls, lighting, and water resource engineering services on the project. While the total cost was expected to be between USD $300 million and $350 million for the 1,900-foot (579 m) multi-span bridge, including financial incentives for accelerating the schedule, the winning bid was for USD $234 million. Disincentives for missing the completion date of December 24, 2008 included a $200,000 per day penalty, while incentives to finish early could have been as much as $27 million.
MnDOT maintained a project page that tracked all activities associated with the construction of the bridge including weekly updates, traffic impacts, construction photos, animations, and virtual walk tours. On December 17, 2007, the first slab of concrete, 200 feet (61 m) long, 13.5 feet (4.1 m) wide, and 4.5 feet (1.4 m) thick, was poured off-site, which began to shape the bridge. Pilings sunk 100 feet (30.5 m) into the earth support the ends of the bridge, which contains 50,000 cubic yards (38,000 m3) of concrete.
The bridge construction progressed more quickly than expected. Construction work was performed in shifts with as many as 400 workers during the day, and 200 at night. On April 8, 2008 Mn/DOT announced the halfway point of construction had been reached, and predicted that completion might be ahead of schedule by as much as three months.
|Wikinews has related news: New I-35W Minneapolis bridge opens|
This prediction was borne out by events, as the Minnesota Department of Transportation opened the bridge to traffic at 5:00 in the morning on September 18, 2008. Minnesota State Patrol cars at both the north and south ends allowed rush hour traffic to build up behind them. Once the construction barricades were removed at 5:00 am the First Responders, State Troopers, and Mn/DOT trucks slowly crossed the bridge with rush hour traffic in tow, officially opening the bridge. The team constructed the $234 million bridge three months ahead of schedule and on budget, with no lost time due to safety accidents. Flatiron-Manson is expected to earn $27 million in bonuses for accelerated performance.
The bridge is equipped with anti-icing sprayers and was constructed with high-strength concrete. There are 323 sensors that regularly measure bridge conditions such as deck movement, stress, and temperature. The data will be compiled and analyzed by University of Minnesota personnel. The bridge is illuminated with light-emitting diodes (LEDs). Although LED lighting is not generally approved for such highways, this bridge roadway illumination is a test project. The bridge also incorporates multichromatic decorative lighting, which is used to illuminate the structure at night.
The bridge makes use of a special photocatalytic concrete called TX Active for the construction of two decorative sculptures that resemble the symbol for water used on maps. This material reacts with ultraviolet light and pulls pollutant particles of carbon monoxide, sulfur dioxide, and nitrous oxide out of the air and converts them to less harmful substances. The sculptures contain a compound that makes them self-cleaning, so they should stay white for as long as they stand.
The concrete comprising the drilled shafts, piers and footings contained large levels of replacement of Portland Cement with slag, flyash and other pozzolans. These materials reduce the embodied energy of the structure and allow the concrete to resist the ingress of water and dissolved solids such as chloride ion. This allowed the structure to be designed to resist deterioration for much longer than structures made with conventional concrete.
The project has won over 20 awards for excellence, including the Federal Highway Administration's Award of Excellence, the FIATECH Celebration of Engineering and Technology Innovation Award, the 2010 Award of Excellence from the Portland Cement Association, and the National Council of Structural Engineers Association's Excellence in Structural Engineering Award. The bridge has been named a project of the year by the American Public Works Association. The association awards are presented annually to recognize excellence in public works projects.
- Scheck, Tom (August 7, 2007). "Rebuild may begin in September". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 8, 2007.
- "I-35 Saint Anthony Falls Bridge". Minnesota Department of Transportation. Retrieved March 11, 2009.
- Hoppin, Jason (October 9, 2007). "The design for the I-35W replacement bridge is unveiled". Pioneer Press. Retrieved October 9, 2007.
- "Engineer: Mn/DOT to open I-35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge to traffic at 5 a.m. Thursday, Sept. 18". MnDot. September 15, 2008.
- "Drivers, Businesses Celebrate 35W Bridge Reopening". WCCO. September 18, 2008. Archived from the original on November 8, 2008. Retrieved September 18, 2008.
- Stachura, Sea (August 6, 2007). "Too much stress on I-35W bridge?". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- At Bridge Site, Search of River Moves Slowly, By Monica Davey, New York Times, August 3, 2007
- Jenks, Paul (September 27, 2007). "CongressLine by GalleryWatch.com: The Earmark Reality". LLRX. Retrieved September 29, 2008.
- "House Panel Approves $250M Fund Request For Bridge". WCCO. August 2, 2007. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- "Minnesota sets ambitious goal for bridge fix". MSNBC. August 6, 2007. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Gardner, Amy (December 27, 2007). "Bush Signs Domestic Spending Bill but Criticizes Pet Projects". Washington Post. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
- Scheck, Tom (August 5, 2007). "I-35W bridge reconstruction could delay other projects". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 7, 2007.
- Mador, Jessica (August 16, 2007). "Residents have plenty to say about bridge replacement". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
- Lohn, Martiga (August 11, 2007). "Dive resumes at bridge site after delay for fast-running river". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 12, 2007.
- "Letter from MnDOT Commissioner Carol Molnau and Metropolitan Council Chair Peter Bell to Governor Tim Pawlenty" (PDF). MnDOT. August 10, 2007. Retrieved August 12, 2007. (letter from Molnau and Bell to Governor Pawlenty recommending LRT not be included).
- Foti, Jim (2007). "State's plans for new I-35W bridge include light rail". Star Tribune. MSNBC. Archived from the original on September 3, 2007. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
- "I35W Bridge Replacement – Rebuild Plans" (PDF). Mn/DOT. August 2007. Retrieved August 27, 2007.
- "Contractor drops bid to build replacement I-35 bridge". Minnesota Public Radio. August 28, 2007. Retrieved August 28, 2007.
- Scheck, Tom (August 9, 2007). "MnDOT chooses five finalists for 35W rebuild". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 10, 2007.
- Martiga Lohn, Martiga Lohn (September 19, 2007). "Rich contract awarded for I-35W bridge replacement". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved September 19, 2007.
- "I-35W Contract Awarded, Conceptual Design Unveiled". Architectural Record, Mc-Graw Hill Construction. 2007. Retrieved November 12, 2007.
- allbusiness.com — Colorado Engineering Awards
- Scheck, Tom (August 24, 2007). "State offers bonus for quick bridge replacement". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved August 24, 2007.
- project page
- Foti, Jim (December 18, 2007). "35W bridge rebuilding gets underway in earnest". Star Tribune. Retrieved December 28, 2007.
- Fountain, Henry (March 30, 2009). "Concrete Is Remixed With Environment in Mind". The New York Times. Retrieved March 30, 2009.
- wcco.com — Reality Check: Speedy Road Construction
- KSTP.com – Bridge milestone, halfway done
- Vitasek, K. and K. Manrodt. Vested: How P&G, McDonald's and Microsoft are Redefining Winning in Business Relationships. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012
- "Collapsed bridge may be rebuilt by September". MSNBC. June 18, 2008. Retrieved August 14, 2008.
- Mador, Jessica (September 16, 2009). "Cutting-edge technology makes new 35W bridge a model for future". Minnesota Public Radio. Retrieved September 16, 2009.
- Foti, Jim (October 19, 2009). "Low-tech freeway light replacements, courtesy stimulus funds". Star Tribune. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Kinzey, B.R.; Myer. "Demonstration Assessment of Light-Emitting Diode (LED) Roadway Lighting (PNNL- 18687)" (PDF). Richland, Washington: Pacific Northwest National Laboratory. Retrieved October 26, 2009.
- Vitasek, K., and K. Manrodt. Vested: How P&G, McDonald's, and Microsoft are Redefining Winning in Business Relationships. New York: Palgrave Macmillan, 2012
- Vitasek, K. and K. Manrodt. Vested:How P&G, McDonald's, and Microsoft are Redefining Winning in Business Relationships. New York:Palgrave MacMillan, 2012
- 35W Bridge Named Project of the Year
- Vote for America's Best Transportation Project
- Smart Bridge Technology: Minnesota Department of Transportation I-35W Minneapolis Bridge Replacement Project
- Patrick Nunnally, ed. The City, the River, The Bridge: Before and After the Minneapolis Bridge Collapse (University of Minnesota Press; 2011) 183 pages; studies by civil engineers, geographers, and others on the events and aftermath of the collapse of the bridge in August 2007. Based on work presented at a conference of the same name held at the University of Minnesota in October 2008.
|Wikinews has related news: Minneapolis I-35W bridge spans Mississippi River|
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to St. Anthony Falls (35W) Bridge.|
- I35W St. Anthony Falls Bridge – Minnesota Dept. of Transportation – Official DOT Site for the Replacement Bridge. Shows Artist Renderings of the new bridge.
- Stribcam, Minneapolis Star-Tribune. Retrieved on 2008-05-08. Live webcam of bridge under construction.
- I-35W Mississippi River Bridge at Structurae