This is a good article. Click here for more information.

IND Queens Boulevard Line

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia
Jump to: navigation, search
IND Queens Boulevard Line
NYCS-line-black-Queens-Blvd.svg
Stations on the IND Queens Boulevard Line
are served by E, F, M and R trains.
Overview
Type Rapid transit
System New York City Subway
Locale New York City
Termini 50th Street
Jamaica–179th Street
Daily ridership 467,779 (2015, weekday)[a]
Operation
Owner City of New York
Operator(s) New York City Transit Authority
Character Underground
Technical
Track gauge 4 ft 8 12 in (1,435 mm) standard gauge

The IND Queens Boulevard Line, sometimes abbreviated as QBL,[2] is a line of the B Division of the New York City Subway in Manhattan and Queens, New York City, United States. The line, which is underground throughout its entire route, contains 23 stations. The core section between 50th Street in Hell's Kitchen, Manhattan, and 169th Street in Jamaica, Queens, was built by the Independent Subway System (IND) in stages between 1933 and 1940, with the Jamaica–179th Street terminus opening in 1950. As of 2015, it is among the system's busiest lines, with a weekday ridership of over 460,000 people.

The Queens Boulevard Line's eastern terminus is the four-track 179th Street station. The line continues westward then northwest as a four-track line with the local tracks to the outside of the express tracks. The Queens Boulevard Line merges with the IND Archer Avenue Line west of Briarwood and with Jamaica Yard spurs west of Forest Hills–71st Avenue. The express tracks and the local tracks diverge at 65th Street in Jackson Heights and merge again at 36th Street in Sunnyside. West of 36th Street, the IND 63rd Street Line splits off both pairs of tracks, entering Manhattan via the 63rd Street Tunnel. At Queens Plaza in Long Island City, the line narrows to two tracks, with the local tracks splitting into the 60th Street Tunnel Connection and the IND Crosstown Line. From there, the express tracks of the line provide crosstown service across Manhattan under 53rd Street before turning southwest at Eighth Avenue, ending at the 50th Street station. The two-track section west of Queens Plaza is also known as the IND 53rd Street Line.

The Queens Boulevard line is served by four overlapping routes. The E train serves the section between 50th Street and Briarwood, normally running express west of 71st Avenue. The F runs express from 36th Street to 71st Avenue and local east of 71st Avenue. The M and R serve local stops on the route west of 71st Avenue, with the M diverging from the line west of Fifth Avenue/53rd Street and the R splitting west of Queens Plaza. The E and F serve the line at all times, while the M runs on the line during weekdays only and the R runs on the line at all times except late nights. During late nights, the E makes local stops west of Briarwood to provide local service along the line. The routes experience frequent overcrowding during weekdays, and the Queens Boulevard line has among the highest rush-hour train frequencies in the system. A proposed upgrade to the line, to replace its signals with a communications-based train control system, would add capacity to the line.

The line's construction in the 1920s and 1930s promoted housing growth along the Queens Boulevard corridor and stimulated the urbanization of central Queens. However, there are multiple provisions for spur routes along the Queens Boulevard line that were never built. The most notable of these proposals was the IND Second System, which would have provided a spur to Maspeth from the Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue station; another spur to the Rockaways east of 63rd Drive–Rego Park via the Rockaway Beach Branch; a third spur east of Briarwood along the former Van Wyck Boulevard to South Ozone Park; and an extension of the line eastward past 179th Street. Other proposals included a "super express bypass" that would use the right-of-way of the Long Island Rail Road's Main Line to bypass all stations between 36th Street and 71st Avenue, as well as a spur from the Woodhaven Boulevard station northeast to Queens College via the Long Island Expressway.

Route[edit]

IND Queens Boulevard Line
Jamaica–179th Street
169th Street
Parsons Boulevard
Sutphin Boulevard
IND Archer Avenue Line
Briarwood
Jamaica Yard connection
Former IND World's Fair Line
Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike
75th Avenue
Jamaica Yard connection
Forest Hills–71st Avenue
67th Avenue
63rd Drive–Rego Park
Woodhaven Boulevard
Grand Avenue–Newtown IRT Flushing Line
Elmhurst Avenue unbuilt IND Winfield Spur to Rockaways
Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue (unused upper level)
65th Street
Express Tracks diverge
Northern Boulevard
46th Street
Steinway Street
Express Tracks diverge
36th Street
IND 63rd Street Line
Queens Plaza
60th Street Tunnel Connection
IND Crosstown Line
IRT Flushing Line
Court Square–23rd Street
53rd Street Tunnel
Fifth Avenue/53rd Street
IND Sixth Avenue Line
Seventh Avenue
50th Street

The IND Queens Boulevard Line begins with a large storage yard consisting of two levels with four tracks each south of 185th Street and Hillside Avenue. Once the tracks from the lower level merge with the tracks on the upper level, there is the first station Jamaica–179th Street (E F trains), and the line continues as a four-track subway under Hillside Avenue.[3] Just after curving north under the Van Wyck Expressway, a flying junction joins the two-track Archer Avenue Line (E train) to the local and express tracks. Soon after, the line turns west under Queens Boulevard.[4]

39th Avenue Ventilation Complex on Northern Boulevard

East of Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike, another flying junction ties the eastward tracks to Jamaica Yard. The other side of the wye curves west to become a lower level of the subway just west of Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike. After passing through 75th Avenue, those tracks join the local and express tracks at another flying junction.[4]

At Forest Hills–71st Avenue, the M R trains begin their westward routes. West of here, the line (now carrying the E F M R trains) runs under Queens Boulevard until it turns north onto Broadway after Grand Avenue–Newtown. Near Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue, an abandoned trackless tunnel for the IND Second System branches off into an unused upper part of the station which is used for storage.[5] At the intersection of Broadway and Northern Boulevard, west of the line's Northern Boulevard station, the express tracks turn west under Northern Boulevard. The local tracks take a longer route, remaining under Broadway, then turning south onto Steinway Street and west again onto Northern Boulevard, where they rejoin the express tracks.[4][6] This is only one of two areas in the subway where the express tracks diverge from the local tracks (the other being the IND Culver Line between Seventh Avenue and Church Avenue.)[2][7]

As the line leaves 36th Street, the two-track IND 63rd Street Line (F train) splits from both sets of tracks at a flying junction, running to Manhattan under 41st Avenue. The Queens Boulevard Line continues under Northern Boulevard to Queens Plaza (E M R trains) before line splitting into three parts at another flying junction. The express tracks (E M trains) continue towards Manhattan under 44th Drive, while the local tracks split two ways, with the 60th Street Tunnel Connection (R train) turning northwest and the IND Crosstown Line (no regular service) remaining under Jackson Avenue (Northern Boulevard south of Queens Plaza). From this point on, the Queens Boulevard Line has only two tracks.[4]

The line continues west through the 53rd Street Tunnel under the East River into Manhattan. After Lexington Avenue–53rd Street, the westbound tracks rise above the eastbound tracks. A flying junction after Fifth Avenue/53rd Street, ties the westbound tracks into the southbound local tracks of the IND Sixth Avenue Line, which begin here as a merge of these connection tracks and the IND 63rd Street Line. At that junction, the Sixth Avenue express tracks turn west under 53rd Street, just to the south of the Queens Boulevard Line. The two lines share platforms at Seventh Avenue, but no connecting tracks are present.[4]

Then the Queens Boulevard Line turns south below the IND Eighth Avenue Line with separate lower-level platforms at 50th Street. Then the tracks split to join the local and express tracks of the Eighth Avenue Line north of 42nd Street–Port Authority Bus Terminal. At that station, a special lower platform formerly served a single southbound track from the Queens Boulevard Line, merging with both southbound tracks of the Eighth Avenue Line south of the station;[4][8][9] the long-disused platform was demolished in June 2013 to make way for the extension of the IRT Flushing Line.[10]

Services[edit]

  Time period[11] Section of line[11]
Weekdays Weekends Late nights
"E" train full line (limited rush hour trips)
south of Briarwood (other times)
"F" train north of 36th Street
"M" train no service between Fifth Avenue/53rd Street and Forest Hills–71st Avenue (weekdays)
"R" train no service between Queens Plaza and Forest Hills–71st Avenue (all except late nights)
Briarwood station police headquarters

During daytime hours, the portion of the line between 36th Street and Forest Hills–71st Avenue is served by four services: the E, F, M, and R.[11] The M operates via Sixth Avenue and 53rd Street to Queens Plaza before making local stops to Forest Hills–71st Avenue on weekdays.[12] The R enters Queens Boulevard from the Broadway Line and the 60th Street Tunnel before making local stops to Forest Hills–71st Avenue at all times except late nights.[12] The F train joins the IND Queens Boulevard Line from the 63rd Street Line and runs express to Forest Hills–71st Avenue before making local stops to Jamaica–179th Street at all times.[12] The E train runs from the Eighth Avenue Line and 53rd Street to Queens Boulevard before making express stops along the line (except evenings and weekends when it makes all stops east of Forest Hills–71st Avenue and during late night hours when it runs local on the entire line) to the Archer Avenue Line east of Briarwood.[11][12] Limited rush hour E trains also run express to Jamaica–179th Street.[11]

The entire line is patrolled by NYPD Transit Bureau District 20, headquartered at Briarwood.[13]

History[edit]

Construction[edit]

The Queens Boulevard Line, also referred to as the Long Island City−Jamaica Line, Fifty-third Street−Jamaica Line, and Queens Boulevard−Jamaica Line prior to opening,[7][14][15] was one of the original lines of the city-owned Independent Subway System (IND), planned to stretch between the IND Eighth Avenue Line in Manhattan and 178th Street and Hillside Avenue in Jamaica, Queens.[7][15][16]

As originally proposed in 1925, the line's junction with the IND Crosstown Line in Long Island City would have been a T-junction, allowing trains from Manhattan to travel south to Brooklyn via the Crosstown line.[16] A map from June of that year shows a proposed alternate routing for the Queens Boulevard Line,[17] that would have had the line turn via Kew Gardens Road after the Union Turnpike station instead of continuing via Queens Boulevard. After proceeding via Kew Gardens Road the line would have turned via Hillside Avenue. The map also shows a two-track line continuing from the Van Wyck Boulevard station to 94th Avenue (Atlantic Avenue) in Richmond Hill via Van Wyck Boulevard (today's Van Wyck Expressway).[18] During construction only bellmouths were built for the line, however they were eventually used for the IND Archer Avenue Line. As documented by the map, the Queens Boulevard Line, as originally planned, would have had the express trains travel on a more direct route, via Broadway and Queens Boulevard, while the local trains would take a less direct route hitting larger population centers. There were to be two such instances, however only one was actually completed. The first one, which was not constructed, would have gone through Winfield (now Woodside), west of the existing Elmhurst Avenue station, and the local tracks would have diverged, continuing via Queens Broadway before turning onto 69th Street (Fisk Avenue), rejoining the express tracks at Broadway in Woodside. The second instance, the one that was built, was planned to have the local tracks continue via Broadway west of the 65th Street station, and then it would turn south via Steinway Street before rejoining the express tracks at the 36th Street station. The express tracks here would take the more direct route, via Northern Boulevard.[18]

As part of the subway line's construction, underpasses were built at Kew Gardens (top) and Woodhaven Boulevard (bottom).

On February 26, 1927, the New York City Board of Estimate awarded and approved a $10,481,550 contract to the Patrick McGovern Company. Ground was broken at Vernon Boulevard and 44th Drive in Long Island City on April 2, 1927. The first contract for work entirely within Queens was given to the Atwell-Gustin-Morris Company by the New York City Board of Transportation on December 14, 1927. The contract covered the section of the line under Jackson Avenue between the junction with the under-construction Crosstown Line near Queen Street and 44th Drive. The section between Arch Street and Steinway Avenue was awarded to the W.G.T. Construction Company, which required moving the support pillars for the elevated IRT Flushing Line to the sides of the street. Triest Construction Company was awarded the next segment, which was between Queen Street and the intersection of Northern Boulevard and 37th Street. The following section was awarded to J.F. Cogan Company, which was required to build the section between the intersection of Steinway Street and Broadway and the intersection of 53rd Street and Northern Boulevard. The remainder of the line was called Route 108, and it was divided into six sections. The first section, between 53rd Street and Pettit Place via Broadway went to Atwell-Gustin-Morris Company, while the section between along Broadway and Queens Boulevard from Pettit Place and 55th Avenue went to George H. Flynn Company. The sections between 55th Avenue and 64th Road and from 64th Road to 71st Road went to Arthur A. Johnson. The final two sections were from 71st Road to Union Turnpike, and from 137th Street to Hillside Avenue.[19]

The two tubes of the 53rd Street Tunnel under the East River began construction in spring 1927, and were fully excavated between Queens and Manhattan in January 1929, with a ventilation shaft built on Welfare Island (today's Roosevelt Island).[20] On October 4, 1928, the Board of Estimate approved the construction of the Queens Boulevard Line.[21] During the line's construction, several intersections of Queens Boulevard with major roads were grade separated, in a similar manner to Grand Concourse in the Bronx during the building of the IND Concourse Line around that same time.[15][22] At adjacent intersections with Woodhaven Boulevard and Horace Harding Boulevard (now the Long Island Expressway) in Elmhurst, Queens Boulevard's main road was depressed into underpasses.[22][23] In Kew Gardens, Union Turnpike and the Interboro Parkway (now the Jackie Robinson Parkway) were depressed below Queens Boulevard at the level of the Union Turnpike station's mezzanine.[24] The subway from Long Island City to Roosevelt Avenue and 74th Street was completed by April 1932.[19]

During the 1920s and 1930s, in conjunction with the subway construction project, Queens Boulevard was widened with up to twelve lanes in some places, and a right-of-way of 200 feet (61 m) in width was created.[25] With the widening, Queens Boulevard was wide enough for the construction of a four track subway line without serious disruption of surface travel, with the area alongside the boulevard not built up in many places. More often than not in some places, billboards would be visible instead of buildings. During the construction of the line, electric utility service was temporarily provided by a wooden pole line. Once the construction of the line was completed, the utility service was underground, and the Queens Boulevard trolley line was replaced by bus service (today's Q60), in part due to competition with the newly constructed subway line.[26] Because the construction of the Queens Boulevard Line utilized the cut-and-cover tunneling method, Queens Boulevard had to be torn up and in order to allow pedestrians to cross, temporary bridges were built over the trenches.[27] Like other IND lines, many stations' mezzanines stretched the full length and width of their stations, and are now considered to be overbuilt.[28]

Building boom and the growth of communities[edit]

Streetscape of Forest Hills, Queens
Neighborhoods in Queens, such as Forest Hills (pictured), sprung up around the new subway.[29]

The construction of the Queens Boulevard subway line offered the possibility of quick commutes to the central business district in Midtown Manhattan. In the late 1920s, speculators, upon learning the route of the proposed line, quickly bought up property on and around Queens Boulevard, and real estate prices soared, and older buildings were demolished in order to make way for new development.[27][30] In order to allow for the speculators to build fifteen-story apartment buildings, several blocks were rezoned.[31] They built apartment building in order to accommodate the influx of residents from Midtown Manhattan that would desire a quick and cheap commute to their jobs.[27][32] Since the new line had express tracks, communities built around express stations, such as in Forest Hills and Kew Gardens became more desirable to live. With the introduction of the subway into the community of Forest Hills, Queens Borough President George U. Harvey predicted that Queens Boulevard would become the "Park Avenue of Queens".[27] With the introduction of the subway, Forest Hills and Kew Gardens were transformed from quiet residential communities of one-family houses to active population centers.[29] Following the line's completion, there was an increase in the property values of buildings around Queens Boulevard.[33] For example, a property along Queens Boulevard that would have sold for $1,200 in 1925, would have sold for $10,000 in 1930.[34] The population of Forest Hills in 1930 was 18,000, having increased to 100,000 in 1965.[35]

The construction boom was not limited to express stations, with fifteen-story apartment buildings built by Cord Meyer, an eighty-family apartment house built by the Rego Park Construction Corporation, and 300 one-family homes built along Woodhaven Boulevard by Pherbus Kaplan, all surrounding the 63rd Drive local station. These development companies all sought out to continue to increase the value of their properties in anticipation of the opening of the subway.[36]

Queens Boulevard, prior to the construction of the subway was just a route to allow people to get to Jamaica, running through farmlands. Since the construction of the line, the area of the thoroughfare that stretches from Rego Park to Kew Gardens has been home to apartment buildings, and a thriving business district that the Chamber of Commerce calls the "Golden Area".[35]

In Elmhurst, the destruction of almost all of the century-old buildings in the heart of the village were destroyed for the construction of the subway. Land was taken on the west side of the Broadway to avoid the demolition of the Saint James Episcopal Church and the Reformed Church. Many nineteenth century residences and the Wandowenock Fire Company buildings had to be torn down. To allow the subway line to curve into Queens Boulevard from Broadway, the northeast corner of the two streets was removed, in addition to some stores and an old Presbyterian chapel. New buildings were built behind a new curb line once the subway was completed, bringing a new face to Elmhurst. The introduction of the subway stimulated local growth in Elmhurst. Commercial buildings and apartment houses replaced existing structures.[19][37]

Opening and expansion[edit]

The first section of the line, west from Roosevelt Avenue to 50th Street, opened on August 19, 1933.[19] E trains ran local to Hudson Terminal (today's World Trade Center) in Manhattan, while the GG (predecessor to current G service) ran as a shuttle service between Queens Plaza and Nassau Avenue on the IND Crosstown Line.[6][38][39] Later that year, a $23 million loan was approved to finance the remainder of the line, along with other IND lines.[40] Construction was suspended for 15 months from 1934 to 1935,[41] and was further delayed due to a strike in 1935, instigated by electricians opposing wages paid by the General Railway Signal Company.[41][42] An extension east to Union Turnpike opened on December 31, 1936.[43][44][19] The line was extended to Hillside Avenue and 178th Street, with a terminal station at 169th Street on April 24, 1937.[6][43][45] That day, express service began on the Queens Boulevard Line during rush hours, with E trains running express west of 71st–Continental Avenues, and GG trains taking over the local during rush hours.[46][47] The initial headway for express service was between three and five minutes.[48] 23rd Street–Ely Avenue station opened as an in-fill station on August 28, 1939.[49] Upon its extension into Jamaica, the line drew Manhattan-bound passengers away from the nearby BMT Jamaica Line subway and the Long Island Rail Road.[50]

From April 1939 to October 1940, the Queens Boulevard Line served the 1939 New York World's Fair via the World's Fair Railroad. The World's Fair line ran via a connection through the Jamaica Yard and through Flushing Meadows–Corona Park along the current right-of-way of the Van Wyck Expressway.[43][51] After calls from public officials such as Queens Borough President George Harvey to make the line a permanent connection to Flushing and northern Queens, the line was demolished in 1941.[38]

After LaGuardia Airport opened on February 21, 1940, the Roosevelt Avenue station became an important transfer point to buses to the airport, including the privately-owned Q33.[6]

"Sixth Avenue Subway Will Be Opened to the Public at 12:01 A.M. Sunday, Dec 15, 1940"

On December 15, 1940, F trains began running via the newly opened IND Sixth Avenue Line, also running express west of 71st–Continental Avenues. 169th Street and Parsons Boulevard were both used as terminal stations during this time, with the E terminating at one station and the F at the other.[47][46][52] This setup was instituted to prevent congestion at both stations.[53]

The existing 169th Street station provided an unsatisfactory terminal setup for a four track line, and this required the turning of F trains at Parsons Boulevard, and no storage facilities were provided at the station. Therefore, the line was going to be extended to 184th Place with a station at 179th Street with two island platforms, sufficient entrances and exits, and storage for four ten-car trains. The facilities would allow for the operation of express and local service to the station.[53] Construction on the extension started in 1947 and was projected to be completed in 1949.[54][55] The extension was completed later than expected and opened on December 11, 1950. This extension was delayed due to the Great Depression and World War II. Both E and F trains were extended to the new station.[56]

Later years[edit]

In 1953, the platforms were lengthened at 75th Avenue and Sutphin Boulevard to 660 feet to allow E and F trains to run eleven car trains. The E and F began running eleven car trains during rush hours on September 8, 1953. The extra train car increased the total carrying capacity by 4,000 passengers. The lengthening project cost $400,000.[57]

Because local service was only offered by the GG trains which only ran into Brooklyn, riders were forced to transfer at express stations to reach Manhattan. This caused overcrowding and delays. The Board of Transportation had first proposed a connection between the Queens Boulevard Line and the 60th Street Tunnel in 1940. Fifteen years later, on December 1, 1955, a connection to the 60th Street Tunnel opened, allowing trains from the BMT Broadway Line to serve Queens Boulevard as an additional local from 71st−Continental. This connection was one of the most important links in the system, with Crosstown Line trains, which originally were the sole trains to serve the Queens Boulevard local tracks, routed away from the Queens Boulevard Line in 2010.[38] Service was initially provided by QT Broadway−Brighton trains (predecessor to the Q train).[46][58] This service would be replaced by RR trains in 1961, a new EE train in 1967, and N trains in 1976.[46] The now-R train was rerouted back to the line in 1987, to provide trains from the route direct access to the Jamaica Yard.[46][59][60]

In December 1988, the Archer Avenue Lines opened, utilizing existing provisions east of the Briarwood station. The E was rerouted to its current terminus at Jamaica Center.[59][61] In December 2001, the connection to the IND 63rd Street Line (built along with the Archer Avenue subway), was opened and F trains were rerouted away from the 53rd Street tunnel. Around this time, the G was truncated to Court Square during peak hours and the V train was created to replace the F via 53rd Street.[62][63][64]

In 2010, budget constraints within the MTA led to service reductions on the line. On April 19, 2010, G service was permanently truncated to Court Square at all hours.[62] On June 27, 2010 V service was eliminated, and the M train was extended via the Chrystie Street Connection to replace it.[62][65]

Congestion on the line during peak hours has existed for much of the line's history,[61][62][66] and as of 2015, the stations along the line had a combined 467,779 entries, making it among the system's busiest.[1] As a result of overcrowding, the MTA is seeking to automate the line, with phase one equipping the tracks from 50th Street/8th Avenue and 47th–50th Streets–Rockefeller Center to Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike with communications-based train control.[2][62] It had previously been proposed to reverse-signal the line, to allow three of the line's four tracks to run in a single peak direction.[66] The $205.8 million contract for the installment of phase one was awarded in 2015 to Siemens and Thales. Planning for phase one started in 2015, with major engineering work to follow in 2017.[67] In January 2017, L.K. Comstock & Company Inc. was selected to fulfill a $223.3-million contract to upgrade existing signals and install communications, fiber-optic, and CBTC infrastructure for the new signal system.[68] The total cost for the entire Queens Boulevard Line is estimated at over $900 million.[69] The automation of the Queens Boulevard Line means that the E F services will be able to run 3 more trains during peak hours (it currently runs 30 tph). This will also increase capacity on the local tracks of the IND Queens Boulevard Line.[69] However, as the line hosts several services, installation of CBTC on the line can be much harder than on the Flushing and Canarsie lines.[70]

Provisions for expansion[edit]

IND Second System[edit]

The Jackson Heights/Roosevelt Avenue station
The Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue station has an unused upper level.[5][7]
The wide median of Hillside Avenue, which would have facilitated the Springfield Boulevard terminal station.

The Queens Boulevard Line was originally planned to extend farther along Hillside Avenue into eastern Queens.[71] The line would have gone at least to the intersection of Hillside, Springfield Boulevard and Braddock Avenue (the latter two both formerly part of Rocky Hill Road) in Queens Village, with later plans to go as far as Little Neck Parkway in Bellerose near the Nassau County border.[38][43][72] The extension to Springfield Boulevard, which on contract drawings was referred to as Route 108-Section 13, would have been a two track extension of the D3 and D4 express tracks, with five stations, at 187th Street, 197th Street, Cross Island Boulevard (today's Francis Lewis Boulevard), 214th Street, and the terminal at Springfield Boulevard. All of these stations, with the exception of Springfield Boulevard, would have had two side platforms.[73] Hillside Avenue was widened in the 1930s between 218th Street and 229th Street, in order to accommodate construction of the proposed Springfield Boulevard station.[74] As part of the extension of the line to 179th Street in 1950, provisions were made to extend this line farther east via Hillside Avenue. East of the 179th Street there are two four track levels both used as train storage. The upper level was intended to be extended eastward, while the lower level was always intended to be used to relay and store trains. The tracks on the upper level are longer than the lower level tracks and the upper level tracks have a wooden partition at the bumper blocks. The tracks continue until 184th Street.[53]

Several stations along the line also have provisions for other extensions as part of the IND Second System. The Roosevelt Avenue station has an additional upper level platform and bellmouth provisions east of the station, which would have gone to a Queens crosstown line to the Rockaways.[5][7] The 63rd Drive station has similar bellmouths, which would have fed directly into the inactive portion of the Long Island Rail Road's former Rockaway Beach Branch near its former junction with the LIRR Main Line (Whitepot Junction).[75][76] One stop west, the Woodhaven Boulevard station has provisions to be converted into an express station.[77] East of the Briarwood station, there were additional trackways built for an extension down Van Wyck Boulevard (today the Van Wyck Expressway) to Rockaway Boulevard, near the current site of John F. Kennedy International Airport.[7][41][72] None of these proposals were ever funded, and only the Briarwood bellmouths were used for future expansion, while the Rockaway line was connected instead to the IND Fulton Street Line.[38][43][61]

Program for Action[edit]

When proposed in the mid-1960s under the MTA's Program for Action, the Archer Avenue and 63rd Street subway lines were two parts of a major planned expansion of Queens Boulevard line service.[38][61] The 63rd Street tunnel would have facilitated service between the Queens Boulevard line and the Second Avenue Subway, via bellmouths west of Roosevelt Island which turn south towards Midtown and Lower Manhattan. These turnouts may be used for the third and fourth phases of the Second Avenue Subway.[78][79] The proposed connection to the LIRR Rockaway Beach Branch resurfaced, with proposed branch lines along other LIRR lines to outer Queens areas without rapid transit service.[38] Expected to be completed by the mid-1970s and early 1980s,[80][81] these plans (the most important of which are outlined below) were derailed by the 1970s fiscal crisis, which delayed the completion of the Archer Avenue and 63rd Street lines.[38][61][64]

"Super-express" line[edit]

The Woodside LIRR station
A "super-express" bypass of the line would have had a station built at Woodside.[73][82]

The Archer Avenue and 63rd Street lines were planned to be connected by a "super-express" bypass of the Queens Boulevard line,[61][81][62] The bypass would have used the outer two of the six trackways of the LIRR Main Line (formerly used by the Rockaway Beach Branch), which are currently unused, and would have allowed trains to travel at speeds of up to 70 miles per hour. It would stretch from the 63rd Street Line east of 21st Street–Queensbridge, with the possibility of access to the 60th and 53rd Street tunnels. At its east end, it would have left the LIRR right-of-way near Whitepot Junction and ran under Yellowstone Boulevard to the Queens Boulevard Line near 71st Avenue station. The 71st Avenue station would have been converted into a bi-level or tri-level station, with the super express tracks using the lower level(s) built south of the current station, before rejoining the main line Queens Boulevard tracks.[38][81][78]

There were also plans for an intermediate stop at the current Woodside LIRR station, and an additional 63rd Street line station at Northern Boulevard adjacent to Queens Plaza. The bypass and proposed Woodside station would have necessitated the widening of the LIRR Main Line right-of-way onto private property west of Winfield Junction, where the Main Line merges with the Port Washington Branch, and reorganization of the track layout in the Sunnyside Yards.[73][82] Later proposals suggested routing the bypass directly to the Archer Avenue line via the LIRR Montauk Branch (which no longer has passenger service).[78][83]

While plans to construct the bypass existed as late as 1985, the connection to the Queens Boulevard line at Northern Boulevard was built as an alternative to the bypass.[64][83] A bellmouth was built at the end of the tunnel should construction on the bypass ever commence.[84]

Northeast Queens line[edit]

Another less publicized plan around this time was a branch line diverging from the Queens Boulevard mainline near Woodhaven Boulevard, and running along the Long Island Expressway (LIE) corridor to Kissena Boulevard at Queens College, and later to Fresh Meadows and Bayside. This "Northeastern Queens" line, or Route 131-C, would have been built in conjunction with the planned widening of the expressway. The subway tracks would have been placed under the expressway or its service roads, or in the median of a widened LIE in a similar manner to the Congress Branch of the Chicago "L".[76][81][78] The Woodhaven Boulevard station, using existing provisions, would be converted to an express station. Three new stations would have been built during the first phase of the line, at 99th Street near LeFrak City, at Main Street, and a terminal station at Kissena Boulevard. At Main Street there would have been three tracks, and two island platforms. East of the terminus at Kissena Boulevard, there would have been two levels of layup tracks, allowing for an extension further east.[73] A similar line along the corridor had been proposed in the 1939 IND Second System plan as an extension of the BMT Broadway Line east of the 60th Street Tunnel, when the road was called Horace Harding Boulevard prior to the construction of the expressway.[38][72]

Southeast Queens line[edit]

The most important of the proposed lines along LIRR branches was a "Southeast Queens" extension of the Archer Avenue subway along the Locust Manor branch to Springfield Gardens, which was the original intention of the Queens Boulevard extension to Archer Avenue. This would have used an existing provision east of Jamaica Center, and necessitated the installation of two dedicated subway tracks, construction of new stations and/or the conversion of existing facilities along the right-of-way.[81][78][80]

Station listing[edit]

Station service legend
Stops all times Stops all times
Stops all times except late nights Stops all times except late nights
Stops late nights only Stops late nights only
Stops late nights and weekends Stops late nights and weekends only
Stops weekdays only Stops weekdays only
Stops rush hours in peak direction only Stops rush hours in the peak direction only
Time period details
Neighborhood
(approximate)
Handicapped/disabled access Station Tracks Services Opened Transfers and notes
Queens
Jamaica Handicapped/disabled access Jamaica–179th Street all E rush hours F all times December 10, 1950[56] Q3 bus to JFK Airport
169th Street local F all times April 24, 1937[45] Q3 bus to JFK Airport
Parsons Boulevard all E rush hours F all times April 24, 1937[45]
Sutphin Boulevard local F all times April 24, 1937[45] Q44 Select Bus Service
IND Archer Avenue Line (E all times) merges
Briarwood Elevator access to mezzanine only Briarwood local E nights after 9:00 p.m. and weekends F all times April 24, 1937[45] Q44 Select Bus Service
connecting tracks to Jamaica Yard
Kew Gardens Handicapped/disabled access Kew Gardens–Union Turnpike all E all times F all times December 31, 1936[44] Q10 bus to JFK Airport
Forest Hills 75th Avenue local E nights after 9:00 p.m. and weekends F all times December 31, 1936[44]
connecting tracks to Jamaica Yard; former connection to IND World's Fair Line
Handicapped/disabled access Forest Hills–71st Avenue all E all times F all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936[44]
Rego Park 67th Avenue local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936[44]
63rd Drive–Rego Park local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936[44]
Elmhurst Woodhaven Boulevard local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936[44]
Grand Avenue–Newtown local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936[44]
Elmhurst Avenue local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights December 31, 1936[44]
Jackson Heights Handicapped/disabled access Jackson Heights–Roosevelt Avenue all E all times F all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39] IRT Flushing Line (7 all times) at 74th Street–Broadway
Q70 Select Bus Service – LaGuardia Link to LaGuardia Airport
Q47 bus to LaGuardia Airport (Marine Air Terminal only)
Woodside 65th Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39]
express tracks go underneath (E all except late nights F all times)
Northern Boulevard local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39]
express tracks diverge (E all except late nights F all times)
Astoria 46th Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39]
Steinway Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39]
express tracks rejoin (E all except late nights F all times)
Long Island City 36th Street local E late nights M weekdays until 11 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39]
IND 63rd Street Line splits (F all times)
Handicapped/disabled access Queens Plaza all E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. R all hours except late nights August 19, 1933[39]
local tracks split to IND Crosstown Line (no regular service) and 60th Street Tunnel Connection (R all except late nights)
Elevator access to mezzanine only Court Square–23rd Street express E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. August 28, 1939[49] IND Crosstown Line (G all times)
IRT Flushing Line (7 all times <7> rush hours until 9:30 p.m., peak direction)
Manhattan
53rd Street Tunnel
Midtown Manhattan Handicapped/disabled access Lexington Avenue–53rd Street express E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. August 19, 1933[39] IRT Lexington Avenue Line (4 late nights 6 all times <6> weekdays until 8:45 p.m., peak direction) at 51st Street
Fifth Avenue/53rd Street express E all times M weekdays until 11:00 p.m. August 19, 1933[39]
connection to IND Sixth Avenue Line (M weekdays until 11:00 p.m.) splits
Seventh Avenue express E all times August 19, 1933[39] IND Sixth Avenue Line (B weekdays until 11:00 p.m. D all times)
Handicapped/disabled access[b] 50th Street express E all times August 19, 1933[39] IND Eighth Avenue Line (A late nights C all except late nights) (transfer in same direction only)
merges with IND Eighth Avenue Line (A all times C all except late nights)

Footnotes[edit]

  1. ^ This total is achieved by adding the total ridership of the stations on the Queens Boulevard Line.[1]
  2. ^ Southbound only

References[edit]

  1. ^ a b "Facts and Figures: Average Weekday Subway Ridership 2011–2016". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. May 31, 2017. Retrieved June 1, 2017. 
  2. ^ a b c "Capital Program Oversight Committee Meeting: July 2015" (PDF). New York City: Metropolitan Transportation Authority. July 2015. Archived from the original (PDF) on September 6, 2015. Retrieved August 11, 2015. 
  3. ^
  4. ^ a b c d e f Dougherty, Peter (2016). Tracks of the New York City Subway 2016 (14th ed.). Dougherty. 
  5. ^ a b c Martin, Douglas (November 17, 1996). "Subway Planners' Lofty Ambitions Are Buried as Dead-End Curiosities". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015. 
  6. ^ a b c d Kramer, Frederick A. (1990). Building the Independent Subway. Quadrant Press. ISBN 978-0-915276-50-9. 
  7. ^ a b c d e f
  8. ^ "New IND Platform Will Open Monday". nytimes.com. The New York Times. August 23, 1952. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  9. ^ Ingraham, Joseph C. (June 20, 1952). "New IND Platform at 8th and 42d To Expedite Service From Queens". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  10. ^ Donohue, Pete (June 20, 2009). "Abandoned No More: 2nd Life Drilled into Old 7 Subway Platform". New York Daily News. Retrieved January 30, 2010. 
  11. ^ a b c d e "Subway Service Guide" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 25, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017. 
  12. ^ a b c d "Subway Map" (PDF). Metropolitan Transportation Authority. June 25, 2017. Retrieved July 1, 2017. 
  13. ^ "NYPD – District 20". www.nyc.gov. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  14. ^ "QUEENS SUBWAY WORK AHEAD OF SCHEDULE: Completion Will Lead to Big Apartrnent Building, Says William C. Speers". The New York Times. April 7, 1929. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 
  15. ^ a b c "Queens Lauded as Best Boro By Chamber Chief". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. September 23, 1929. p. 40. Retrieved October 4, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  16. ^ a b New York Times, New Subway Routes in Hylan Program to Cost $186,046,000, March 21, 1925, page 1.
  17. ^ "1_8aaaf683001d5e21891cb425b64de612-1". Flickr – Photo Sharing!. 
  18. ^ a b
  19. ^ a b c d e Seyfried, Vincent F. (1995). Elmhurst : from town seat to mega-suburb. Vincent F. Seyfried. 
  20. ^ "L.I. City-Jamaica Subway To Open Between Plaza and Manhattan Next Year; City Will Extend Service With Completion of Each Section; Sullivan Reveals Plans of Board of Transportation" (PDF). Long Island Daily Star. Fultonhistory.com. March 15, 1930. p. 1. Retrieved July 27, 2016. 
  21. ^ "$17,146,500 VOTED FOR NEW SUBWAYS; Estimate Board Appropriates More Than $9,000,000 for Lines in Brooklyn. $6,490,000 FOR THE BRONX Smaller Items for Incidental Work --Approves the Proposed Queens Boulevard Route". The New York Times. October 5, 1928. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  22. ^ a b "PLANS ARE CHANGED FOR QUEENS SUBWAY: Traffic Crossings at Nassau and Woodhaven Boulevards Altered to Avoid Congestion. VIADUCT PROJECT DROPPED Main Driveway to Be Depressed, Side Routes to Be at Grade-- New Bids Due Soon. How Plans Were Changed. Elimination Plans Received". The New York Times. June 22, 1930. Retrieved September 1, 2015. 
  23. ^ "State and City Plans For Long Island Seen As Boost to Realty". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. January 24, 1932. p. 44. Retrieved November 3, 2015 – via Newspapers.com. 
  24. ^ "Highway Program Aids Long Island Growth". nytimes.com. The New York Times. April 27, 1930. Retrieved June 27, 2015. 
  25. ^
  26. ^
  27. ^ a b c d Hirshon, Nicholas; Romano, Foreword by Ray (January 1, 2013). Forest Hills. Arcadia Publishing. ISBN 978-0-7385-9785-0. 
  28. ^
  29. ^ a b
  30. ^
  31. ^ "QUEENS TO HAVE 15-STORY HOUSE; Tall Structure for New Residential Development in ForestHills Area.NEAR BOULEVARD SUBWAYSeveral Blocks Rezoned for High Buildings Between Jamaicaand Kew Gardens. Apartment Height's Increase". The New York Times. March 23, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved April 26, 2016. 
  32. ^ Copquin, Claudia Gryvatz (January 1, 2007). The Neighborhoods of Queens. Yale University Press. ISBN 0-300-11299-8. 
  33. ^
  34. ^ "RESIDENTIAL AREAS IN QUEENS EXPAND; Plans Are Announced for New Garden Apartment House in Jackson Heights. MANY SMALL HOMES BUILT Queens Boulevard Values Rise-- Construction Activity Reported in Woodhaven Section. Queens Boulevard Values Rise". The New York Times. May 11, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  35. ^ a b Dougherty, Philip H. (March 10, 1965). "Queens Boulevard, Once Just a Good Route to Jamaica, Is Becoming a 'Golden Area'; Urban Togetherness". The New York Times. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  36. ^ "QUEENS BOULEVARD READY FOR BUILDING; Subway Completion There Will Stimulate Large Housing Improvements". The New York Times. March 9, 1930. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  37. ^ Seyfried, Vincent F.; Asadorian, William (January 1, 1991). Old Queens, N.Y., in Early Photographs. Courier Corporation. ISBN 978-0-486-26358-8. 
  38. ^ a b c d e f g h i j Joseph B. Raskin (November 1, 2013). The Routes Not Taken: A Trip Through New York City's Unbuilt Subway System. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-5369-2. Retrieved August 12, 2015. 
  39. ^ a b c d e f g h i j k l
  40. ^ "Unfinished Sections of Subway Lines To Be Completed" (PDF). The New York Sun. Fultonhistory.com. December 13, 1933. p. 47. Retrieved July 30, 2016. 
  41. ^ a b c Neufeld, Ernest (August 23, 1936). "Men Toil Under Earth to Build Subway" (PDF). Long Island Daily Press. Fultonhistory.com. p. 2 (Section 2). Retrieved August 12, 2016. 
  42. ^
  43. ^ a b c d e Roger P. Roess; Gene Sansone (August 23, 2012). The Wheels That Drove New York: A History of the New York City Transit System. Springer Science & Business Media. pp. 416–417. ISBN 978-3-642-30484-2. 
  44. ^ a b c d e f g h i
  45. ^ a b c d e
  46. ^ a b c d e Sparberg, Andrew J. (October 1, 2014). From a Nickel to a Token: The Journey from Board of Transportation to MTA. Fordham University Press. ISBN 978-0-8232-6190-1. 
  47. ^ a b "Independent Subway Services Beginning in 1932". thejoekorner.com. August 21, 2013. Retrieved August 2, 2015. 
  48. ^ "TRANSIT LINK OPEN TODAY; 8th Ave. Line Extended to Jamaica—Celebration Arranged". The New York Times. April 24, 1937. ISSN 0362-4331. Retrieved August 4, 2016. 
  49. ^ a b
  50. ^ "New Lines Shift City Travel". Brooklyn Daily Eagle. Newspapers.com. July 8, 1937. Retrieved October 31, 2016. 
  51. ^ "TO BUILD FAIR SUBWAY P. T. Cox Co. Wins Award for Extending Independent System The first contract for the World's Fair spur from the Queens Boulevard line of the Independent Subway System was awarded yesterday by the Board of Transportation to the lowest bidder, the P. T. Cox Contracting Company, at the bid price of $308,770". nytimes.com. The New York Times. October 27, 1937. Retrieved July 6, 2015. 
  52. ^
  53. ^ a b c Report including analysis of operations of the New York City transit system for five years, ended June 30, 1945. New York City: Board of Transportation of the City of New York. 1945. 
  54. ^ "Subway Ground Broken: Mayor Officiates at Site of Extension in Queens". The New York Times. March 6, 1947. Retrieved August 12, 2016. 
  55. ^ Report for the three and one-half years ending June 30, 1949. New York City Board of Transportation. 1949. 
  56. ^ a b
  57. ^ Ingalls, Leonard (August 28, 1953). "2 Subway Lines to Add Cars, Another to Speed Up Service". New York Times. Retrieved January 25, 2016. 
  58. ^ "Straphangers Sit As Tunnel Opens". The New York Times. December 2, 1955. Retrieved February 28, 2010. 
  59. ^ a b Alternatives Analysis/Supplemental Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the Queens Subway Options Study. United States Department of Transportation, Metropolitan Transportation Authority, Urban Mass Transit Administration. May 1990. Retrieved August 13, 2016. 
  60. ^
  61. ^ a b c d e f Johnson, Kirk (December 9, 1988). "Big Changes For Subways Are to Begin". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved July 14, 2015. 
  62. ^ a b c d e f
  63. ^
  64. ^ a b c Kennedy, Randy (May 25, 2001). "Panel Approves New V Train but Shortens G Line to Make Room". The New York Times. Retrieved March 20, 2010. 
  65. ^
  66. ^ a b
  67. ^ "MTA | news | $205.8M in Contracts Approved to Install Communications-Based Train Control System". www.mta.info. Retrieved August 6, 2016. 
  68. ^ Wanek-Libman, Mischa (January 5, 2017). "MTA awards L.K. Comstock Queens Boulevard Line signaling contract". Retrieved January 31, 2017. 
  69. ^ a b Pages 11–12
  70. ^ "Advanced Signaling Makes the Most Out of Old Subways, But Can New York Handle It?". Retrieved August 6, 2016. 
  71. ^ "QUEENS INTERLACED WITH NEW ARTERIES: New Boulevards, Parks and Parkways Important Factors in Growth of Borough". nytimes.com. The New York Times. May 13, 1928. Retrieved July 8, 2015. 
  72. ^ a b c Project for Expanded Rapid Transit Facilities, New York City Transit System, dated July 5, 1939.
  73. ^ a b c d "Mysteries of the Queens Boulevard Subway". September 23, 2015. Retrieved July 10, 2016. 
  74. ^
  75. ^ "City Plans to Buy New Subway Link: Would Take Over Rockaway Branch of Long Island to Connect With Queens". nytimes.com. The New York Times. December 23, 1933. Retrieved June 30, 2015. 
  76. ^ a b Kihss, Peter (April 13, 1967). "3 Routes Proposed to Aid Growing Queens Areas". nytimes.com. The New York Times. Retrieved June 27, 2015. 
  77. ^ "The Express Stop That Never Was". ltvsquad.com. LTV Squad. June 2, 2015. Retrieved June 27, 2015. 
  78. ^ a b c d e
  79. ^
  80. ^ a b Burks, Edward C. (October 24, 1973). "Work Begun on Queens Subway Extension". The New York Times. Retrieved September 26, 2015. 
  81. ^ a b c d e
  82. ^ a b
  83. ^ a b Daley, Suzanne (November 1, 1984). "63D ST. SUBWAY TUNNEL: MORE SETBACKS FOR A TROUBLED PROJECT". The New York Times. Retrieved September 27, 2015. 
  84. ^ "MTA 63rd Street Connector". Metropolitan Transportation Authority. Archived from the original on October 30, 2014. Retrieved October 1, 2015. 

External links[edit]

Route map: Google

KML is from Wikidata