Paralympic symbols

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The Paralympic symbols are the icons, flags, and symbols used by the International Paralympic Committee to promote the Paralympic Games.


The Paralympic motto is "Spirit in Motion". The motto was introduced in 2004 at the Paralympic Games in Athens.[1] The previous motto was "Mind, Body, Spirit", introduced in 1994.[1]

Paralympic symbol[edit]


The Paralympic symbol consists of three agitos, coloured red, blue, and green, the three colours that are most widely represented in national flags around the world.

The symbol of the Paralympic Games is composed of three "agitos", coloured red, blue, and green, encircling a single point, on a white field. The agito ("I move" in Latin) is a symbol of movement in the shape of an asymmetrical crescent.[1][2] The colours of the agitos with the white background stand for the three colours that are most widely represented in national flags around the world. The three agitos encircle a centre point, to emphasize "the role that the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) has of bringing athletes from all corners of the world together and enabling them to compete". The shape also symbolises the Paralympic vision "To enable Paralympic athletes to achieve sporting excellence and inspire and excite the world".[1][2]

The emblem was designed by the agency Scholz & Friends as a modernization of a tri-coloured emblem first adopted in 1992.[3] It was used in a formal capacity for the first time during the closing ceremony of the 2004 Summer Paralympics in Athens, where a new Paralympic flag with the emblem was handed over to Beijing—host of the 2008 Summer Paralympics.[4][3] The agitos were used as part of the branding for a Paralympics for the first time at the 2006 Winter Paralympics.

In October 2019, the IPC unveiled a new corporate identity and a refreshed version of the Agitos emblem; the three crescents were changed to have a more "strict" geometry with consistent shapes and alignment, and the colours were brightened to match those used in the Olympic rings. The IPC also announced a new "brand narrative" of "Change Starts with Sport", to "better communicate the transformational impact the Paralympic Movement has on society and drive the human rights agenda."[5][6]


The first Paralympic symbol (1988–1994) used five pa.

The first designated Paralympic logo was created for the 1988 Summer Paralympics in Seoul and based on a traditional Korean decorative component called a pa {Hangul: 파; Hanja: 巴}, two of which make up the taegeuk symbol at the center of the flag of South Korea. The first Paralympic flag used five pa arranged similarly to the Olympic rings and coloured identically.[1][2]

Nearby, two years after adopted in 6 October 1990, the International Coordinating Committee of World Sports Organizations for the Disabled (ICC) was informed in a telegram, that the International Olympic Committee (IOC) requested that five-pa symbol had to be altered, as the IOC's marketing department considered it too similar to the Olympic rings and this could lead a confusion about the similarity of the logos.[1][2][7][8] A new symbol was created and was planned to be used starting in 1991 included six overlapping pa in a circle, representing the then 6 IPC regions (Africa, Americas, Asia, Europe, Middle East and Oceania). In November 1991, the IPC members voted against the new symbol, retaining the five-pa symbol. However, the IOC made clear that it would refuse future collaborations with the IPC if the five-pa symbol remained in place.[7]

The second Paralympic symbol (1994–2004) used three pa.

In March 1992,[7] the Paralympic symbol was simplified to a new version utilizing only three pa, representing the new motto of the institution - Body, Soul and Spirit.

Following a new agreement between the IOC and the IPC, the symbol would have to be immediately discontinued after the 1994 Winter Paralympics in Lillehammer, Norway, since the Lillehammer Paralympic Organizing Committee (LPOC) had by then already started a marketing program based on the five-pa version. The three-pa version remained in place from the closing of the Lillehammer Games through the 2004 Summer Paralympics closing ceremonies held in Athens, Greece.[1][2]

Paralympic emblems[edit]

Like the Olympic Games, each Paralympic Games edition has its own Paralympic emblem that embodies their vision and ideals for that edition. Every emblem is individual and respects the local design and own personality of the host nation.

See also:Category:Summer Paralympic Games and Category:Winter Paralympic Games for various Paralympic emblems.[9] Those designs incorporates their version of the Paralympic symbol,used at the time,the name and year of the event, and one or more distinctive and cultural elements of the host country or city to identify the event.

It is the responsibility of the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) to approve Paralympic emblems for the Paralympic Games. The Paralympic emblems are used in promotional materials, by sponsors, and on the uniforms of every Paralympic competitor. All emblems are the property of the IPC.

  • Rome 1960
  • Tokyo 1964
  • Tel Aviv 1968
  • Heidelberg 1972
  • Toronto 1976
  • Örnsköldsvik 1976
  • Arnhem 1980
  • Geilo 1980
  • Stoke Mandeville & New York 1984
  • Innsbruck 1984
  • Seoul 1988
  • Innsbruck 1988
  • Tignes-Albertville 1992 – designed by Jean-Michel Folon
  • Barcelona 1992 – Originally, the Organizing Committee of the XXV Summer Olympic Games (COOB'92) as the first unifield Organizing Committee, proposed to the ICC and the IOC the use of the same logo as the Olympic Games, but with the removal of the Olympic rings and in their place the word "Paralympics".Both IOC and ICC rejected the proposal and in the second version the 5 pa used in Seoul were added. However, the proposal was again rejected.A third proposal was created and was acepted by the two parts.The new logo symbolized an individual (man or woman) in a dynamic attitude in a wheelchair, "a human figure in a sports attitude". It was based upon a symbolic depiction of a human figure using a wheelchair. This design is an adapted version of the Olympic logo, with a simple modification: the athlete's legs are replaced by a circle symbolizing,the spinning world,a wheelchair and the adapted sport.As the Olympic logo red and yellow are the colors of Spain and meaning the sun and the life and blue is used to reference to the Mediterranean Sea and the "Mediterranean-ness" of Barcelona. The use of Times Demi Bold (New Roman) typography references antiquity and Romanness, Latin-ness and seriousness.[10]
  • Lillehammer 1994 – Depicting the sun people. This image portrayed the ideas of power, vitality, strength and energy, all of which are characteristics of the athletes who took part.[11]
  • Atlanta 1996 – Entitled ‘Starfire’ the logo for the Atlanta Paralympics was meant to represent the fulfilment of an athlete's dream and the phoenix myth. It may be interpreted as the star being the athlete and the fire being the passion that burns in the heart to fulfil their dreams. The fifth point of the star, revealed by the ‘dynamic flow of the rings’ represents the fulfilment of the athletes’ quest.[10]
  • Nagano 1998 – The logo design selected for the Nagano 1998 Winter Paralympics was designed by Sadahiko Kojima following the announcement of a national competition. It represents a simplified form of the Chinese character ‘naga’ for Nagano. It also symbolises a rabbit jumping and playing in snow or on ice with the swift movements that are characteristic of rabbits. This figure was combined with the Games details and the former IPC logo of three tae-gu
  • Sydney 2000 – The Sydney 2000 Paralympic Games logo embodies the vitality of Sydney, the spirit of Australia and the ability and achievement of the Paralympic athlete. The logo depicts a dynamic human form — represented by three graphic shapes — leaping triumphantly forward and “breaking through” towards the Paralympic Games in 2000. It also portrays the Paralympic torch and echoes the sails of Sydney's greatest landmark, the Sydney Opera House. The logo cast by the three Paralympic colors represented by Australia's unique shades of these colors: the rich blue of Sydney Harbour, the warm red of the Outback, and the lush green of the forest .[12]
  • Salt Lake 2002 – The logo for the Salt Lake Paralympics can be split into three distinct parts making up the whole. The sphere at the top represents both the global unity and the new moment of the Paralympic Movement and also the head of the Paralympic athlete, which the overall logo appears to depict. The two broad fluid lines represent the athlete in motion with the three tae-guks, the then IPC logo, beneath the athlete.[12]
  • Athens 2004 – Called as "Son of Sun" was a designed logo inspired by Phaistos Disc,the Erichthonius of Athens mith and the Sun. This design aimed to embody the strength and determination of the Paralympic athlete. It features the profile of an athlete – male or female – looking forward, symbolising optimism for the future. At the same time, this human face attempts to reflect the individual's willpower and determination to succeed in all pursuits. The face's lines are smooth, and the chosen colors is warm and bright shades of orange Hephaestus and Sun colors)– harbinger of the great celebration to come.[13]
  • Torino 2006 – Three graphic elements,used as part of the Olympic Games logo design,with a different position.The figure represent human figures creating an upward soaring movement. Designed by the Benincasa-Husmann Studio[12]
  • Beijing 2008 – Dubbed ‘Sky, Earth and Human Beings’ and unveiled during a grand ceremony at the China Millennium Monument on July 13, 2004 in Beijing, the logo for the Beijing 2008 Paralympic Games is in the form of an athlete in motion. It is intended to embody the tremendous efforts that persons with a disability have to make in sport as well as in everyday life. It is typically chinese in its form and style and the three agitos colours used in a different way,as they represent the sun (red), the sky (blue) and the earth (green). They are also intended to reflect the integration of heart, body and spirit, which are at the core values of chinese culture as well as the Paralympic Games.[14]
  • Vancouver 2010 – "Man becomes Mountain": Captures a recort of Vancouver coast and Whistler's forests,as the common things in the two city as the mountains, and the sky.[15]
  • London 2012 – This logo was designed by Wolff Olins, was published on 4 June 2007.Has the same design as the Olympic logo. However, with minor changes such as the colored lines and small parts and the addition of the words "Paralympic Games" and the Agitos in place at the Olympic Rings.Is a representation of the number 2012, with the Paralympic Agitos embedded within the zero.[16] The standard colours are also green, magenta, orange and blue.In order to differentiate the two logos, tactile and colourful lines and areas marks were made within the number 2012.[17][18] The emblem was released on the same day as the emblem for the Olympic Games.
  • Sochi 2014 – "" was the only Paralympic emblem to include a web address. The mirror of "Sochi" and "2014" 'reflects' that Sochi is a meeting point between sea and mountains. The same essential logo shape is to be used for both the Olympic and Paralympic Games,but with different colours and the agitos replacing the Olympic Rings. The emblem was released on December 12, 2009, ca 11 days after the emblem for the Olympic Games.
  • Rio 2016 – A stylized heart in 3D, symbolizing inclusion, passion, tolerance and the warmth of brazilian people.[19]
  • PyeongChang 2018 - The same Korean letter that symbolises snow, ice and the Paralympic athletes.The two letters together are said to portray a grand festival for the athletes, the audience and everyone around the globe. The letters sitting side-by-side also signify equality, with South Korea's five cardinal colours being used to represent the uniqueness of each individual.
  • Tokyo 2020 – The Paralympic emblem features the same indigo-coloured checkerboard that was part of the Olympic logo, but positioned as hand fan in a circle form, filled with an indigo-colored checkerboard pattern. The design is meant to "express a refined elegance and sophistication that exemplifies the Japanese design". The design replaced the previous design which had been scrapped due to allegations that it plagiarized the logo of the Théâtre de Liège in Belgium.
  • Beijing 2022 - Had the inspiration of a paralympic seated skier with a chinese ribbon motif and the Chinese character "飞" (fēi, means fly), with the rainbow colors.
  • Paris 2024 - The emblem for the 2024 Summer Olympics and Paralympics was unveiled on 21 October 2019 at the Grand Rex. For the first time, a Paralympic Games will share the exact same emblem as their corresponding Olympics, with no difference or variation to reflect the two events sharing a single "ambitions". When showed to the public it was explained that "In terms of legacy, Paris City believes, that around the world, the people have needs to strengthen the place of sport in their daily life and whatever the age, whatever the disability or ability, all the persons have a place and a role to play in the success of Paris 2024.
  • Milan & Cortina 2026 -
  • Los Angeles 2028 -
  • Brisbane 2032 -


The International Paralympic Committee
The Paralympic agitos
UseSport Small vexillological symbol or pictogram in black and white showing the different uses of the flag
Proportion3:5 or 1:2
Adopted20 October 2019

The Paralympic flag has a white background, with the Paralympic symbol in the centre.

The current version of the Paralympic flag was first flown in 2019.

Flame and torch relay[edit]

Until the 2010 Winter Paralympics, each Organizing Committee was free to choose which method and how the Paralympic torch would be lit.[20] and since the 1988 Summer Paralympics, the paralympic torch had the role is to maintain the engagement on the host country and keep the energy dissipated in the Olympic Games. With the exception of the 1992 Summer and 1994 Winter Games, when the Olympic flame was conserved for use at the Paralympic Games.Each city performed its specific ritual days after the closing ceremony and in a unique way respecting its local culture and since then it has been normal for each one to take the Paralympic relay to places where its Olympic counterpart did not go, as was the case in the Atlanta 1996 relay. The first time that the current paralympic torch relay concept was used was for the 2002 Winter Paralympics. The Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Olympics and Paralympics Organizing Committee (SLOOC) selected 15 communities in the state of Utah to host their local celebrations March 1-4, 2002 when they lit their local flames. After the local stages were carried out and at the end each torch was sent inside a lantern to Salt Lake City. At the evening before the Opening ceremonies the 15 flames were merged in a special cauldron at the front of the Utah State Capitol.At the early hours of the next morning, the last leg of the 2002 Winter Paralympic flame relay started and during the Opening Ceremonies the paralympic cauldron was lit by Chris Waddell and Muffy Davis.[21] Apart the 2010 Winter Paralympics when indigenous celebrations were held between 3-12 March, 2010. They started in Ottawa where bearers from all 10 provinces and 3 Canadian territories participated in the Canadian capital, the flame was born through a ritual carried out by representatives of all Canadian indigenous nations who used their traditional methods to and in the end the ashes were collected and placed in a box that was send to Vancouver.In addition to Ottawa, outside British Columbia,local celebrations were held in Toronto and Québec City had local legs. These rituals were performed in 9 selected cities and communities in British Columbia. At the early hours of the morning of the day of the opening ceremony all the boxes with the ashes were opened in a special ceremony also with the first peoples and the Paralympic flame was born and made its way to the opening ceremony at the BC Place.[22]

The concept used in these editions was refined for the 2012 Summer Paralympics, held in the "spiritual home of the Paralympic Movement",the Great Britain.When the games returned to the country four regional flames from the national capitals of each of three constituent countries (England,Scotland and Wales) along the Northern Ireland, were brought together with a fifth flame, called the "herritage flame", lit on Stoke Mandeville hospital, as the birthplace of the Paralympic movement, on the 28 August 2012 evening, exactly 24 hours before the Opening Ceremonies to create the London 2012 Paralympic Flame. In this way, the final leg was carried out from Stoke Mandeville Hospital to the Olympic Stadium without interruption. Shortly after the announcement of the format that would be used in the relay for the 2012 Summer Games, the IPC announced that the model used in Vancouver and London would become official from Sochi 2014 with each Organizing Committee choosing which cities or local regions would light their local flames. The standardization of procedures opened a new path for the International Paralympic Committee (IPC) who also opened possibilities for the future relays, flames from another cities and regions of the host countries or international flames could be merged.[23] Together with the British Paralympic Association (BPA) and the Stoke Mandeville Paralympic Herritage, a flame lit on the local hospital grounds will feature in all future Paralympic Torch Relays with the lighting of the Heritage Flame which will then travel to the host city to be merged with all other flames.[24] After the merger cerimonies, held in a special place of the host city or country, a final 1–2 days leg is held, and the torch had to the torch must travel in a straight line from the place where the local where all the flames were merged to the Olympic Stadium. At the night of the Opening Ceremony, the main flame reaches the main stadium and is used to light a cauldron situated in a prominent part of the venue to signify the beginning of the Games. Then it is left to burn throughout the Games till the Closing Ceremony, when it is extinguished to signify the end of the Games.

For the first time,on 28 August 2012, Stoke Mandeville ran the first ever Heritage Flame lighting ceremony in advance of the London 2012 Summer Paralympics. For the 2014 Winter Paralympics held in Sochi, Russia an Armillary Sphere has been created and the idea was that which will be used at all future Heritage Flame events to create the spark by human endeavour of a wheelchair user. Paralympic champion Hannah Cockroft was the responsible for creating the spark when Caz Walton lit the Paralympic Torch, Andy Barlow lited the cauldron and the fire was transferred the flame to Sochi by satellite and finally Denise Knibbs lit the lantern who was also send for Sochi.[25]


The Paralympic medals awarded to winners are another symbol associated with the Paralympic Games. The medals are made of gold-plated silver (commonly described as gold medals), silver, or bronze, and awarded to the top 3 finishers in a particular event.

For each Paralympic Games, the medals are designed differently, reflecting the host of the games.


Anthem of the Future
French: Hymne de l’Avenir
German: Hymne der Zukunft
Hymne de l’Avenir
Hymne der Zukunft

Official anthem of the Paralympic Games and the International Paralympic Committee
LyricsGraeme Connors, 2001
MusicThierry Darnis, March 1996
Audio sample
Paralympic Anthem

The Paralympic Anthem, also known as the Paralympic Hymn, is played when the Paralympic Flag is raised. It is a musical piece, "Hymne de l’Avenir" (en. "Anthem of the Future") composed by Thierry Darnis. The anthem was approved by the IPC in March 1996.[26]

Australian country singer Graeme Connors wrote the lyrics for the anthem in 2001. As of 2023, the lyrics are implemented yet.[27]

Paralympic Oath[edit]

The Paralympic Oath is a solemn promise made by one athlete—as a representative of each of the participating Paralympic competitors; and by one judge—as a representative of each officiating Paralympic referee or other official, at the opening ceremonies of each Paralympic Games.

The athlete, from the team of the organizing country, holds a corner of the Paralympic Flag while reciting the oath:

Athletes' Oath

In the name of all the competitors I promise that we shall take part in these Paralympic Games, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them, committing ourselves to a sport without doping and without drugs, in the true spirit of sportsmanship, for the glory of sport and the honour of our teams.[28]

The judge, also from the host nation, holds a corner of the flag but takes a slightly different oath:

Judges' Oath (Officials' Oath)

In the name of all the judges and officials, I promise that we shall officiate in these Paralympic Games with complete impartiality, respecting and abiding by the rules which govern them in the true spirit of sportsmanship.[29]

The coach, from the host nation, holds a corner of the flag but takes a slightly different oath:

Coaches' Oath

In the name of all coaches and other members of the athletes entourage, I promise that we shall commit ourselves to ensuring that the spirit of sportsmanship and fair play is fully adhered to and upheld in accordance with the fundamental principles of the Paralympic movement.


The first Paralympic Oath was taken at the first Paralympic Games, in Rome in 1960. The Paralympic Oath is identical to the Olympic Oath, with the exception of the word 'Olympic' being substituted by 'Paralympic'. The Oath was originally written by Pierre de Coubertin. The first oath (an Athlete's Oath) was taken at the Olympic Games in Antwerp in 1920. The original text by Coubertin, has since been modified several times. The first Judge's/Official's Oath was taken at the Olympic Games in Sapporo in 1972.[30] The first Coach's Oath was taken at the Paralympic Games in London in 2012.


Athletes and judges that have taken the Paralympic Oath are listed below.[28][30]

Paralympic Oath
Paralympics Athlete Judge (Official) Coach
1960 Summer Paralympics Franco Rossi
1964 Summer Paralympics Shigeo Aono
1968 Summer Paralympics Zvi Ben-Zvi
1972 Summer Paralympics Marga Floer Unknown
1976 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1976 Summer Paralympics Eugene Reimer Unknown
1980 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1980 Summer Paralympics Irene Schmidt Henk Boersbroek
1984 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1984 Summer Paralympics Ólavur Kongsbak (NY)
John Harris (SM)
Jack Abramson (NY)
Ronald Nicholls (SM)
1988 Winter Paralympics Unknown Unknown
1988 Summer Paralympics So-Boo Kim Unknown
1992 Winter Paralympics Ludovic Rey-Robert Unknown
1992 Summer Paralympics José Manuel Rodríguez Ibáñez Unknown
1994 Winter Paralympics Cato Zahl Pedersen Unknown
1996 Summer Paralympics Trischa Zorn Unknown
1998 Winter Paralympics Ryuei Shinohe Takashi Takano
2000 Summer Paralympics Tracey Cross Mary Longden
2002 Winter Paralympics Sarah Billmeier Unknown
2004 Summer Paralympics Maria Kalpakidou Vlassis Tamvakieras
2006 Winter Paralympics Fabrizio Zardini Mauro Scanacapra
2008 Summer Paralympics Wu Chunmiao[31] Hao Guohua[31]
2010 Winter Paralympics Herve Lord[32] Linda Kirton[33]
2012 Summer Paralympics Liz Johnson[34] Richard Allcroft[34] David Hunter[34]
2014 Winter Paralympics Valery Redkozubov Elena Mokerova Alexander Nazarov[35]
2016 Summer Paralympics Phellipe Rodrigues Raquel Daffre Amaury Veríssimo
2018 Winter Paralympics Lee Ju-seung
2020 Summer Paralympics Shingo Kunieda Nobuyuki Azuma Yumiko Taniguchi
Rie Urata

Paralympic Order[edit]

The Paralympic Order is the highest award of the Paralympic Movement. The recipients get a medal with the IPC logo on it. The Paralympic Order is awarded to individuals for particularly distinguished contribution to the Paralympic Movement.[36][37]


Starting in 2022, the International Paralympic Committee introduced post nominals, PLY, to recognize their contribution to the Paralympic movement, similar to the International Olympic Committee's OLY. It was first awarded to Ragnhild Myklebust and Kevin Coombs.[38][39]


Each Paralympic Games have a mascot, usually an animal native to the area or occasionally human figures representing the cultural heritage. Nowadays, most of the merchandise aimed at young people focuses on the mascots, rather than the Paralympic flag or organization logos.

See also[edit]


  1. ^ a b c d e f g "New Logo and Motto for IPC". International Paralympic Committee. 2003. Archived from the original on 6 April 2008. Retrieved 18 August 2015.
  2. ^ a b c d e International Paralympic Committee – The IPC logo, motto and flag,
  3. ^ a b "No. 18: The Agitos, the Paralympic symbol is unveiled". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  4. ^ New Logo and Motto for IPC Archived 6 April 2008 at the Wayback Machine, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  5. ^ "IPC Launches New Look: Change Starts with Sport". International Paralympic Committee. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  6. ^ "Refreshed IPC logo designed to give "parity" with Olympic Rings". 13 February 2020. Retrieved 30 July 2021.
  7. ^ a b c Vom Rehabilitationssport zu den Paralympics Archived 5 March 2012 at the Wayback Machine (German), Sportmuseum Leipzig
  8. ^ Athlete first: a history of the paralympic movement, by Steve Bailey, Google Books
  9. ^ Paralympic Emblems Archived 4 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  10. ^ a b , Paralympic Anorak
  11. ^ Lillehammer 1994, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  12. ^ a b c An introduction to emblems and mascots of Paralympic Games (photos attached) Archived 7 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  13. ^ Emblems of Paralympic Summer Games – Athens 2004 Archived 26 July 2009 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games
  14. ^ Beijing Paralympics Emblem unveiled (photo attached) Archived 6 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, July 13, 2004
  15. ^ Vancouver 2010 paralympic games Emblem Graphic standards Archived 26 February 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Vancouver 2010 Olympic Games
  16. ^ "London 2012 logo to be unveiled". BBC Sport. 4 June 2007. Retrieved 4 June 2007.
  17. ^ "Get involved: Handover – London 2012". Archived from the original on 4 September 2012. Retrieved 20 January 2011.
  18. ^ "Get involved: Handover - London 2012". Archived from the original on 29 August 2008. Retrieved 20 January 2011.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  19. ^ Paralympic Emblem Archived 4 January 2016 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Rio 2016 Olympic and Paralympic Games, December 25, 2015
  20. ^ Games symbols and mascots, Get Set – London 2012 Education Programme
  21. ^ "Journey of Fire lites the Paralympic Spirit". Salt Lake City 2002 Winter Paralympics Official Website. 28 February 2000. Archived from the original on 11 December 2004. Retrieved 2 May 2023.
  22. ^ "2010 Paralympic Torch Relay: Daily Highlights", Vancouver 2010 official website (viewed on March 2)
  23. ^ "Archived copy" (PDF). Archived from the original (PDF) on 26 October 2021. Retrieved 11 March 2014.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: archived copy as title (link)
  24. ^ Stoke Mandeville, Stoke Mandeville to feature in all Paralympic Games Torch Relays
  25. ^ "First ever Heritage Flame lit at Stoke Mandeville in a historic moment for Paralympic Movement". 1 January 1970. Retrieved 20 March 2017.
  26. ^ IPC Handbook – Bylaws Governance and Organizational Structure Archived 26 August 2016 at the Wayback Machine (.pdf file), International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  27. ^ "The Paralympian 4/2001 - Editorial". 6 January 2002. Archived from the original on 6 January 2002. Retrieved 20 March 2017.{{cite web}}: CS1 maint: bot: original URL status unknown (link)
  28. ^ a b Paralympic Winter Games History, The Official Web Site of the U.S. Olympic Committee
  29. ^ Summary of the Opening Ceremony Archived 12 September 2008 at the Wayback Machine, The Official Website of the Beijing 2008 Olympic Games, September 6, 2008
  30. ^ a b Paralympic Oath Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine (.pdf file), International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  31. ^ a b China opens Beijing Paralympic Games in celebration of life and humanity, English People's Daily Online, September 7, 2008
  32. ^ Paralympic Games kick off in Vancouver Archived 22 March 2010 at, National Post, March 12, 2010
  33. ^ Abby curl official to read Paralympic oath Archived 12 March 2010 at the Wayback Machine,, March 8, 2010
  34. ^ a b c Michael Hirst BBC 2012 (30 August 2012). "Paralympic Games 'return home' to UK". Retrieved 19 February 2014.
  35. ^ "Sochi 2014 Paralympic Opening Ceremony lights up Russia". 7 March 2014. Retrieved 22 March 2014.
  36. ^ The Paralympian – Issue 1/2010 Archived 19 June 2010 at the Wayback Machine, The Paralympian page 14, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  37. ^ Paralympic Order, International Paralympic Committee (IPC)
  38. ^ "IPC introduces PLY post-nominal titles to recognise Paralympians".
  39. ^ "The Paralympic pioneers who helped create a PLY legacy".

External links[edit]