IEEE 802.11 (legacy mode)
IEEE 802.11 (legacy mode) – or more correctly IEEE 802.11-1997 or IEEE 802.11-1999 – refer to the original version of the IEEE 802.11 wireless networking standard released in 1997 and clarified in 1999. Most of the protocols described by this early version are rarely used today.
It specified two raw data rates of 1 and 2 megabits per second (Mbit/s) to be transmitted via infrared (IR) signals or by either frequency hopping or direct-sequence spread spectrum (DSSS) in the Industrial Scientific Medical frequency band at 2.4 GHz. IR remains a part of the standard but has no actual implementations.
The original standard also defines carrier sense multiple access with collision avoidance (CSMA/CA) as the medium access method. A significant percentage of the available raw channel capacity is sacrificed (via the CSMA/CA mechanisms) in order to improve the reliability of data transmissions under diverse and adverse environmental conditions.
At least six different, somewhat-interoperable, commercial products appeared using the original specification, from companies like Alvarion (PRO.11 and BreezeAccess-II), BreezeCom, Digital / Cabletron (RoamAbout), Lucent, Netwave Technologies (AirSurfer Plus and AirSurfer Pro), Symbol Technologies (Spectrum24), and Proxim Wireless (OpenAir and Rangelan2). A weakness of this original specification was that it offered so many choices that interoperability was sometimes challenging to realize. It is really more of a "beta-specification" than a rigid specification, initially allowing individual product vendors the flexibility to differentiate their products but with little to no inter-vendor operability.
The DSSS version of legacy 802.11 was rapidly supplemented (and popularized) by the 802.11b amendment in 1999, which increased the bit rate to 11 Mbit/s. Widespread adoption of 802.11 networks only occurred after the release of 802.11b which resulted in multiple interoperable products becoming available from multiple vendors. Consequently comparatively few networks were implemented on the 802.11-1997 standard.
802.11 network PHY standards
|Stream data rate||Allowable
|802.11-1997||Jun 1997||2.4||22||1, 2||N/A||DSSS, FHSS||20 m (66 ft)||100 m (330 ft)|
|a||Sep 1999||5||20||6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54||N/A||OFDM||35 m (115 ft)||120 m (390 ft)|
|3.7[A]||5,000 m (16,000 ft)[A]|
|b||Sep 1999||2.4||22||1, 2, 5.5, 11||N/A||DSSS||35 m (115 ft)||140 m (460 ft)|
|g||Jun 2003||2.4||20||6, 9, 12, 18, 24, 36, 48, 54||N/A||OFDM||38 m (125 ft)||140 m (460 ft)|
|n||Oct 2009||2.4/5||20||Up to 72.2[B]||4||MIMO-OFDM||70 m (230 ft)||250 m (820 ft)|
|40||Up to 150[B]|
|ac||Dec 2013||5||20||Up to 96.3[B]||8||35 m (115 ft)|
|40||Up to 200[B]|
|80||Up to 433.3[B]|
|160||Up to 866.7[B]|
|ad||Dec 2012||60||2,160||Up to 6,757
|N/A||OFDM, single carrier,
low-power single carrier
|3.3 m (11 ft)|
|ah||Dec 2016||0.9||Up to 347 |
|aj||Est. Jul 2017||45/60|
|ax||Est. Dec 2018||2.4/5||Up to 10.53 Gbit/s||MIMO-OFDM|
|ay||Est. Nov 2019||60||8000||Up to 100,000 (100 Gbit/s)||4||OFDM, single carrier,
|az||Est. Mar 2021||60|
|802.11 Standard rollups|
|802.11-2007||Mar 2007||2.4, 5||Up to 54||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2012||Mar 2012||2.4, 5||Up to 150[B]||DSSS, OFDM|
|802.11-2016||Dec 2016||2.4, 5, 60||Up to 866.7 or 6,757[B]||DSSS, OFDM|
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- 802.11ad Antenna Differences: Beamsteering, Gain and Range
- Sun, Weiping; Choi, Munhwan; Choi, Sunghyun (July 2013). "IEEE 802.11ah: A Long Range 802.11 WLAN at Sub 1 GHz" (PDF). Journal of ICT Standardization. 1 (1): 83–108. doi:10.13052/jicts2245-800X.125.
- IEEE 802.11 Working Group (1997-11-18). IEEE 802.11-1997: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications. ISBN 1-55937-935-9. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.1997.85951.
- IEEE 802.11 Working Group (1999-07-15). IEEE 802.11-1999: Wireless LAN Medium Access Control (MAC) and Physical Layer (PHY) Specifications. ISBN 0-7381-1857-5. doi:10.1109/IEEESTD.2003.95617.