Vikramaditya at sea in 2014.
|Ordered:||20 January 2004|
|Builder:||Black Sea Shipyard, USSR, and Sevmash, Russia|
|Launched:||4 December 2008|
|Completed:||19 April 2012|
|Commissioned:||16 November 2013|
|In service:||14 June 2014|
|Homeport:||INS Kadamba, Karwar|
|Identification:||Pennant number: R33|
|Motto:||Strike Far, Strike Sure|
|Status:||in active service|
|Builder:||Chernomorskiy Yard, Nikolayev|
|Laid down:||17 February 1978 |
|Launched:||1 April 1982 |
|Commissioned:||11 December 1987 |
|Fate:||Sold to India on 20 January 2004|
|Class and type:||Modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier|
|Displacement:||45,400 tons of loaded displacement|
|Length:||283.5 metres (930 ft) (overall)|
|Beam:||59.8 metres (196 ft)|
|Draught:||10.2 metres (33 ft)|
|Installed power:||6 turbo alternators and 6 diesel alternators which generate 18 MWe|
|Propulsion:||8 turbo-pressurised boilers, 4 shafts, 4 geared steam turbines, generating 180,000 horsepower (134,226 kW)|
|Speed:||+30 knots (56 km/h)|
|Range:||13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at 18 knots (33 km/h)|
|Complement:||110 officers and 1500 sailors|
|Long range Air Surveillance Radars, LESORUB-E, Resistor-E radar complex, CCS MK II communication complex and Link II tactical data system|
INS Vikramaditya (Sanskrit, Vikramāditya meaning "Brave as the Sun"[note 1]) is a modified Kiev-class aircraft carrier which entered into service with the Indian Navy in 2013. She has been renamed in honour of Vikramaditya, a legendary emperor of Ujjain, India.
Originally built as Baku and commissioned in 1987, the carrier served with the Soviet and later with the Russian Navies (as Admiral Gorshkov) before being decommissioned in 1996 as she was too expensive to operate on a post-Cold War budget. The carrier was purchased by India on 20 January 2004 after years of negotiations at a final price of $2.35 billion. The ship successfully completed her sea trials in July 2013 and aviation trials in September 2013.
She was commissioned on 16 November 2013 at a ceremony held at Severodvinsk, Russia. On 14 June 2014, Prime Minister of India Narendra Modi formally inducted INS Vikramaditya into the Indian Navy and dedicated it to the nation.
- 1 History
- 2 Design
- 3 Sea trials and commissioning
- 4 Service history
- 5 Accidents
- 6 See also
- 7 Notes
- 8 References
- 9 Bibliography
- 10 External links
Baku entered service in 1987, and was renamed Admiral Gorshkov in 1991, but was deactivated in 1996 because she was too expensive to operate on a post-Cold War budget. This attracted the attention of India, which was looking for a way to expand its carrier aviation capabilities. On 20 January 2004, after years of negotiations, Russia and India signed a deal for the sale of the ship. The ship would be free, while India would pay US$800 million for the upgrade and refit of the ship, as well as an additional US$1 billion for the aircraft and weapons systems. The navy looked at equipping the carrier with the E-2C Hawkeye, but decided not to. In 2009, Northrop Grumman offered the advanced E-2D Hawkeye to the Indian Navy.
The deal also included the purchase of 12 single-seat Mikoyan MiG-29K 'Fulcrum-D' (Product 9.41) and four dual-seat MiG-29KUB aircraft (with an option for 14 more aircraft) at US$1 billion, six Kamov Ka-31 "Helix" reconnaissance and anti-submarine helicopters, torpedo tubes, missile systems and artillery units. Facilities and procedures for training pilots and technical staff, delivery of simulators, spare parts, and establishment maintenance on Indian Navy facilities were also part of the contract.
The upgrade involved stripping all the weaponry and missile launcher tubes from the ship's foredeck to make way for a "short take-off but arrested recovery" (STOBAR) configuration, converting the Gorshkov from a hybrid carrier/cruiser to a pure carrier.
The announced delivery date for INS Vikramaditya was August 2008, which would allow the carrier to enter service just as the Indian Navy's only light carrier INS Viraat retired. While Viraat's retirement had been pushed out to 2010–2012, it underwent a final refit which will enable her to serve through 2016.
The issue with the delays was compounded by ongoing cost overruns, resulting in high-level diplomatic exchanges to get these issues resolved. India finally agreed to pay an additional US$1.2 billion for the project, more than doubling the original cost. However, ongoing delays with the Vikramaditya's delivery schedule, pushed the delivery to 2013. The indigenous Vikrant-class aircraft carrier was delayed by at least a year and was expected to be commissioned at the earliest in 2013 from the proposed 2012.
In July 2008, it was reported that Russia wanted to increase the price by US$2 bn, blaming unexpected cost overruns on the deteriorated condition of the ship and citing a "market price" for a new carrier of US$3–4 bn. India has paid US$400 million as of November 2008. However, Russia even threatened to scrap the deal altogether if India did not pay the amount. In December 2008, government sources in India stated that the Cabinet Committee on Security (CCS) had finally decided in favour of purchasing Admiral Gorshkov as the best option available. The Comptroller and Auditor General of India (CAG) criticised the fact that Vikramaditya would be a second-hand warship with a limited life-span, which would be 60% costlier than a new one, and there was a risk of further delay in its delivery. The Indian Navy Chief of Naval Staff Admiral Sureesh Mehta defended the price for the warship saying:
"I can't comment on the CAG. But you all are defence analysts, can you get me an aircraft carrier for less than USD 2 billion? If you can, I am going to sign a cheque right now".
The statement from the Chief of Naval Staff possibly indicates that the final deal could be in excess of US$2 billion. When asked about CAG's finding that the navy had not done its risk analysis before going in for the ship, he said,
"I can ensure you that there is no such thing. There is no question, we have been looking at the ship since the late 90s."
On 2 July 2009, Russian President Dmitry Medvedev said that the refit of the carrier should be completed as soon as possible so she could be delivered to India in 2012. On 7 December 2009, Russian sources indicated that final terms had been agreed on, but no delivery date was set. On 8 December 2009, it was reported that India and Russia ended the stalemate over Admiral Gorshkov price deal by agreeing on a price of US$2.2 billion. Moscow was asking for US$2.9 billion for the aircraft carrier, nearly three times the price that was originally agreed between the two sides in 2004. On the other hand, New Delhi wanted the price to be scaled back to US$2.1 billion. Both governments finalised the price of Admiral Gorshkov at US$2.35 billion on 10 March, a day ahead of Russian Prime Minister Vladimir Putin's two-day visit to India.
In April 2010, a scandal over the project emerged when it was announced that a senior Indian Navy officer had probably been blackmailed in order to influence the negotiations over the cost of Admiral Gorshkov to India. Commodore Sukhjinder Singh had been a senior figure supervising the refit of the carrier, working as the principal director for the project. He was discharged from service due to this incident.
The hull work was completed by 2008 and Vikramaditya was launched on 4 December 2008. Around 99% of the structural work and almost 50% of the cabling work had been completed by June 2010. Almost all of the large equipment, including engines and diesel generators, was installed. A naval MiG-29K prototype aircraft was used to test the deck systems of Vikramaditya in 2010.
All reconfiguration work was completed at Severodvinsk, Russia; however it was delayed by three years due to underestimation of the amount of cabling needed. An expert level discussion on technical and financial matters was held between India and Russia to sort out the issues. The MiG-29K entered operational service with India in February 2010. A compromise was finalised and India was to pay an extra undisclosed amount. Russia was to install new systems instead of repairing the old ones.
On 1 June 2010, the Times of India reported a naval officer saying: "With India earlier this year agreeing to the revised refit cost of $2.33 billion for Gorshkov after three years of bitter wrangling since the earlier agreement inked in January 2004 had earmarked only $974 million for it, Russia has appointed a high-level apex committee to oversee the work on the carrier". The ship was to go for harbour trials by early 2011 to ensure it could be handed over to India by December 2012 or so. Dock trials began on 1 March 2011. The focus of these trials was on the main power generation units and the radio-electronic armament systems, manufactured in India. Indian Navy personnel began training on Vikramaditya in April 2011. On 19 April 2012, it was announced that all internal systems were functioning, and the ship was entirely self-contained. Measurement of the ship's magnetic field and centre of gravity were performed before sea trials began.
As completed, Vikramaditya has a larger full load displacement than when the ship was originally launched in 1982 as Baku. 1,750 out of 2,500 compartments of the ship were re-fabricated, and extensive re-cabling was done to support new radars and sensors. The elevators were upgraded, and two restraining stands were fitted, allowing combat aircraft to reach full power before making a ski jump-assisted short take-off. Three arresting gears were fitted on the aft part of the angled deck, and navigation and carrier-landing aids were added to support fixed-wing "short take-off but arrested recovery" (STOBAR) operations.
The major modifications were to allow Admiral Gorshkov to operate as a STOBAR aircraft carrier in Indian service, as opposed to the STOVL configuration the ship was built as. This involved removal of all the armament, including the P-500 Bazalt cruise missile launchers and the four Antey Kinzhal surface-to-air missile bins fitted on ship's bow, to make way for a 14.3°, full-width ski-jump. The 20-ton capacity aircraft lift beside the ship's island superstructure was unchanged, but the aft lift was enlarged and its lift capacity increased to 30 tons. For STOBAR operations, three 30 m arrestor wires and three restraining gears on the stern of the angled deck were fitted. Sponsons were installed to increase the area of the flight deck, to allow the ski-jump to be fitted, for strengthening of arresting gear and runway area, and to lengthen the after end, which allowed an increase to the length of the landing strip aft of the arresting gear. 234 new hull sections were installed to achieve the desired shape, and the total steel added to carry out these modifications amounted to 2500 tons.
The superstructure profile was designed to accommodate the fixed phased array scanners of the Soviet Navy's Mars-Passat 3D air search radar system, along with extensive command and control facilities to conduct an aerial campaign. Extensive revamp of sensors was carried out, with long range air-surveillance radars and advanced electronic warfare suites fitted, which enable the maintenance of a surveillance bubble of over 500 km around the ship. An aft mast was installed to accommodate various communication antennae. These changes needed 2,300 km of new cables, and 3,000 km of new pipes.
The eight original boilers were replaced by new generation, high-pressure boilers, converted to take diesel fuel utilising LSHSD instead of furnace fuel oil, each providing a steam capacity of 100 tonnes per hour. The new boilers are highly efficient and have high levels of automation. They power four propellers in four shaft configuration, producing a total thrust of 180,000 horsepower (134,226 kW) at the shaft, providing a top speed of over 30 knots. Six turbo alternators and six diesel alternators generate 18 MW of electricity to power various equipment. Modern oil-water separators as well as a sewage treatment plant were incorporated to meet international standards. Six new Italian Wärtsilä 1.5 MW diesel generators, a Global Marine communications system, Sperry Bridgemaster navigation radar, a new telephone exchange, new data link and an IFF Mk XI system were added. Hotel services were improved with the addition of two reverse osmosis plants producing 400 tons of fresh water per day, as well as updated refrigeration and air conditioning. A new galley was installed together with improved domestic services and accommodation for 10 female officers.
The combat systems on board the carrier are controlled by LESORUB-E, the computer-aided action information system. It gathers data from the ship’s sensors and data links and creates comprehensive situation awareness. The CCS Mk II communication complex is installed for external communications and the Link II tactical data system enables integration into the Indian Navy’s network-centric operations. Modern launch and recovery systems are installed for handling different aircraft – the LUNA landing system for MiG-29Ks and the DAPS Landing system for Sea Harriers. The Resistor-E automated air-traffic control system has been installed, which provides assistance during approach, landing and short range navigation down to a distance of 30 metres short of flight deck to the pilots. Along with various other sub-systems, it provides navigation and flight data to ship-borne aircraft operating at long distances from the carrier.
When delivered, Vikramaditya had yet to be fitted with any on-board armament, leaving her dependent on her battle group for self-defence. This was rectified during the ship's short refit of April–June 2015, when she was fitted with four license-built AK-630 CIWS, and a Barak 1 SAM system stripped from the decommissioned INS Godavari. During the ship's first scheduled major refit in 2017, the Barak 1 system will be replaced with the newly developed Barak 8 long-range air-defence system (LR-SAM), which is currently being tested. It is launched from vertical launch cells, and has an operational range of 0.5–100 km The carrier will carry up to 48 missiles.
The official expected life span of the ship is 40 years, and is unlikely to require any major repair work for at least a decade. Over 70% of the ship and her equipment is new and the remainder has been refurbished. Sevmash Shipyard, which upgraded the carrier, will provide warranty servicing including maintenance for the next 20 years.
Vikramaditya has been designed as a STOBAR carrier capable of operating both conventional fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters, with up to 34 aircraft capable of being accommodated. Its primary embarked aircraft type is the Mikoyan MiG-29K, a navalised version of the Mikoyan MiG-29M. The MiG-29K is an advanced, all weather multi-role fighter capable of undertaking both the fleet air defence, low level strike and anti-shipping roles. The primary ASW platform is the venerable Westland Sea King, while AEW is undertaken by the Kamov Ka-31. Carriage ranges given for the ship seem to converge around 16–24 MiG-29K and 10 Kamov Ka-31 or Dhruv helicopters; however Vikramaditya is not capable of operating fixed-wing AEW aircraft owing to her configuration as a STOBAR carrier. Utility and plane guard duties are undertaken by the HAL Chetak (or HAL Dhruv).
- INAS 303 "Black Panthers" – MiG-29K
- INAS 321 "Angels" – Chetak
- INAS 330 "Harpoons" – Sea King
- INAS 339 "Falcons" – Ka-31
The MiG-29K provides both the fleet air defence and strike elements of the air group.
Sea trials and commissioning
First sea trials
Russia was scheduled to hand over Vikramaditya to India on 4 December 2012, with sea trials scheduled to begin on 29 May 2012. The sea trials in fact began on 8 June. The ship sailed out for pre-delivery trials from the berth of the Sevmash shipyard in Russia's northern city of Severodvinsk. These trials were to include landing and take-off of fighter jets from the deck of the carrier.
On 17 September 2012, malfunctions were detected during trials. According to official report, seven out of eight steam boilers of the propulsion machinery were out of order. Due to this, the deadline of the hand over this ship to the Indian Navy was postponed again until October 2013. Later investigation has determined that the cause for the engine failure was due to poor workmanship and supervision. The Gorshkov and other ships of the 1143.4 class had a history of multiple boiler failures, however Russian shipbuilders claimed that the source of the problem was the low-grade Chinese-made fire-bricks that were used in the boiler insulation instead of asbestos.
Second sea trials
On 3 July 2013, Igor Sevastyanov, deputy head of Russia's state arms exporter Rosoboronexport, announced that the warship had departed for sea trials with a mix of Russian and Indian crew. On 28 July 2013, it was reported that Vikramaditya had successfully completed her sea trials and was able to reach her maximum speed of 32 knots. She then proceeded to the White Sea for aviation trials, which were carried out by Russia's Northern Fleet aviation and completed in September 2013. Aircraft and helicopters flew around and over the ship to check the performance of its radar, air defence, communication and control systems, and MiG specialists praised the ski-jump ramp.
The sea trials lasted three months, and the ship demonstrated excellent seaworthiness and manoeuvrability. The carrier’s electronic warfare and jamming capability was demonstrated when Sukhoi-33s, Kamovs, MiG-29s and A-50 early warning aircraft failed to "paint" the carrier using their radars, whereas the incoming aircraft were detected by the ship at a distance of 350–400 km. In total, the ship sailed for 19,500 miles during both the trials, controlled 778 aircraft and helicopter flights, and conducted 88 landings by Russian pilots. During the second sea trial, it sailed for 8,600 miles, of which 1,700 miles were under the command of the ship's Indian captain Commodore Suraj Berry.
Surveillance by NATO
When the trials were ongoing, a Norwegian P-3 Orion aircraft observed Vikramaditya. While in international waters, it flew close to the ship to take photographs, and also dropped sonobuoys to record the ship's acoustic signature. The Norwegian aircraft left the area when a Russian MiG-29 arrived. A Norwegian ship was also seen to observe Vikramaditya.
She was formally commissioned on 16 November 2013 at a ceremony held at Severodvinsk, Russia. The ceremony was attended by Indian defence minister A K Antony and the Russian deputy prime minister Dmitry Rogozin. The ship is now patrolling the Indian ocean.
After commissioning, the carrier began a continuous 26-day journey of 10,212 nautical miles to its home-port at INS Kadamba, Karwar, from Severodvinsk on 27 November 2013, with a short stopover in Lisbon. It is under the command of Commodore Suraj Berry, who is her first Indian captain. Apart from her Indian crew, she also carried 177 Russian specialists from Sevmash, who will remain on board for one year, as part of the 20-year post-warranty services contract with the shipyard. During the journey, it encountered a storm in the Barents Sea where she linked up with her escorts frigate INS Trikand and fleet tanker INS Deepak. The group was escorted by the Royal Navy frigate HMS Monmouth while passing through the English Channel, and was joined by destroyer INS Delhi near Gibraltar. The flotilla sailed in the Mediterranean sea, crossed the Suez Canal and entered the Arabian Sea near the Gulf of Aden on 1 January 2014. It was received nearly 1,200 nautical miles (2,200 km) away from Indian shores by a large flotilla of the Western fleet, which was composed of the aircraft carrier INS Viraat, two Delhi-class destroyers, three Talwar-class frigates, the frigate INS Godavari, and a couple of offshore patrol vessels including INS Subhadra. The event was significant as the Indian Navy was operating two aircraft carriers simultaneously for the first time in 20 years. After conducting basic sea exercises with the fleet, Vikramaditya reached Karwar on 7 January 2014.
Navy pilots of INAS 303 "Black Panthers" operating the MiG-29K practised carrier operations at the Shore Based Test Facility (SBTF) in INS Hansa, Dabolim, Vasco-da-Gama. The first aircraft piloted by an Indian Navy pilot landed on the carrier on 8 February 2014. Since then, the pilots and air controllers have been certified for operating the MiG-29K fighters from the carrier deck, including night landings. The carrier's air wing will consist of 16 MiG-29Ks including four KUB trainers, six airborne early warning and control (AEW&C) Kamov Ka-31 and Kamov Ka-28 anti-submarine warfare (ASW) helicopters.
In May 2014, the carrier was declared operationally deployed along with its embarked air group comprising MiG-29Ks and had taken part in a war game conducted by the Western Naval Command. On 14 June 2014, Prime Minister of India, Narendra Modi dedicated the carrier to the country.
On 8 December 2015, Indian Defence-Ministry sources stated that the INS Vikramaditya would receive its first major overhaul in September 2016 as part of the "Make In India" initiative. The state-owned Cochin Shipyards and the Pipavav shipyards will overhaul the carrier once it is in dry dock.
On 21–22 January 2016, Vikramaditya accompanied by INS Mysore made her first overseas port visit when the ship visited Colombo in Sri Lanka, making the first visit of an Indian warship to the city in 30 years, and the first by an aircraft carrier in more than 40 years.
In September 2016, Vikramaditya was dry-docked in Kochi for a month-long refit by Cochin Shipyards; the refit was completed in November, a month ahead of schedule.
On 10 June 2016, while undergoing a scheduled major refit of INS Vikramaditya, two people were killed by a toxic gas leak that occurred during maintenance work in the Sewage Treatment Plant compartment of INS Vikramaditya at Karwar. Two other people were injured and taken to the naval hospital.
- List of active Indian Navy ships
- List of aircraft carriers in service
- Vikrant class aircraft carrier
- Carrier battle groups of India
- Chinese aircraft carrier Liaoning – also originally laid down for the Soviet Navy.
- INS Viraat
- Literally Vikramaditya translates as being "Sun (Aditya) of valour" (Vikram). The component "āditya" (sun) literally means "he who belongs to Aditi". It was the title of some of the most famous kings in Indian history, such as the Vikramaditya of Ujjain, famed as a noble ruler and a mighty warrior. It is also a title that was used by the Indian emperor Chandragupta II who ruled between 375-413/15 AD. This title was again used by the Hindu king Hemu who ruled Delhi from 7 October to 5 November 1556.
- PTI (11 March 2010). "Gorshkov deal finalised at USD 2.3 billion". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya set to join Indian Navy on November 16". The Indian Express. 14 November 2013. Retrieved 15 November 2013.
- "Aircraft Carrier: INS Vikramaditya". Indian Navy. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya motto is 'Strike Far, Strike Sure'". India Today. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "Project 11434". Retrieved 29 January 2013.
- "NAVY – Project 1143". Bharat-Rakshak.com. 17 November 2008. Archived from the original on 10 July 2012. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Indian Carrier Begins Sea Trials | Defense News". defensenews.com. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Vikramaditya to be handed to the Indian Navy on November 16". India & Russia Report. Retrieved 27 October 2013.
- "Prime Minister Spends A Day Onboard INS Vikramaditya". PIB. MOD. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- PTI (1 February 2013). "Engine problems in INS Vikramaditya fixed, sea trial to start in June – Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
an endurance of 13,500 nautical miles (25,000 km) at a cruising speed of 18 knots. It will have an air wing consisting of Russian-made MiG-29K jet fighter planes and Kamov Ka-31 early warning radar helicopters.
- "INS Vikramaditya to get its own missile shield soon". Times of India. 17 April 2015. Retrieved 3 May 2015.
- "INS Vikramaditya won't have air defence system for now". Indian Express. 3 August 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- Anandan, S. (7 August 2013). "INS Vikramaditya will serve Navy for 30 years". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "Misses, waits & progress in naval missiles". Business Standard. 2 August 2013. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "INS Vikrant: India's New Carrier-Gorshkov-Vikramaditya: Aerial Complement". 10 December 2015.
- Bharat Verma 2011, pp. 45–46.
- Terry Brien 2012, p. 1145.
- "Russia further delays delivery of Admiral Gorshkov to India". timesofindia.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 10 October 2012.[dead link]
- Kumar, Vinay (28 July 2013). "INS Vikramaditya sea trials successful". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 31 July 2013.
- Kumar, Vinay (17 September 2013). "Vikramaditya likely to be delivered in mid-November". Chennai, India: The Hindu. Retrieved 17 September 2013.
- "Aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya inducted into Indian Navy". IBN Live. Retrieved 16 November 2013.
- "Navy's largest ship 'INS Vikramaditya' Commissioned". Indian Navy. Retrieved 26 November 2013.
- "PM Modi inducts INS Vikramaditya into Navy, dedicates it to nation". Hindustan Times newspaper. Retrieved 14 June 2014.
- "PM Narendra Modi dedicates largest warship INS Vikramaditya to the nation, pitches for self-reliance". The Indian Express. 14 June 2014.
- "Naval Air: Go For Gorshkov". Strategypage.com. 3 June 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- IndiaDefence.com Archived 1 February 2009 at the Wayback Machine. – WHAT'S HOT? ANALYSIS OF RECENT HAPPENINGS – Aero India 2005 – Naval Interests – An IDC Report
- "Indian Navy Mulls Northrop Advanced Hawkeye". Aviationweek.com. 2 September 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Defence Talk – Pictures of the Gorshkov being worked on in dry docks
- Defense Industry Daily INS Vikramaditya Hits Delay, Cost Increases
- "Major repairs for the INS Viraat, its replacement delayed again by Russia". NDTV. 8 March 2013.
- NDTV News clip on price increase
- "Keel-laying of indigenous aircraft carrier in December". Chennai, India: Hindu.com. 29 September 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "Russian aircraft carrier ready in 2012 if India pays $2 bln more". En.rian.ru. 13 November 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Pratiyogita Darpan. January 2009. p. PD/January/2009/1140.
- "Gorshkov: Medvedev on his way, Centre okays price renegotiation". Indianexpress.com. 3 December 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "'Second-hand' Gorshkov costlier than new warship: CAG". The Times of India. Archived from the original on 27 July 2009.
- "Site Under Construction". ptinews.com.
- "Medvedev urged the completion of aircraft carrier for India". En.rian.ru. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Dyomkin, Denis (7 December 2009). "Russia agrees carrier delivery terms with India". In.reuters.com. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "India, Russia end stalemate over Gorshkov price deal". The Times of India. 8 December 2009.
- "India, Russia end stalemate over Gorshkov's price deal". Indianexpress.com. 8 December 2009. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Dutta, Sujan (16 April 2010). "Speedy probe into navy 'honey trap' – Panel hands in report on commodore". Calcutta, India: telegraphindia.com.
- "Senior navy officer to be sacked for sexual misconduct". Sify News. 5 February 2011.
- "Repair of Gorshkov's hull completed". Chennai, India: Hindu.com. 18 October 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Christopher P. Cavas (8 December 2008). "Russian Carrier Conversion Moves Forward". Retrieved 10 December 2008.
- "Gorshkov to be handed over to India by Dec '12". The Times of India. 1 June 2010.
- "Indian carrier's deck systems tested with MiG-29K prototype". Janes.com. 22 June 2010. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "The U.S. tries to shut Russia out of India's defense market". Weeklystandard.com. 21 February 2008. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- Only few technical, financial issues pending on Gorshkov deal[dead link]
- (AFP) – 27 February 2008 (27 February 2008). "India, Russia end spat over Soviet-era aircraft carrier". Afp.google.com. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "Defence News – Indian Aircraft Carrier in Barents Sea Trials". Defencenews.in. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "INS Vikramaditya Trials Finally Begin".
- "Russia Postpones Sea Trials for Aircraft Carrier Admiral Gorshkov for Next Year". Shipbuilding Tribune. 17 October 2011. Archived from the original on 17 October 2011. Retrieved 17 October 2011.
- "Navy personnel begin training on Admiral Gorshkov". Brahmand.com. 14 April 2011. Retrieved 29 July 2012.
- "Russia: Aircraft Carrier INS Vikramaditya Becomes Entirely Self-Contained". Shipbuilding Tribune. 19 April 2012. Retrieved 21 April 2012.
- John Pike. "R Vikramaditya [ex-Gorshkov]". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 7 March 2011.
- "INS Vikramaditya – Game changer". PIB. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "Navy to get refurbished Vikramaditya tomorrow". The Hindu. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "'Vikramaditya' to be Commissioned on 16 Nov 13". Indian Navy. 16 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "Prime Minister's Day at Sea". Indian Navy. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 17 June 2014.
- "Indian Navy chief: Vikramaditya deployed with MiG-29s embarked". Jane's. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 9 May 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya yet to be fitted with close-in weapon system". 4 December 2014.
- "Close-In Warfare System on INS Vikramaditya next year". The Tribune. 16 June 2014. Retrieved 16 June 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya won't have air defence system for now". indianexpress.com.
- RAGHUVANSHI, VIVEK (11 March 2014). "Indian Navy To Open Search for Carrier Air Defense System". www.defensenews.com. Gannett Government Media. Retrieved 12 March 2014.
- , The Telegraph, 28 November 2015
- , The Times of India, 28 November 2015
- "INS Vikramaditya joins Indian Navy: Shiv Aroor on why India is relieved that the battleship is finally here". India Today. 17 November 2013. Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "Sevmash chosen for INS Vikramaditya post-warranty servicing". Russia & India Report. 13 March 2014. Retrieved 16 March 2014.
- "Russia will hand over modernized aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya (former Admiral Gorshkov) to India on Dec 4, 2012". Navaltoday.com. 19 January 2012. Retrieved 19 January 2012.
- "Indian Navy to Take Over Aircraft Carrier INS Vikramaditya in December". shipbuildingtribune.com. 7 March 2012. Retrieved 8 March 2012.
- Kumar, Vinay (29 June 2012). "INS Vikramaditya undergoing sea trials". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- Radyuhin, Vladimir (8 June 2012). "INS Vikramaditya begins sea trials". The Hindu. Chennai, India.
- "India's New Russian Carrier Finally Goes To Sea". ainonline.com. 15 June 2012.
- "INS Vikramaditya trial malfunctions to delay handover to India". The Times Of India. 17 September 2012.[dead link]
- Russia Copes With The Vikramaditya Disaster – Strategypage.com, 14 October 2012
- John Pike (4 December 2012). "Russia Completes Indian Carrier Engine Repairs.". Globalsecurity.org. Retrieved 26 April 2013.
- PTI (1 February 2013). "Engine problems in INS Vikramaditya fixed, sea trial to start in June – Economic Times". Articles.economictimes.indiatimes.com. Retrieved 27 April 2013.
- "Indian Carrier Sails From Russia for Final Sea Trials". RIA Novosti. 3 July 2013. Retrieved 7 July 2013.
- Press Trust of India (22 February 2013). "Russia to hand over INS Vikramaditya to India in November". business-standard.com.
- "Commodore Suraj Berry's finest hour". IndRus. 4 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "Navy set to get its largest aircraft carrier tomorrow". The Indian Express. 15 November 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "INS Vikramaditya was spied upon by NATO aircraft and ship last year but the matter was hushed up". intoday.in.
- . Retrieved 17 November 2013.
- "INS Vikramaditya enters Indian Navy's area of operation". Chennai, India: The Hindu. 4 January 2014. Retrieved 4 January 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya completes transoceanic voyage, arrives in India". IndRus. 10 January 2014. Retrieved 11 January 2014.
- Anandan, S. (27 November 2013). "INS Vikramaditya sets sail for India". The Hindu. Chennai, India. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "HMS Monmouth Helps Mammoth Aircraft Carrier Through Channel". Royal Navy. 16 December 2013. Retrieved 22 December 2013.
- "INS Vikramaditya approaches Murmansk for refuelling". IndRus. 3 December 2013. Retrieved 8 December 2013.
- "INS Vikramaditya to Reach by Mid-January". Defence News. 5 January 2014. Retrieved 5 January 2014.
- "India operates two aircraft carriers after 20 years". The Deccan Chronicle. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya to sail to Mumbai & Vizag". SP Publications. 16 January 2014. Retrieved 16 January 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya reaches home base in Karwar". First Post. 7 January 2014. Retrieved 7 January 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya reaches Karnataka port". The Indian Express. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya reaches Karwar". Deccan Herald. 8 January 2014. Retrieved 8 January 2014.
- "First Indian MiG-29K Fighter Jet Lands on Vikramaditya". Defence News, RIA Novosti. 8 February 2014. Retrieved 12 February 2014.
- "INS Vikramaditya operationally deployed: Navy chief". The Hindu. 7 May 2014. Retrieved 7 May 2014.
- Naval exercises off Goa coast today Archived 12 May 2014 at the Wayback Machine.
- "PM Narendra Modi dedicates INS Vikramaditya to nation". The Times of India. 14 June 2014. Retrieved 13 June 2015.
- Kulkarni, Pranav (8 December 2015). "INS Vikramaditya set for first overhaul in September". IndianExpress. Retrieved 30 December 2015.
- Ramakrishnan, T. (21 January 2016). "INS Vikramaditya's maiden overseas port call to Colombo". The Hindu. Retrieved 22 January 2016.
- "INS Vikramaditya, India's Largest Naval Ship, Arrives In Sri Lanka". NDTV.com. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "HaveeruOnline – Major Indian navy fleet due in Maldives". www.haveeru.com.mv. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "With an eye on China, India sends aircraft carrier to Male – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 February 2016.
- "CSL completes refit of Indian Navy's aircraft-carrier INS Vikramaditya". NavalTechnology.com. Retrieved 15 November 2016.
- "Accident on aircraft carrier INS Vikramaditya, 2 killed – Times of India". The Times of India. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Two killed in toxic gas leak on board INS Vikramaditya". 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- "Two killed on board INS Vikramaditya after toxic gas leak". The Indian Express. 10 June 2016. Retrieved 14 June 2016.
- Verma, Bharat (2011). Indian Defence Review Vol. 26.3 Jul-sep 2011. Lancer Publication. ISBN 817062231X.
- Brien, Terry (2012). Twenty Twenty Gk Eng 2012. Tata McGraw-Hill Education. ISBN 1259001199.
|Wikimedia Commons has media related to INS Vikramaditya (ship, 1982).|
- Video: INS vikramaditya hits water
- Defense Industry Daily – INS Vikramaditya Hits Delay, Cost Increases. Covers the program's full history, the ship's aerial complement, and associated events.
- INS Vikramaditya – Bharat Rakshak
- Photos, models & information at Worldwide Aircraft Carriers
- India to get revamped aircraft carrier from Russia (Part 1)
- Latest Video of INS VIKRAMADITYA ![permanent dead link]
- Latest pictures of INS Vikramaditya on Picasa: Feb 2012[permanent dead link], May 2012[permanent dead link]
- Satellite Photo of INS VIKRAMADITYA in Severodvinsk from the Google Maps
- INS VIKRAMADITYA on World-wide Aircraft Carriers