IND Culver Line
|IND Culver Line|
|System||New York City Subway|
|Termini||North of Jay Street–MetroTech|
Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue
|Owner||City of New York|
|Operator(s)||New York City Transit Authority|
|Character||Underground and elevated|
|Number of tracks||2–4|
|Track gauge||4 ft 8 1⁄2 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge|
|Electrification||600 V DC third rail|
IND Culver Line
The IND Culver Line (formerly BMT Culver Line) is a rapid transit line of the B Division of the New York City Subway, extending from Downtown Brooklyn south to Coney Island, Brooklyn, New York City, United States. The line is named after Andrew Culver, who built the original Culver Line that preceded the current subway line. The local tracks of the Culver Line are served by the F service, as well as the G between Bergen Street and Church Avenue. The express tracks north of Church Avenue have not been regularly used since 1976, while the peak-direction express track between Ditmas Avenue and Avenue X has not seen regular service since 1987.
The line starts at an interlocking north of Jay Street–MetroTech, where Culver Line trains can access the IND Sixth Avenue Line or IND Eighth Avenue Line, south to Church Avenue in Kensington, the line is mostly a four-track subway, though it rises to cross over the Gowanus Canal on the only above-ground structure on the original Independent Subway System. In Kensington, a ramp allows the line to rise onto a three-track elevated structure built by the City for operation by the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company as part of the Dual Contracts. When this ramp was opened in 1954, the older route from Kensington northwest to Sunset Park remained as the Culver Shuttle until it was closed in 1975. The final portion of the line in Coney Island is on the lower level of a double-decked elevated structure, with the BMT Brighton Line above.
The elevated part of the Culver Line south of Church Avenue, operated as part of the BMT division until 1954, now carries only the F, a former IND service, and is chained and signaled as part of the IND. However, BMT radio frequency B1 is used on the elevated portion south of Church Avenue.
- 1 Extent and service
- 2 History
- 3 Station listing
- 4 See also
- 5 References
- 6 External links
Extent and service
The following services use part or all of the IND Culver Line:
|Time period||Section of line|
|all times||full line|
|all times||between Bergen Street and Church Avenue|
The Culver Line is served by the F as a local for its entire length. The portion of the route from Bergen Street south to Church Avenue is also served by the G Brooklyn–Queens Crosstown service. Both routes run at all times.
There are two express tracks on the northern part of the route and one on the southern, with express stations distributed along the line. However, express service has only operated once on the line from 1968 to 1987. Restoration of express service has been thwarted by budget shortages, passenger opposition, and a serious signal fire at Bergen Street in 1999. The issue came to a head in June 2007, when a petition for express service reached 2,600 signatures and gained media attention. The Culver Line underwent repairs from 2009 until early 2013, during which the express tracks were replaced and rehabilitated which may facilitate future express service.
Jay Street to Church Avenue
The subway portion of the IND Culver Line was originally designated the Brooklyn Line but has also been called the Smith Street Line, Church Avenue Line, South Brooklyn Line, and various other names. The express tracks beneath Prospect Park are sometimes referred to as the Prospect Park Line.
The line begins at the four-tracked Jay Street–MetroTech station, where the IND Sixth Avenue and Eighth Avenue lines interchange and continue as the Culver and Fulton Street lines respectively. Running under Smith Street south of the station, the Culver tracks split into local and express tracks, with the two express tracks ramping down to the lower level of Bergen Street, while the local tracks merge with the IND Crosstown Line tracks from Hoyt-Schermerhorn Street before entering the upper level. Between Jay Street and Bergen Street, the line passes under both the IRT Eastern Parkway Line and the Fulton Line tracks curving east into Hoyt-Schermerhorn Street, requiring a deeper tunnel and extensive ventilation systems.
At Carroll Street, the express tracks ramp up to rejoin the local tracks, and all four tracks rise onto the Culver Viaduct, curving onto Ninth Street. East of Fourth Avenue station towards Park Slope, the tracks become a subway once again. Past 7th Avenue, the local tracks diverge, curving south to 15th Street and Prospect Park West, while the express tracks take a direct route beneath Prospect Park. This is one of two places in the subway where the express tracks diverge from the local tracks, the other being on the IND Queens Boulevard Line between 65th Street and 36th Street. The express tracks rejoin the right-of-way at approximately Terrace Place and Prospect Avenue, running on a lower level under Prospect Avenue and Fort Hamilton Parkway near the Prospect Park Parade Grounds, then rise up as the line curves onto McDonald Avenue. The line then parallels the route of the original Culver Line surface railroad into Church Avenue station, the last stop of the original IND service.
A single track in both directions, connecting from the local and express tracks in each direction, ramps down to the four-track Church Avenue Yard, used as a relay and storage facility for G trains. The four mainline tracks ascend to the Culver Ramp on McDonald Avenue between Cortelyou Road and Avenue C, which connects the subway portion of the IND Culver Line with the former BMT Culver Line elevated structure. Despite being a part of the IND Division, the Culver elevated portion is controlled by BMT radio dispatch, so train operators change between the IND (B-2) and BMT (B-1) radio frequencies at this point.
The northern section of the Culver Line is a four-track line, entirely underground except for Smith–Ninth Streets and Fourth Avenue stations. The two stations sit on a massive one-mile long steel and concrete viaduct which spans the Gowanus Canal between 9th and 10th Streets. This structure is now referred to as the Culver Viaduct or Culver Line Viaduct, the only portion of the original IND subway to be elevated, and the only section other than the now-demolished World's Fair Railroad to be outdoors. The viaduct was constructed due to the depth of the canal (15 feet at its deepest point), due to the topography of the Park Slope neighborhood, and to avoid local stores in the area. Otherwise, a tunnel carrying the line would have to have been built below both the canal and the BMT Fourth Avenue Line (necessitating stations deep below the ground); or Ninth Street would be raised above grade level to pass over the canal and BMT subway. Both underground options were considered expensive and impractical, and the viaduct was estimated to save $12 million in construction costs when it was selected in 1927. During planning, the viaduct's height was later increased from 60 feet (18 m) to around 90 feet (27 m), due to now-defunct navigation regulations for tall-mast shipping. Because of this, Smith–Ninth Streets was built at an elevation of 87.5 feet (26.7 m), the highest subway station above ground level in the world. Fourth Avenue, meanwhile, is actually at a lower elevation and altitude than the Seventh Avenue underground station.
For most of its history, G service has terminated at Smith–Ninth Streets, relaying using the express tracks and switches at Fourth Avenue. This occasionally caused delays to F service, and prevented express service from being operated. In 2009, the G's terminus was moved to Church Avenue in order to complete renovations on the viaduct. In July 2012, this extension was made permanent.
On this section of the line, there is Communications-based train control (CBTC) equipment on the southbound express track between Fourth Avenue and Church Avenue, as part of the automation of the New York City Subway. The total cost is $99.6 million, with $15 million coming from the 2005–2009 capital budget (phase one) and $84.6 million from the 2010–2014 capital budget (phase two). The installation is a joint venture between Siemens and Thales Group, and is used to test the track's new signaling on R143s and R160s that are already equipped with CBTC. The estimated completion date was scheduled for March 2015; the installation is expected to be permanent. If Culver Line express service is implemented in 2017 as it was proposed, the express service would not initially use CBTC, and testing of CBTC on the express track will be limited to off-peak hours. The local tracks in this section would also get CBTC as part of the 2015–2019 Capital Program.
Ditmas Avenue to Coney Island
At Ditmas Avenue, the Culver Ramp ends and the underground line becomes elevated. This is a three-track Dual Contracts elevated on the former BMT line over McDonald (formerly Gravesend) Avenue. Just before the station, the southbound local track merges into the southbound express track, while the northbound express track becomes the El's bidirectional center express track. During the 1990s and 2000s, the center express track in this section was occasionally used for non-revenue testing. After Avenue X station, a ramp diverges to the surface for access to the Culver Yard of the Coney Island Yards complex. At this point the Culver Line narrows to a two-track structure bearing one more station–Neptune Avenue–before curving into West Eighth Street–New York Aquarium station on Coney Island.
Formally, the Culver Line ends as the track curve enters the lower level of the double-decked station along the BMT Brighton Line's right-of-way, and the chaining track designation changes from IND tracks B1 and B2 to BMT tracks A1 and A2 of the Brighton Line. However, there is no longer a connection to the Brighton Line at this point, and for all practical purposes the Culver Line continues into tracks 5 and 6 of the Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue Terminal.
Early years as two separate lines
BMT Culver Line (1875–1954)
The original Culver Line was opened by the Prospect Park and Coney Island Railroad and was named after the railroad's builder, Andrew N. Culver. The line ran along the surface of McDonald Avenue (then Gravesend Avenue) from Greenwood Cemetery (where it connected with horse car lines including the Vanderbilt Avenue Line, operated by the PP&CI until 1886) to the Culver Depot in Coney Island, on June 25, 1875. The PP&CI began serving the Union Depot at 36th Street, where transfer could be made to the Fifth Avenue Elevated, on June 7, 1890, by using the Prospect Park and South Brooklyn Railroad from a junction at Parkville. During a period of Long Island Rail Road control, from 1893 to 1899, a ramp at 36th Street was opened in 1895, allowing Brooklyn Elevated Railroad trains to operate over the Culver Line to Coney Island. The Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT), by then the owner of the Brooklyn Elevated, leased the Culver Line (to the Brooklyn Heights Railroad) on June 18, 1899, and began using it to take not only elevated trains but also trolleys to Coney Island.
As part of Contract 4 of the Dual Contracts, between the city and the BRT, a three-track elevated railway was built above the Culver Line from the Fifth Avenue Elevated southeast and south to Coney Island. At Ninth Avenue, the elevated replacements for the Culver Line and West End Line met, with access from both lines to the Fifth Avenue Elevated and Fourth Avenue Subway to the northwest. At 3:00 a.m. on March 16, 1919, the first portion of the new elevated structure opened from Ninth Avenue southeast and south to Kings Highway. Except for the omission of a station at 15th Avenue, all of the station locations from the surface line were preserved as elevated stations. The Culver Line was operated as a branch of the Fifth Avenue Elevated, with a free transfer at Ninth Avenue to the West End Line into the Fourth Avenue Subway. An extension to Avenue X was opened at noon on May 10, 1919. The line, the last of the four to Coney Island, was completed on May 1, 1920, at which time the Brooklyn Rapid Transit Company (BRT) was forced to cut the fare from ten to five cents. This construction tied into the existing lower level of the BMT Brighton Line east of West Eighth Street–New York Aquarium. Some Culver Line (5) trains began using the Fourth Avenue Subway to the Nassau Street Loop in Lower Manhattan when that line opened on May 30, 1931; the Fifth Avenue Elevated was closed on May 31, 1940, in conjunction with the unification of the transit system under city operations. Trolleys continued to use the surface tracks on McDonald Avenue until October 30, 1956.
IND Brooklyn Line (1933–1954)
One of the goals of Mayor John Hylan's Independent Subway System (IND), proposed in the 1920s was a line to Coney Island, reached by a recapture of the BMT Culver Line. To connect this line to the Eighth Avenue Line–the main trunk of the IND–a subway line was to run from Brooklyn Borough Hall south under Jay Street, Smith Street, Ninth Street, and several other streets to Cortelyou Road (later Church Avenue) and McDonald Avenue, just north of the Ditmas Avenue elevated station. A ramp would then lead onto the elevated BMT Culver Line. This line was variously known as the Culver Line Extension, Culver−Smith Street Line, Smith Street Line, Smith Street–Prospect Park Line, Smith–Ninth Street Line, Jay–Smith–Ninth Street Line, Church Avenue Line, Prospect Park–Church Avenue Line, Prospect Park–Coney Island Line, Brooklyn Line, or South Brooklyn Line, though it was often simply referred to as the Brooklyn portion of the IND. As originally designed, service to and from Manhattan would have been exclusively provided by Culver express trains, while all local service would have fed into the IND Crosstown Line.
By 1927, it was decided to build a truss bridge over the Gowanus Canal and a viaduct over Ninth Street due to cost considerations, replacing earlier plans for a deep river tunnel. This resulted in the only above-ground section of the original IND. The first short section of the line opened on March 20, 1933, taking Eighth Avenue Express A trains (and for about a month from July to August C trains) south from Jay Street to Bergen Street. The rest of the line opened on October 7, 1933 to the "temporary" terminal at Church Avenue, three blocks away from the Culver elevated at Ditmas Avenue. In 1936, the A was rerouted to the IND Fulton Street Line and E trains from the Queens Boulevard line replaced them. On July 1, 1937, the connection to the IND Crosstown Line opened and GG trains were extended to Smith-Ninth Streets. E trains were replaced by the F on December 15, 1940 after the IND Sixth Avenue Line opened.
As part of the various proposed extensions of the IND Second System, the IND Culver subway was planned to facilitate a spur line to Bay Ridge, with a connection to the incomplete Staten Island Tunnel intended for the BMT Fourth Avenue Line. A 1931 proposal had the line travel south from Smith–Ninth Streets station through Red Hook and Gowanus to Saint George Terminal. A 1933 plan would have branched off between Smith–Ninth Streets and Fourth Avenue, then run down Second Avenue in Bay Ridge to the tunnel. Like other IND lines, this route would have been in direct competition with the then-privately operated Fourth Avenue Subway. The final proposal from the 1939 Second System plan proposed an extension down Fort Hamilton Parkway and/or Tenth Avenue towards the tunnel, with continued service to 86th Street in Bay Ridge near the BMT Fourth Avenue Line station. This route would have diverged near the Fort Hamilton Parkway and Church Avenue stations. In 1940, proposals emerged to connect the IND with the BMT West End Line near its Fort Hamilton Parkway station; the 1946 Board of Transportation plans featured both the West End connection and the extension to 86th Street. None of these proposals were ever constructed.
Taking over operations, or "recapturing", the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT) Culver Line elevated structure in order to institute IND service to Coney Island was a high priority of New York City planners. Recapture proved unnecessary since the Culver Line and the rest of the BMT and Interborough Rapid Transit Company (IRT) passed into City hands in 1940 as a result of the unification of the three companies. The new connection would create a one-fare ride for IND passengers to Coney Island, and eliminate congestion on the BMT's Fourth Avenue Subway. At the time, the IND had no direct connections to the rest of the subway system. Around 1940, a temporary ramp was installed to connect the underground IND Culver Line to the street-level South Brooklyn Railway, underneath the BMT Culver Line; this connection was used to deliver some IND rolling stock.
The proposed Culver Ramp, also referred to as the Culver Line Connection, would allow passenger service between the underground Church Avenue and elevated Ditmas Avenue stations. Construction began in June 1941, and was expected to be completed by the end of the year. The ramp was expected to cost $2 million, and along with new signals, and rehabilitation of the Culver elevated and lengthening of its stations to IND standards, the total cost of the project was estimated at over $11 million. 170 subway cars were purchased for $8,500,000 for the extension of IND service. Two substations, a signal tower, a fourth track at Ditmas Avenue, and an additional stairway at Ditmas Avenue were all completed as part of the project. McDonald Avenue was also widened between Avenue C and Cortelyou Road to facilitate the ramp.
Though the ramp was nearly complete, including rails and signal work, construction was halted later that year because of America's entrance into World War II. When the project was restarted in 1946, completion was delayed further due to continued material shortages and a lack of rolling stock to facilitate the new service. On October 30, 1954, the connection between the IND Brooklyn Line at Church Avenue and the BMT Culver Line at Ditmas Avenue opened. This allowed IND trains to operate all the way to the Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue terminal.
IND Culver Line (1954–present)
Following the completion of Culver Ramp, D Concourse Express trains (which formerly terminated in Manhattan) replaced F service, and were sent over the new connection as the first IND service to reach Coney Island. The service was announced as Concourse–Culver and advertised as direct Bronx–Coney Island service. BMT Culver Line (5) trains were truncated to Ditmas Avenue, the south end of the connection, operating through to Manhattan via the Nassau Street Loop during the day, and terminating at Ninth Avenue at other times. This Culver Shuttle became full-time on May 28, 1959, and was closed on May 13, 1975, replaced by a transfer to the B35 bus route. The elevated portion has been re-chained as part of the B2 (IND) division, but still uses B1 (BMT) division radio frequencies.
On November 26, 1967, the Chrystie Street Connection opened and D trains were rerouted via the Manhattan Bridge and the BMT Brighton Line to Coney Island. F trains were extended once again via the Culver Line. From June 1968 to 1987, the Culver Line featured express service during rush hours. F trains ran express in both directions between Bergen Street and Church Avenue, while G trains were extended from Smith–Ninth Streets to Church Avenue to provide local service. Express service on the elevated portion of the line to Kings Highway operated in the peak direction (to Manhattan AM; to Brooklyn PM), with some F trains running local and some running express. Express service between Bergen and Church ended in 1976, and between Church and Kings Highway on April 27, 1987, largely due to budget constraints and complaints from passengers at local stations. Express service on the elevated Culver Line was ended due to necessary structural work, and was supposed to be restored after the $50 million project's completion in 1990, but never restored. With the end of express service, Bergen Street's lower level was taken out of service. Following renovations to the station in the 1990s, the lower level was converted into storage space and is not usable for passenger service in its current state.
Rehabilitation and proposed express service
In 2007, the MTA announced that several portions of the Culver Line would be undergoing extensive rehabilitation. The first renovation involved repairs of the elevated Culver Viaduct (including the Smith–Ninth Streets and Fourth Avenue stations) and modernization of the interlockings at Bergen Street, 4th Avenue, and Church Avenue. The B5 layup track was removed as part of the project. This also allowed the G train to be extended from its longtime terminus at Smith–Ninth Streets to a more efficient terminus at Church Avenue beginning in July 2009. The project was completed in 2013. Around the time the rehabilitation project was announced, a petition to restore express service along the line gained attention, due to increasing ridership on both the F and G services in Brooklyn. The petition, which gained over 2,500 signatures by June 2007 and nearly 4,000 by September, proposed to restore express service by making the Church Avenue extension of the G permanent and extending the V (eliminated in 2010) from its Manhattan terminus to Brooklyn, sharing the Rutgers Street Tunnel with the F. The G extension was made permanent in July 2012, freeing up the express tracks formerly used to relay trains.
In 2015, some rush-hour peak-direction F trains started skipping local stops between Jay Street and Fourth Avenue, and the MTA used expanded rush-hour express service (from Jay Street to Church Avenue) in both directions in the summers of 2016 and 2017. In May 2016, the MTA announced that half of all rush-hour F trains may start running express in both directions in fall 2017; however, because of rolling stock and track capacity limitations, the train frequency on the rest of the F's route would remain the same. However, with the introduction of the R179s, one more train per hour could be run on the F. The operation of half of the F trains as express would result in operational improvements, with faster service, as southbound F trains would no longer be delayed by terminating G trains discharging at Church Avenue. Overall, the F express will result in an overall reduction of 27,000 minutes during the AM rush hour and 13,000 minutes during the PM rush hour. The change in service will decrease service at local stations, reducing in longer wait times, but it will help riders in South Brooklyn with the longest commutes. F express trains would be slightly more crowded than current F trains, but the F locals would be less crowded. PM rush hour express service would lead to much larger exit surges from less frequent F local trains at Bergen Street and Carroll Street, leading to significant congestion at one staircase at Bergen Street, and moderate congestion at one staircase at Carroll St. Relieving the congestion, would entail widening the staircases and installing ADA-required elevators that would cost approximately $10 million per station.
Stations along the three-tracked stretch of the Culver Line were renovated until July 30, 2018 (excluding Ditmas Avenue and the northbound platform of Avenue X, which were rehabilitated in 2015–2016), with the center track being used to bypass closed stations. The Coney Island-bound platforms were rehabilitated between June 7, 2016 and May 1, 2017 (May 8 for Avenue U and Avenue X). During the second phase of the project, beginning on May 22, 2017, the Manhattan-bound platforms were closed between Avenue U and 18th Avenue until July 30, 2018. Even after the rehabilitation, though, peak-direction express service between Church Avenue and Kings Highway will not be restored due to limitations caused by current track configurations, as the switches at Kings Highway previously used were removed in the 1990s. The interlocking at Kings Highway is scheduled to be modernized as part of the 2020–2024 MTA Capital Plan, and the modernization could include the reinstallation of the necessary track switches.
The possibility of reopening the Bergen Street lower level was looked at as part of the study for the reintroduction of F express service as it could reduce the impact of less local service at the busy station. The station, if reopened, would require significant and expensive reconstruction, including making the station ADA accessible, the reconstruction of platform stairs, improved lighting and communications, waterproofing and concrete repairs, among other things. The rehabilitation would cost $75 million, and therefore the lower level is not currently planned to be reopened.
|Station service legend|
|Stops all times|
|Stops all times except late nights|
|Stops late nights only|
|Stops rush hours only|
|Time period details|
|Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
|↑||Station is compliant with the Americans with Disabilities Act|
in the indicated direction only
|Elevator access to mezzanine only|
|Station||Tracks||Services||Opened||Transfers and notes|
|begins as continuation of the IND Sixth Avenue Line local tracks (F )|
|Downtown Brooklyn||Jay Street–MetroTech||all||F||February 1, 1933||IND Fulton Street Line (A C )|
BMT Fourth Avenue Line (N R W )
|Express Tracks begin (no regular service)|
|Merge from the IND Crosstown Line (G ) into local tracks|
|Cobble Hill||Bergen Street||all||F G||March 20, 1933||upper level: Local (in service)|
lower level: Express (no regular service)
|Carroll Gardens||Carroll Street||local||F G||October 7, 1933|
|Gowanus||Smith–Ninth Streets||local||F G||October 7, 1933|
|Fourth Avenue||local||F G||October 7, 1933||BMT Fourth Avenue Line (D N R W ) at Ninth Street|
|Park Slope||Seventh Avenue||all||F G||October 7, 1933|
|express tracks diverge (no regular service)|
|Windsor Terrace||15th Street–Prospect Park||local||F G||October 7, 1933|
|express tracks rejoin on lower level (no regular service)|
|Fort Hamilton Parkway||local||F G||October 7, 1933|
|express tracks rise (no regular service)|
|Kensington||Church Avenue||all||F G||October 7, 1933||southern terminal of G train|
|Connecting tracks to Church Avenue Yard|
|Southbound express track merges into southbound local track and bi-directional express track creating a 3 track line (formerly the BMT Culver Line)|
|Sunset Park||Ninth Avenue||all||Culver Shuttle||March 16, 1919||Stopped on lower level, which closed on May 11, 1975. Transfer was available to the BMT West End Line.|
|Borough Park||Fort Hamilton Parkway||local||Culver Shuttle||March 16, 1919||Closed on May 11, 1975, and demolished in 1985.|
|13th Avenue||local||Culver Shuttle||March 16, 1919||Closed on May 11, 1975, and demolished in 1985.|
|Ditmas Avenue||local||F||March 16, 1919|
|18th Avenue||all||F||March 16, 1919|
|Midwood||Avenue I||local||F||March 16, 1919|
|Bay Parkway||local||F||March 16, 1919|
|Avenue N||local||F||March 16, 1919|
|Gravesend||Avenue P||local||F||March 16, 1919|
|Kings Highway||all||F||March 16, 1919||B82 Select Bus Service|
southern terminal of several F trains during rush hours
|Avenue U||local||F||May 10, 1919|
|Avenue X||local||F||May 10, 1919|
|Express track ends merging into southbound local track and continuing into Coney Island Yard|
|Coney Island||Neptune Avenue||all||F||May 1, 1920|
|West Eighth Street–New York Aquarium||all||F||May 1, 1920||BMT Brighton Line (Q )|
|Coney Island–Stillwell Avenue||all||F||May 1, 1920||BMT Brighton Line (Q )|
BMT Sea Beach Line (N )
BMT West End Line (D )
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to IND Culver Line.|
- "Review of F Line Operations, Ridership, and Infrastructure" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 7, 2009. Retrieved December 10, 2016.
- "New York City Subway Chaining". thejoekorner.com.
- City of New York Office of the Comptroller, Dilemma in the Millenium [sic]: Capital Needs of the World's Capital City Archived October 1, 2006, at the Wayback Machine, August 1998, signal system data table (page 197) from the New York City Transit Authority
- Dougherty, Peter (2006) . Tracks of the New York City Subway 2006 (3rd ed.). Dougherty. OCLC 49777633 – via Google Books.
- "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 25, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017.
- "Feasibility and Analysis of F Express Service in Brooklyn" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 2016. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- "Review of the G Line" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 10, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- Mooney, Jake (July 8, 2007). "Mud on the Tracks". Carroll Gardens, Brooklyn: The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Cuza, Bobby (September 26, 2007). "Brooklyn Commuter Wages Campaign For F Train Express Service". NY1. Archived from the original on September 27, 2007. Retrieved August 23, 2015.
- Rundle, Michael (September 12, 2007). "F express coming soon?". Brooklyn: Metro New York. Archived from the original on September 15, 2007. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- Kabak, Benjamin (December 21, 2012). "Another delay mars Smith-9th rehab project". Second Avenue Sagas. Retrieved June 24, 2016.
- Raskin, Joseph B. (2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. New York, New York: Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-82325-369-2.
- Photo of Jay Station (SubwayNews.com) Archived December 3, 2005, at the Wayback Machine
- New York Times, Plan to Recapture Culver Line Ready, July 12, 1932, page 9
- "Culver Line Rehabilitation: Presentation to Community Board 6 Transportation Committee – November 15, 2007" (PDF). secondavenusagas.com. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. November 15, 2007. Archived (PDF) from the original on September 7, 2015. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- "City's Subway Open March 20 To Bergen St". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. March 12, 1933. p. 8. Retrieved July 4, 2016 – via Newspapers.com.
- Duffus, R.L. (September 22, 1929). "Our Great Subway Network Spreads Wider – New Plans of Board of Transportation Involve the Building of More Than One Hundred Miles of Additional Rapid Transit Routes for New York". The New York Times. Retrieved August 19, 2015.
- Board of Transportation of the City of New York Engineering Department, Proposed Additional Rapid Transit Lines And Proposed Vehicular Tunnel, dated August 23, 1929
- Project for Expanded Rapid Transit Facilities, New York City Transit System, dated July 5, 1939
- "Subway Dirt Will Start to Fly Here Soon: Board Indicates Private Property to Be Taken in Cranberry Street". Brooklyn Standard Union. Fultonhistory.com. November 10, 1927. p. 2. Retrieved June 30, 2016.
- "Review of the G Line: Appendices" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 10, 2013. Retrieved October 28, 2015.
- "Church On Sunday". ltvsquad.com. LTV Squad. July 4, 2006. Archived from the original on October 24, 2006. Retrieved July 8, 2015.
- "Hollywood Underground: The Art of Making Movies in The New York City Subway". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Retrieved August 16, 2015.
- "Gay Midnight Crowd Rides First Trains in New Subway" (PDF). New York Times. September 10, 1932. p. 1.
- Crazy Train: NYC's Weirdest Subway Stations
- "Submits New Plan For Brooklyn Tube – Transportation Board Says Revised Project Would Save the City $12,000,000 – No Tunnel Under Canal – Bridge Over Gowanus Stream and Enclosed Viaduct Now Is Proposed" (PDF). The New York Times. July 17, 1927. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "Gowanus Canal Superfund Site: Kings County, New York" (PDF). United States Environmental Protection Agency. December 2012. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- "Gowanus Bridge Discussed; Concerns Along Canal Object to Fixed Span at Army Hearing" (PDF). The New York Times. September 23, 1927. Retrieved November 7, 2015.
- Rebuilding the Culver Viaduct
- Brooklyn!!, Summer 2013 issue, p.7, caption on photo from station reopening celebration, www.brooklyn-usa.org
- O'Neill, Natalie (July 19, 2012). "G wiz! MTA plans to save the G train extension!". The Brooklyn Paper. Retrieved July 21, 2012.
- Colceag, Gabriel; Yelloz, Gerard (March 28, 2012). "CBTC Interoperability: From Real Needs to Real Deployments – New York's Culver CBTC Test Track Project" (PDF). alamys.org. Metrorail, London. Archived from the original (PDF) on November 26, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
- "MTA 2010–2014 Capital Program Questions and Answers" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. pp. 11–12. Retrieved September 12, 2016.
- "MTA Capital Program 2015–2019: Renew. Enhance. Expand" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. October 28, 2015. Retrieved September 12, 2015.
- Matus, Paul (February 13, 2003). "Culver's Travels. The demolition of a Brooklyn elevated link". Forgotten New York. Retrieved June 27, 2016.
- "A Big Lease". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 21 December 1885. p. 4.
- "Prospect Park and Coney Island R. R.". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 19 June 1875. p. 3.
- Brian J. Cudahy (January 2002). How We Got to Coney Island: The Development of Mass Transportation in Brooklyn and Kings County. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-2208-7.
- "The New Union Depot". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 15 June 1890. p. 19.
- "Corbin Buys the P.P. and C.I.R.R.". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 24 January 1893. p. 1.
- "Transit Co. Leases P.P. and C.I. Road". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 17 June 1899. p. 1.
- "Connecting Two Railroads". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Brooklyn, NY. 6 August 1895. p. 2.
- New York Public Service Commission, New Subways For New York: The Dual System of Rapid Transit, June 1913
- Legislative Documents. J.B. Lyon Company. January 1, 1920.
- New York Times, B.R.T. Will Open Culver Line Elevated Road as Far as Kings Highway on Sunday Next, March 9, 1919, page 23
- New York Times, Culver Line Open Today, March 16, 1919, page 8
- Frederick J. H. Kracke, Public Service Commissioner, New York Times, New Rapid Transit Link in Operation, March 16, 1919, page 106
- New York Times, Culver Elevated Opens, March 17, 1919, page 21
- New York Times, New Transit Line Opened, May 11, 1919, page 25
- New York Times, New Culver Extension, May 18, 1919, page 116
- "5-CENT FARE TO CONEY.; Change Is Effective Today on B.R. T. Elevated and Subway Lines". The New York Times. May 1, 1920. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 15, 2016.
- District, New York (State) Public Service Commission First (January 1, 1921). Annual Report for the Year Ended ... The Commission.
- "New Culver Structure in Service 90 Years Ago". New York Division Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association. 53 (5): 1, 4. May 2010.
- New York Times, Coney Fare Cut Saturday, April 28, 1920, page 6
- New York Times, 5-Cent Fare to Coney, May 1, 1920, page 18
- New York Times, Nassau St. Service Outlined by B. M. T., May 21, 1931, page 29
- Chiasson, George (May 2010). "A History of the F (and V) Train Service". New York Division Bulletin. Electric Railroaders' Association. 53 (5): 1, 4.
- New York Times, Last Train is Run on Fulton St. 'El', June 1, 1940, page 11
- Casey, Leo (October 30, 1956). "NYCTA 1956 Press Release" (PDF). New York City Transit Authority. Retrieved September 1, 2016.
- "City Trolley Cars Near End of Line: Transit Agency to Switch to Buses on Last 2 Runs in Brooklyn in Fall" (PDF). The New York Times. April 20, 1956. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- New York Times, New Subway Routes in Hylan Program to Cost $186,046,000, March 21, 1925, page 1
- New York Times, The City Subway System for Which Aid is Asked, December 3, 1933, page X13
- "$101,200,000 Asked for 1930 Work on Tubes: Projects Include Jay, Fulton, Crosstown and Queens City Subways". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 14, 1930. Retrieved September 16, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- New York Times, Subway Expansion to Cost $400,000,000 Proposed for City, December 15, 1947, page 1
- Schmalacker, Joseph H. (January 3, 1941). "Culver Link to City Subway To Relieve 4 Other Lines: Will Permit More Trains to Run On Coney, 4th Ave. Branches". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 3. Retrieved September 15, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Report including analysis of operations of the New York City transit system for five years, ended June 30, 1945. New York City: Board of Transportation of the City of New York. 1945.
- Roger P. Roess; Gene Sansone (August 23, 2012). The Wheels That Drove New York: A History of the New York City Transit System. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 416–417. ISBN 978-3-642-30484-2.
- Schmalacker, Joseph H. (January 2, 1941). "New One-Fare Link to Coney Imminent: Transportation Board to Seek Bids For Culver Ramp to Independent Line". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 5. Retrieved September 15, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Kramer, Frederick A. (January 1, 1990). Building the Independent Subway. Quadrant Press. ISBN 978-0-915276-50-9.
- "Independent Subway Services Beginning in 1932". thejoekorner.com. August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2015.
- New York Times, City Subway Adds Link, March 21, 1933, page 4
- "City Subway Extended". The New York Times. October 7, 1933. p. 16. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved December 18, 2018.
- "MTA Neighborhood Maps: Borough Park" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved July 19, 2015.
- "New Crosstown Subway Line Is Opened". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 1, 1937. Retrieved December 24, 2015.
- "Suggested Rapid Transit Lines in Richmond Borough". historicrichmondtown.org. Historic Richmond Town. 1930. Retrieved July 31, 2015.
- "DC: A Tunnel from SI to Brooklyn?". Daniel Convissor. Retrieved December 16, 2010.
- "Transit Progress on Staten Island" (PDF). The New York Times. April 19, 1931. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "City Rapid Transit Urged in Richmond" (PDF). The New York Times. April 19, 1932. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "New Yorkers Urge Loan For Tunnel" (PDF). The New York Times. Washington, D.C. September 22, 1932. Retrieved June 27, 2015.
- "The New Plan for a Tunnel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 18, 1933. Retrieved July 19, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Tunnel Prospects Bright". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. July 19, 1933. Retrieved June 29, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Richmond Tube Report by Board Due Next Week". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 8, 1933. Retrieved July 19, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Bay Ridge Tube's Fate Rests with Meeting Today: Staten Island Tunnel O.K. May Be Reversed If M'Aneny Attends". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. December 29, 1933. Retrieved July 19, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Vogel to Press for West End L, Culver Links". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. August 14, 1940. pp. 1–2 – via Newspapers.com.
- "Vogel Lauds City for Speed In Starting Culver 'L' Link". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. June 10, 1941. Retrieved September 15, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Jaffe, Alfred (December 6, 1946). "Borough Subway Relief Still 2 or 3 Years Off". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 5. Retrieved October 9, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- Raudenbush, Henry (December 2018). "Car Moves Between Divisions" (PDF). 61 (12). Electric Railroaders' Association: 5. Retrieved December 4, 2018.
- Sparberg, Andrew J. (October 1, 2014). From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-6190-1.
- Blauvelt, Paul (June 9, 1946). "Shortages Snarl $50,000,000 Tube Links". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 21. Retrieved October 9, 2015 – via Newspapers.com.
- New York Times, 200 City Projects Face Standstill Due to Priorities, August 18, 1941, page 1
- Culver Line Ceremonies
- New York Times, Adequate Transit Promised for City, October 29, 1954, page 25
- New York Times, Bronx to Coney Ride in New Subway Link, October 18, 1954, page 34
- New York Times, Bronx-Coney Line is Opened by IND, October 31, 1954, page 73
- The Third Rail, April–June 1975: Culver Shuttle Closes
- "BMT Acts to Speed Rush-Hour Service" (PDF). The New York Times. May 21, 1959. Retrieved September 4, 2016.
- Muir, Hugh O. (June 8, 1959). "TA Says End Of Culver Line Speeds BMT". New York World-Telegram. Fultonhistory.com. p. B1. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Fowler, Glenn (April 27, 1975). "For Culver Shuttle Its's the 11th Hour". The New York Times. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Hanley, Robert (May 12, 1975). "Brooklyn's Culver Shuttle Makes Festive Final Run". The New York Times. p. 20. Retrieved September 5, 2016.
- Perlmutter, Emanuel (November 16, 1967). "Subway Changes to Speed Service: Major Alterations in Maps, Routes and Signs Will Take Effect Nov. 26" (PDF). nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 7, 2015.
- "'F' Line Rush-Hour Service Will Be Added in Brooklyn" (PDF). The New York Times. June 8, 1969. Retrieved August 26, 2016.
- "F line work set". New York Daily News. April 25, 1987. p. 8. Retrieved October 21, 2018.
- Gerberer, Raanan (March 6, 2013). "Light at the End of Tunnel: F Train Express may return". brooklyneagle.com. Brooklyn Eagle. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Umanov, Ben (September 22, 2014). "F Train Express Service Might be Coming Back to Brooklyn". gowanusyourfaceoff.com. Gowanus Your Face Off. Archived from the original on October 1, 2015. Retrieved July 28, 2015.
- Flegenheimer, Matt (November 29, 2013). "In Subways, Suddenly, 2 Glimpses of History". The New York Times. Retrieved September 7, 2015.
- "F Train Express Will Return For Summer Of 2016, 2017". Gothamist. May 17, 2016. Archived from the original on May 20, 2016. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Durkin, Erin (May 17, 2016). "MTA to run express F train service in Brooklyn in 2017". NY Daily News. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- Furfaro, Danielle; Musumeci, Natalie (May 17, 2016). "Brooklyn commuters, rejoice: F train will finally run express". New York Post. Retrieved May 17, 2016.
- "Coney Island-bound F subway trains will not stop at Avenue I, Bay Pkwy, Avenue N, Avenue P, Avenue U, and Avenue X until early 2017". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2016. Archived from the original on May 27, 2016. Retrieved October 9, 2016.
- "Coney Island-bound Service Restored". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- "New York City Subway Map" (PDF). mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 1, 2017. Archived from the original (PDF) on May 10, 2017. Retrieved May 2, 2017.
- "$140 Million Culver F subway Line Station Renewal Project Begins Next Phase". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 18, 2017. Retrieved May 18, 2017.
- "Manhattan-bound Service Restored Effective Monday, July 30". web.mta.info. Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 30, 2018. Retrieved July 30, 2018.
- New York Times, City Subway Extended, October 7, 1933, page 16
|NYC Subway Culver Viaduct Rehabilitation Project, Metropolitan Transportation Authority; January 12, 2010; 1:48 YouTube video clip|
- Media related to IND Culver Line at Wikimedia Commons
- NYCsubway.org – IND Crosstown Line
- NYCsubway.org – BMT Culver Line
- The Prospect Park and South Brooklyn Railroad Company and The Culver Shuttle (Arrt's Arrchives)
- Brooklyn F Express Study and Culver Line Track Diagram
- G Line Track Diagram: Court Square to Church Avenue
- Track Diagram: Bergen Street to Church Avenue