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Available structures
PDB Ortholog search: PDBe RCSB
Aliases IL36G, interleukin 36, gamma, IL-1F9, IL-1H1, IL-1RP2, IL1E, IL1H1, IL1RP2, IL1F9
External IDs MGI: 2449929 HomoloGene: 49595 GeneCards: IL36G
RNA expression pattern
PBB GE IL1F9 220322 at fs.png
More reference expression data
Species Human Mouse
RefSeq (mRNA)



RefSeq (protein)



Location (UCSC) Chr 2: 112.97 – 112.99 Mb Chr 2: 24.19 – 24.19 Mb
PubMed search [1] [2]
View/Edit Human View/Edit Mouse

Interleukin-36 gamma also known as interleukin-1 family member 9 (IL1F9) is a protein that in humans is encoded by the IL36G gene.[3][4][5][6][7]


The protein encoded by this gene is a member of the interleukin 1 cytokine family. The activity of this cytokine is mediated by interleukin 1 receptor-like 2 (IL1RL2/IL1R-rp2), and is specifically inhibited by interleukin 1 family, member 5 (IL1F5/IL-1 delta). Interferon-gamma, tumor necrosis factor-alpha and interleukin 1, beta (IL1B) are reported to stimulate the expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes. The expression of this cytokine in keratinocytes can also be induced by a contact hypersensitivity reaction or herpes simplex virus infection. IL36G expression has been linked to psoriasis lesions and has been used as a biomarker for differentiating between eczema and psoriasis.[8] This gene and eight other interleukin 1 family genes form a cytokine gene cluster on chromosome 2.[7]


  1. ^ "Human PubMed Reference:". 
  2. ^ "Mouse PubMed Reference:". 
  3. ^ Busfield SJ, Comrack CA, Yu G, Chickering TW, Smutko JS, Zhou H, Leiby KR, Holmgren LM, Gearing DP, Pan Y (Jun 2000). "Identification and gene organization of three novel members of the IL-1 family on human chromosome 2". Genomics. 66 (2): 213–6. doi:10.1006/geno.2000.6184. PMID 10860666. 
  4. ^ Kumar S, McDonnell PC, Lehr R, Tierney L, Tzimas MN, Griswold DE, Capper EA, Tal-Singer R, Wells GI, Doyle ML, Young PR (Apr 2000). "Identification and initial characterization of four novel members of the interleukin-1 family". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (14): 10308–14. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.14.10308. PMID 10744718. 
  5. ^ Nicklin MJ, Barton JL, Nguyen M, FitzGerald MG, Duff GW, Kornman K (May 2002). "A sequence-based map of the nine genes of the human interleukin-1 cluster". Genomics. 79 (5): 718–25. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6751. PMID 11991722. 
  6. ^ Taylor SL, Renshaw BR, Garka KE, Smith DE, Sims JE (May 2002). "Genomic organization of the interleukin-1 locus". Genomics. 79 (5): 726–33. doi:10.1006/geno.2002.6752. PMID 11991723. 
  7. ^ a b "Entrez Gene: IL1F9 interleukin 1 family, member 9". 
  8. ^ D'Erme AM, Wilsmann-Theis D, Wagenpfeil J, Hölzel M, Ferring-Schmitt S, Sternberg S, Wittmann M, Peters B, Bosio A, Bieber T, Wenzel J (Apr 2015). "IL-36γ (IL-1F9) is a biomarker for psoriasis skin lesions". The Journal of Investigative Dermatology. 135 (4): 1025–32. doi:10.1038/jid.2014.532. PMID 25525775. 

Further reading[edit]

  • Nicklin MJ, Weith A, Duff GW (Jan 1994). "A physical map of the region encompassing the human interleukin-1 alpha, interleukin-1 beta, and interleukin-1 receptor antagonist genes". Genomics. 19 (2): 382–4. doi:10.1006/geno.1994.1076. PMID 8188271. 
  • Nothwang HG, Strahm B, Denich D, Kübler M, Schwabe J, Gingrich JC, Jauch A, Cox A, Nicklin MJ, Kurnit DM, Hildebrandt F (May 1997). "Molecular cloning of the interleukin-1 gene cluster: construction of an integrated YAC/PAC contig and a partial transcriptional map in the region of chromosome 2q13". Genomics. 41 (3): 370–8. doi:10.1006/geno.1997.4654. PMID 9169134. 
  • Mulero JJ, Pace AM, Nelken ST, Loeb DB, Correa TR, Drmanac R, Ford JE (Oct 1999). "IL1HY1: A novel interleukin-1 receptor antagonist gene". Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications. 263 (3): 702–6. doi:10.1006/bbrc.1999.1440. PMID 10512743. 
  • Smith DE, Renshaw BR, Ketchem RR, Kubin M, Garka KE, Sims JE (Jan 2000). "Four new members expand the interleukin-1 superfamily". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 275 (2): 1169–75. doi:10.1074/jbc.275.2.1169. PMID 10625660. 
  • Barton JL, Herbst R, Bosisio D, Higgins L, Nicklin MJ (Nov 2000). "A tissue specific IL-1 receptor antagonist homolog from the IL-1 cluster lacks IL-1, IL-1ra, IL-18 and IL-18 antagonist activities". European Journal of Immunology. 30 (11): 3299–308. doi:10.1002/1521-4141(200011)30:11<3299::AID-IMMU3299>3.0.CO;2-S. PMID 11093146. 
  • Pan G, Risser P, Mao W, Baldwin DT, Zhong AW, Filvaroff E, Yansura D, Lewis L, Eigenbrot C, Henzel WJ, Vandlen R (Jan 2001). "IL-1H, an interleukin 1-related protein that binds IL-18 receptor/IL-1Rrp". Cytokine. 13 (1): 1–7. doi:10.1006/cyto.2000.0799. PMID 11145836. 
  • Lin H, Ho AS, Haley-Vicente D, Zhang J, Bernal-Fussell J, Pace AM, Hansen D, Schweighofer K, Mize NK, Ford JE (Jun 2001). "Cloning and characterization of IL-1HY2, a novel interleukin-1 family member". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 276 (23): 20597–602. doi:10.1074/jbc.M010095200. PMID 11278614. 
  • Debets R, Timans JC, Homey B, Zurawski S, Sana TR, Lo S, Wagner J, Edwards G, Clifford T, Menon S, Bazan JF, Kastelein RA (Aug 2001). "Two novel IL-1 family members, IL-1 delta and IL-1 epsilon, function as an antagonist and agonist of NF-kappa B activation through the orphan IL-1 receptor-related protein 2". Journal of Immunology. 167 (3): 1440–6. doi:10.4049/jimmunol.167.3.1440. PMID 11466363. 
  • Sims JE, Nicklin MJ, Bazan JF, Barton JL, Busfield SJ, Ford JE, Kastelein RA, Kumar S, Lin H, Mulero JJ, Pan J, Pan Y, Smith DE, Young PR (Oct 2001). "A new nomenclature for IL-1-family genes". Trends in Immunology. 22 (10): 536–7. doi:10.1016/S1471-4906(01)02040-3. PMID 11574262. 
  • Towne JE, Garka KE, Renshaw BR, Virca GD, Sims JE (Apr 2004). "Interleukin (IL)-1F6, IL-1F8, and IL-1F9 signal through IL-1Rrp2 and IL-1RAcP to activate the pathway leading to NF-kappaB and MAPKs". The Journal of Biological Chemistry. 279 (14): 13677–88. doi:10.1074/jbc.M400117200. PMID 14734551. 
  • Dennis RA, Trappe TA, Simpson P, Carroll C, Huang BE, Nagarajan R, Bearden E, Gurley C, Duff GW, Evans WJ, Kornman K, Peterson CA (Nov 2004). "Interleukin-1 polymorphisms are associated with the inflammatory response in human muscle to acute resistance exercise". The Journal of Physiology. 560 (Pt 3): 617–26. doi:10.1113/jphysiol.2004.067876. PMC 1665272Freely accessible. PMID 15331687. 
  • Vos JB, van Sterkenburg MA, Rabe KF, Schalkwijk J, Hiemstra PS, Datson NA (May 2005). "Transcriptional response of bronchial epithelial cells to Pseudomonas aeruginosa: identification of early mediators of host defense". Physiological Genomics. 21 (3): 324–36. doi:10.1152/physiolgenomics.00289.2004. PMID 15701729.