IND Fulton Street Line

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IND Fulton Street Line
The A train serves the entire IND Fulton Street Line at all times and the C train serves the line from Jay Street – MetroTech to Euclid Avenue at all times except late nights.
Type Rapid transit
System New York City Subway
Termini Jay Street – MetroTech
Ozone Park – Lefferts Boulevard
Stations 22
Daily ridership 286,497[1]
Opened 1915–1956
Owner City of New York
Operator(s) New York City Transit Authority
Character Underground (Brooklyn)
Elevated (Queens)
Number of tracks 2-4
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm)
Electrification Direct Current traction
IND Fulton Street Line
IND Sixth Avenue Line
IND Eighth Avenue Line
Jay Street–MetroTech
BMT Fourth Avenue Line
Court Street New York Transit Museum
IND Crosstown Line
Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets
IND Culver Line
Lafayette Avenue
Clinton–Washington Avenues
Franklin Avenue
Nostrand Avenue
Kingston–Throop Avenues
Utica Avenue
Ralph Avenue
Rockaway Avenue
Broadway Junction
Liberty Avenue
Van Siclen Avenue
Shepherd Avenue
Euclid Avenue
Pitkin Yard
Grant Avenue
former Fulton Street elevated
80th Street
88th Street
Rockaway Boulevard
IND Rockaway Line
104th Street
111th Street
Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard

The IND Fulton Street Line is a rapid transit line of the IND Division of the New York City Subway, running from the Cranberry Street Tunnel under the East River through all of central Brooklyn to a terminus in Ozone Park, Queens. The IND Rockaway Line branches from it just east of Rockaway Boulevard. The A train runs express during daytime hours and local at night on the underground portion of the line; it runs local on the elevated portion of the line at all times. The C train runs local on the underground portion of the line at all times except late nights.

The line runs primarily along Fulton Street, Pitkin Avenue, and Liberty Avenue. The underground portion, which constitutes the majority of the line, was built for the city-owned Independent Subway System (IND), opening between 1936 and 1956. The elevated portion in Queens was originally part of the Brooklyn–Manhattan Transit Corporation (BMT)'s Fulton Street elevated line; the El in Brooklyn was closed and demolished in stages with the opening of the subway line.

Description and service[edit]

Service Between
  Time period Hoyt–
Schermerhorn Sts

Euclid Ave
Euclid Ave
Ozone Park – Lefferts Blvd
A All except nights express local
Late nights local
C All except nights local no service
Late nights no service

Under Fulton Street, the line is mainly single level. Nostrand Avenue is the exception, with the express tracks on the upper level and local tracks on the lower level.[2] During construction, the old, now-demolished BMT Fulton Street Elevated (which the IND line replaced) had to be supported.

The stations along Liberty Avenue in Queens, from 80th Street – Hudson Street through Ozone Park – Lefferts Boulevard, as well as the current three-track elevated structure, were built for the elevated Fulton Street Line in 1915 as part of the BMT's portion of the Dual Contracts. This was the only section of the Fulton El that was built specifically to handle steel subway cars, as opposed to lighter wooden elevated cars.[3]


Entering Brooklyn via the Cranberry Street Tunnel as a two-track line, the IND Eighth Avenue Line travels east on Cranberry Street, then south on Jay Street. It becomes the Fulton Street Line at an interlocking north of Jay Street – MetroTech while briefly running parallel with the IND Culver Line. It turns away from the Culver Line onto Schermerhorn Street to the six-track Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets station, which it shares with the Brooklyn–Queens Crosstown Line. The local tracks are unused at Hoyt-Schermerhorn Streets, but connect to the abandoned Court Street station which is now the site of the New York City Transit Museum. At this point, the line becomes a four-track system until Euclid Avenue.[2]

The line continues east under Schermerhorn Street to the intersections of Third Avenue and Flatbush Avenue, across them onto Lafayette Avenue and then finally onto Fulton Street until Broadway Junction.[2]

After Broadway Junction, the line leaves Fulton Street via Truxton Street, crosses Broadway, curves through a corner of the East New York Yard, crosses Jamaica Avenue and then south on Pennsylvania Avenue. It then turns east onto Pitkin Avenue until Euclid Avenue station. East of Euclid Avenue there are track connections to Pitkin Yard, and from either the express or local tracks to the two-track line towards Grant Avenue station. The four mainline trackways continue east on Pitkin Avenue, disused, and end at approximately Elderts Lane.[4][2]

Past Grant Avenue, the line joins the former Fulton Street elevated via a ramp as it enters Queens, swinging somewhat north until it is over Liberty Avenue.[2][5][6] Here, it becomes a three-track line, with the center track coming from Pitkin Yard. Just past Rockaway Boulevard, the IND Rockaway Line branches southward while the Fulton Street Line continues over Liberty Avenue to its terminus at Lefferts Boulevard.[2][5][7]


The Fulton Street subway was the city-owned Independent System (IND)'s main line from Downtown Brooklyn to southern Queens.[8] Along with the IND Eighth Avenue Line, it was also alternately known as the Washington Heights − East New York Line.[9] The groundbreaking for the line was held on April 16, 1929, at Fulton Street and Arlington Place, near the future Nostrand Avenue station.[10] The line was opened from Jay Street to Rockaway Avenue on April 9, 1936, including the stub terminal at Court Street.[11][12] Further construction was delayed by funding problems due to the Great Depression in the 1930s.[4] This was temporarily solved by federal Works Progress Administration funding starting in 1936. The portion continuing from east of Rockaway Avenue along Pennsylvania and Pitkin Avenues to Crystal Street began construction in 1938.[13][9] The next portion east from Crystal Street to around Grant Avenue, including the Euclid Avenue terminal and the Pitkin Yard, began construction in 1940.[13][14] The progress lasted only a few years, as all work on the last portions in Brooklyn was stopped by December 1942 shortly after the United States entered World War II, with Broadway−East New York complete but not in operation due to lack of signal equipment, and the remaining stations to Euclid Avenue as unfinished shells.[13][9][4][15][16]

The Court Street station was closed on June 1, 1946 due to low ridership.[15][17][18] After World War II ended, workers and materials became available for public use again. The badly needed extension to the more efficient terminal at Broadway − East New York (the current Broadway Junction station) opened on December 30, 1946.[4][19]

The extension of the Fulton Street Line, the completion of which had been delayed due to war priorities, was finished by funds obtained by Mayor William O'Dwyer and was placed in operation on November 28, 1948, running along Pennsylvania Avenue and Pitkin Avenue to Euclid Avenue near the Queens border. Forty additional R10 cars were placed into service for the extension. The cost of the extension was about $46,500,000. It included the construction of the new Pitkin Avenue Storage Yard, which could accommodate 585 subway cars on 40 storage tracks.[9][19][4][3][20] Because these stations were completed later than the rest of the line, they received different design features than other IND stations, including different wall tiles and fluorescent lighting.[9][4][21] In 1953, the platforms were lengthened at Ralph Avenue and Broadway – East New York to 660 feet to allow E trains to run eleven car trains. The E began running eleven car trains during rush hours on September 8, 1953. The extra train car increased the total carrying capacity by 4,000 passengers. The lengthening project cost $400,000.[22][23][24]

In late 1952, the Board of Transportation began construction on a connection between the IND and both the Fulton El and the Rockaway Beach Branch of the Long Island Rail Road, which included a new underground station at Grant Avenue.[25][26][27][28] The connection from the 80th Street elevated station to the rest of the BMT Fulton El was severed on April 26, 1956 and the IND was extended east (track direction south) from Euclid Avenue via the intermediate station at Grant Avenue, and a connecting ramp (known as the Grant Avenue ramp).[3][5][29] The new service to Lefferts Boulevard began three days later.[30][3][5][7] On June 28, 1956, the connection to the IND Rockaway Line east of Rockaway Boulevard was opened.[3][7][31][32][33][34]

Second System planned route[edit]

The IND Fulton Street Line was supposed to be extended farther east into Queens as part of the IND Second System, via an extension of the Fulton Elevated or a new subway. The line would have gone as far as Springfield Boulevard in Queens Village or 229th Street in Cambria Heights, both near the Nassau County border. The line would have also had a spur to the Rockaways.[4][35][8][36][37]

The 1929 Second System plan suggested recapturing and extending the Fulton elevated along Liberty, Brinkerhoff and Hollis Avenues to Springfield Boulevard, near Hempstead Turnpike, Belmont Park, and the Queens Village LIRR Station.[4][8][36] The 1939 plan, meanwhile, proposed extending the subway along Pitkin Avenue to Cross Bay Boulevard in South Ozone Park, then along Linden Boulevard to Cambria Heights near the Cross Island Parkway. A spur would have branched off east of Cross Bay Boulevard, turning south to join with the former Rockaway Beach Branch of the Long Island Rail Road (now the IND Rockaway Line).[4][35][37] This extended Fulton Street Line would have also facilitated service from the planned Second Avenue Subway via a river tunnel from Lower Manhattan to the then-terminal station at Court Street.[35][37][38]

In a 1940 plan, which was revised in 1945, the IND Fulton Street Line would connect to the IND Rockaway Line in a similar manner to the 1939 plan, via an extension of the subway under Pitkin Avenue. The line, east of Euclid Avenue, would be 4 tracks, with local stations at 76th Street and 84th Street, and an express station at Cross Bay Boulevard. At Cross Bay Boulevard, a flying junction would let the local tracks cross over to the inside and the express tracks cross over to the outside. The layout would be similar to that of Manhattan's 168th Street station. East of Cross Bay Boulevard, another flying junction would bring a two-track branch over the line to a pair of portals north of Aqueduct – North Conduit Avenue station. Meanwhile, the Fulton Street Line's four tracks would merge into two tracks, and end at 105th Street (today's Aqueduct Racetrack), where a scissors crossover would be present just west of the station. Crossovers would also be located between the local and express pair of tracks east of 76th Street, and between the two express tracks east of Cross Bay Boulevard.[39]

Currently the line ends at Lefferts Boulevard in Ozone Park (the former end of the Fulton El), and only the Rockaway extension was completed.[5][7] The mainline tracks that go past the Euclid Avenue station were to be part of a 4-track line to Cambria Heights.[4]

Station listing[edit]

Station service legend
Stops all times Stops all times
Stops all times except late nights Stops all times except late nights
Stops late nights only Stops late nights only
Stops rush hours in peak direction only Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
Time period details
Handicapped/disabled access Station Tracks Services Opened Transfers and notes
Begins as a continuation of the IND Eighth Avenue Line express tracks (A all times C all except late nights);
with connecting tracks to the IND Sixth Avenue Line local tracks (no regular service)
Downtown Brooklyn Handicapped/disabled access Jay Street–MetroTech express A all times C all except late nights February 1, 1933 IND Culver Line (F all times)
BMT Fourth Avenue Line (N late nights R all except late nights)
Local tracks begin
Handicapped/disabled access Court Street local April 9, 1936 Closed 1946, reopened 1976 as the New York Transit Museum
Local tracks continue east from Court Street; Express tracks continue south then east from Jay Street–MetroTech
Hoyt–Schermerhorn Streets all A all times C all except late nights April 9, 1936 IND Crosstown Line (G all times)
Local tracks & platforms between local and express tracks unused
Fort Greene Lafayette Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights April 9, 1936
Clinton Hill Clinton–Washington Avenues local A late nights C all except late nights April 9, 1936
Bedford-Stuyvesant Handicapped/disabled access Franklin Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights April 9, 1936 BMT Franklin Avenue Line (S all times)
Nostrand Avenue all A all times C all except late nights April 9, 1936 local–lower level
express–upper level
B44 Select Bus Service
Kingston–Throop Avenues local A late nights C all except late nights April 9, 1936
Handicapped/disabled access Utica Avenue all A all times C all except late nights April 9, 1936 B46 Select Bus Service
Ralph Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights April 9, 1936
Rockaway Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights April 9, 1936
East New York Broadway Junction all A all times C all except late nights December 30, 1946 BMT Canarsie Line (L all times)
BMT Jamaica Line (J all times Z rush hours, peak direction)
originally Broadway-East New York
Liberty Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights November 28, 1948
Van Siclen Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights November 28, 1948
Shepherd Avenue local A late nights C all except late nights November 28, 1948
Handicapped/disabled access Euclid Avenue all A all times C all except late nights November 28, 1948
Connecting tracks to Pitkin Yard and Grant Avenue spurs; mainline tracks dead-end
City Line Grant Avenue A all times April 29, 1956
Single express track begins from Pitkin Yard (no regular service)
Ozone Park 80th Street local A all times September 25, 1915[40]
88th Street local A all times September 25, 1915[40]
Rockaway Boulevard local A all times September 25, 1915[40]
IND Rockaway Line splits (A all times)
104th Street local A all times September 25, 1915[40]
Richmond Hill 111th Street local A all times September 25, 1915[40]
Ozone Park–Lefferts Boulevard A all times September 25, 1915[40] Q10 bus to JFK Airport


  1. ^ MTA. "Average weekday subway ridership". Retrieved 2 April 2014. 
  2. ^ a b c d e f Dougherty, Peter (2006). Tracks of the New York City Subway 2006 (3rd ed.). Dougherty – via Google Books. 
  3. ^ a b c d e Sparberg, Andrew J. (1 October 2014). From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-6190-1. 
  4. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Joseph B. Raskin (1 November 2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-5369-2. Retrieved 12 August 2015. 
  5. ^ a b c d e "First Leg of Rockaways Transit Opened at Cost of $10,154,702". The New York Times. April 30, 1956. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  6. ^ "MTA Neighborhood Map: Woodhaven" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. 2015. Retrieved 22 July 2015. 
  7. ^ a b c d Freeman, Ira Henry (June 28, 1956). "Rockaway Trains to Operate Today". The New York Times. Retrieved 29 June 2015. 
  8. ^ a b c Duffus, R.L. (September 22, 1929). "OUR GREAT SUBWAY NETWORK SPREADS WIDER; New Plans of Board of Transportation Involve the Building of More Than One Hundred Miles of Additional Rapid Transit Routes for New York". The New York Times. Retrieved 19 August 2015. 
  9. ^ a b c d e "Trains Roll on $47,000,000 Fulton St. Subway Extension". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 29, 1948. p. 2. Retrieved 9 October 2015. 
  10. ^ "New Fulton Street Subway Officially Started as Byrne Turns Earth; Ground is Broken For Subway Line Along Fulton St.; Byrne Turns First Spade of Arlington Pl. Earth as Merchants Applaud.". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. April 17, 1929. p. 4. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  11. ^ "Two Subway Links Start Wednesday". The New York Times. April 6, 1936. p. 23. Retrieved October 7, 2011. 
  12. ^ "NEW SUBWAY LINK OPENED BY MAYOR; He Tells 15,000 in Brooklyn It Will Be Extended to Queens When Red Tape Is Cut.". The New York Times. 1936-04-09. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved 2016-08-15. 
  13. ^ a b c Linder, Bernard (February 2006). "Fulton Street Subway". New York Division Bulletin. Electric Railroader's Association. 49 (2): 2. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  14. ^ "Subway Contract Given to Boro Firm". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 12, 1940. p. 2. Retrieved 27 August 2016. 
  15. ^ a b Blauvelt, Paul (June 9, 1946). "Shortages Snarl $50,000,000 Tube Links". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 21. Retrieved 9 October 2015. 
  16. ^ Kramer, Frederick A. (1990-01-01). Building the Independent Subway. Quadrant Press. ISBN 9780915276509. 
  17. ^ "IND Fulton Street Line". Retrieved 2016-02-18. 
  18. ^ Foley, A.J. (1946). "Sign for the Closing of the Court Street Station, 1946 ; IND Crosstown Line". New York Transit Museum. Retrieved 28 August 2016. 
  19. ^ a b Report for the three and one-half years ending June 30, 1949. New York City Board of Transportation. 1949. 
  20. ^ Fulton Subway Stations Open After All-Night 'Dry Runs'
  21. ^ "Last Word in Subways and Cars for Boro". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. November 23, 1948. p. 8. Retrieved 9 October 2015. 
  22. ^ Ingalls, Leonard (August 28, 1953). "2 Subway Lines to Add Cars, Another to Speed Up Service". New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  23. ^ Bennett, Charles G. (November 20, 1949). "Transit Platforms on Lines in Queens to be Lengthened". The New York Times. Retrieved 16 July 2016. 
  24. ^ Noonan, Dan (March 6, 1951). "Transit Board to Add 1 Car to Fulton St. IND Trains: 11-Car Units Will East Rush Hour Jam in Boro". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. p. 5. Retrieved 16 July 2016. 
  25. ^ "Cashmore Hails Slum Clearance in Downtown Section" (PDF). Brooklyn Eagle. October 16, 1952. p. 10. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  26. ^ Noonan, Dan (August 13, 1954). "Asks Funds for New Boro Criminal Courts Building: Plan To Construct It at Smith and Atlantic" (PDF). Brooklyn Eagle. Retrieved 15 August 2016. 
  27. ^ "$7,000,000 Signal Job To Be Let In February: City Approves $1,000,000 Contracts For Station And Sub-Station in Broad Channel And For The Rehabilitation Of The Liberty Avenue Line" (PDF). Wave of Long Island. December 23, 1954. p. 1. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  28. ^ "$7,000,000 Signal Job To Be Let In February: City Approves $1,000,000 Contracts For Station And Sub-Station in Broad Channel And For The Rehabilitation Of The Liberty Avenue Line" (PDF). Wave of Long Island. December 23, 1954. p. 7. Retrieved 22 July 2016. 
  29. ^ "Architectural Rendering of Grant Avenue Control Building: IND Fulton Line". New York Transit Museum. August 11, 1954. Retrieved 25 August 2016. 
  30. ^ Cunningham, Joseph; DeHart, Leonard O. (1993-01-01). A History of the New York City Subway System. J. Schmidt, R. Giglio, and K. Lang. 
  31. ^ "First Train On Rockaway Line Runs This Afternoon" (PDF). Wave of Long Island. June 28, 1956. p. 1. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  32. ^ "First Train On Rockaway Line Runs This Afternoon" (PDF). Wave of Long Island. June 28, 1956. p. 6. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  33. ^ "TA's New Line To Rockaways Begins Today: Fifty Piece Band To Play as Special Train Makes First Run" (PDF). The Leader-Observer. June 28, 1956. p. 1. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  34. ^ "To Rockaways: Beach Trains In Operation" (PDF). Greenpoint Weekly Star. June 29, 1956. p. 2. Retrieved 16 August 2016. 
  35. ^ a b c Roger P. Roess; Gene Sansone (23 August 2012). The Wheels That Drove New York: A History of the New York City Transit System. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 416–417. ISBN 978-3-642-30484-2. 
  36. ^ a b Board of Transportation of the City of New York Engineering Department, Proposed Additional Rapid Transit Lines And Proposed Vehicular Tunnel, dated August 23, 1929
  37. ^ a b c Project for Expanded Rapid Transit Facilities, New York City Transit System, dated July 5, 1939
  38. ^ Jaffe, Alfred (December 6, 1946). "Borough Subway Relief Still 2 or 3 Years Off". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. pp. 1, 5. Retrieved 9 October 2015. 
  39. ^ Track diagram of the revised plan
  40. ^ a b c d e f "New Elevated Line Opened for Queens" (PDF). The New York Times. September 26, 1915. Retrieved 2007-09-28. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Bing / Google

KML is from Wikidata