The IBM 519 Document-Originating Machine, introduced in 1946, was the last in a series of unit record machines designed for automated preparation of punched cards. Others in the series included the IBM 513 & IBM 514 Reproducing Punch.
The 519, which was "state of the art for the time," could:
- reproduce all or parts of the information on a set of cards
- "gangpunch" - copy information from a master card into the following detail cards
- print up to eight digits on the end of a card
- compare two decks of cards
- summary punch information provided by a connected accounting machine
- “mark sense.” - marks made with an electrographic pencil in designated locations on a punched card are sensed and then holes corresponding to those marks punched into the card
- number cards consecutively (an optional feature)
The reproducing, gangpunching, summary punching, and comparing features of the IBM 519 are very similar to those of the IBM 513 and IBM 514.
IBM 513 Reproducing Punch
The IBM 513 Reproducing Punch, like the IBM 514, had some - but not all - of the capabilities included in the IBM 519.
IBM 514 Reproducing Punch
The IBM 514 Reproducing Punch was introduced in February 1949. Like the 513, it had fewer capabilities than the IBM 519. The 514 was withdrawn in 1978.
The IBM 513, 514 and 519 all operated at 100 cards per minute, and their operations were directed by a removable control panel that was known as a plugboard. As with other IBM punched card devices, cards are fed "face down, 12-edge first."
Production of the IBM 519 was still going strong in 1956/1957, and production was consolidated to Rochester (for the Americas) and Milan, Italy. IBM closed its last punched card manufacturing plant in 1984, nearly a century after Herman Hollerith's 1886 construction of the first card sorting machine.
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- Automatic Punches - General Information Manual (PDF). 1959.
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- "39Y7179 IBM 514-Watts Hot Swap Power Supply for System x226".
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- "View Digitized Material" (PDF). AMhistory.SI.edu (National Museum of American History, Smithsonian Institution). August 26, 1970.
- "IBM Reproducing / Summary Punches".
- Reference Manual - IBM 513, 514 Reproducing Punches (PDF). p. 6. A24-1002-2.
- "Rochester chronology, page 4".
- "IBM Archives: Italy chronology 1950 - 1969".
- Joseph Perkins (July 2, 1984). "IBM Punch-Card Plant Will Close". The Washington Post.
- The New York Times Guide to Essential Knowledge: A Desk Reference. The New York Times. 2011. ISBN 0312643020.
- IBM (1959). IBM Automatic Punches (PDF). D24-1014-0.
- IBM (1959). IBM Reference Manual: 519 Document-Originating Machine (PDF). A24-1017-0.
- Columbia University Computing History: IBM Reproducing/Summary Punches.
- Photo of IBM 513. It doesn't resemble the 514.
- Photo of IBM 514. Compare to the 519.
- Photo of IBM 519