Breakthrough of the Year

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The Breakthrough of the Year is an annual award made by the AAAS journal, Science, for the most significant development in scientific research. Originating in 1989 as the Molecule of the Year, and inspired by Time's Man of the Year, it was renamed the Breakthrough of the Year in 1996. The Breakthrough of the Year is widely recognized as one of the highest distinctions in science.[citation needed]

Molecule of the Year[edit]

Breakthrough of the Year[edit]

Top 10 scientific breakthroughs and the winners of each year.

  • 1996: Understanding HIV[7]
    • Original mysteries
    • Prions hit the press
    • Cyber crush
    • Lasers in the limelight
    • T-cell tales
    • Earthly revolutions
    • Yeast on the rise
    • Early orientation
    • Divining the death wish
  • 1997: Dolly the sheep, the first mammal to be cloned from adult cells[8]
  • 1998: Accelerating universe[9]
  • 1999: Capturing the promise of youth with stem cells[10]
    • Genomics Speeds Ahead
    • How the Other Half Cools
    • Rally for Ribosomes
    • Plentiful Planets
    • Making Memories
    • Flat and Happy
    • New Light on Photonics
    • Tracking Distant Ancestors
    • Mystery Flashes Unveiled
  • 2000: Full genome sequencing[11]
    • Ribosome Revelations
    • Fossil Find
    • One Word--Organics
    • New Cells for Old
    • Water, Water, Everywhere
    • Cosmic BOOMERANG
    • Good Reception
    • NEAR spacecraft
    • Quantum Curiosities
  • 2001: Nanocircuits or Molecular circuit[12]
    • RNA Ascending
    • So What's Neu?
    • Genomes Take Off
    • Superconductor Surprises
    • Guide Me Home
    • Climatic Confidence
    • Cancer in the Crosshairs
    • Banner Year for Bose-Einstein
    • Carbon Consensus
  • 2002: RNA interference[13]
    • Neutrino insights
    • Genome progress
    • CMB structure and polarization
    • Attosecond physics
    • TRP channels
    • Cryoelectron tomography
    • Adaptive optics
    • Retina receptors
    • The Toumaï fossil
  • 2003: Dark energy[14]
    • Genes for mental illness
    • Climate change impacts
    • RNA's many roles
    • Single-molecule techniques
    • Gamma ray bursts
    • Sex cells from stem cells
    • “Left-handed” materials
    • Y chromosome sequence
    • Anti-angiogenesis treatments
  • 2004: Spirit rover landed on Mars[15]
    • The Littlest Human
    • Clone Wars
    • Bose–Einstein Condensate
    • Hidden DNA Treasures
    • Prized Pulsar Pair
    • Documenting Diversity Declines
    • Splish, Splash
    • Healthy Partnerships
    • Genes, Genes Everywhere
  • 2005: Evolution in action[16]
    • Planetary probes
    • Plant development
    • Violent neutron stars
    • Genetics of brain disease
    • Earth's differentiation
    • Potassium channels
    • Climate change
    • Systems biology
    • ITER nuclear fusion experiment
  • 2006: Proof of the Poincaré conjecture[17]
    • Paleogenomics
    • Shrinking ice
    • Tiktaalik fossil fish
    • Cloaking technology
    • Anti-VEGF for age-related macular degeneration patients
    • Biodiversity and speciation
    • Sub-diffraction-limit microscopy
    • LTP process for record new memories
    • Small piRNAs molecules
  • 2007: Human genetic variation[18]
    • Reprogramming cells
    • High-energy cosmic rays
    • Receptor visions
    • Beyond silicon: oxide interfaces
    • Quantum spin Hall effect
    • T cell division
    • Direct chemistry efficient
    • Memory and imagination
    • Computer solving checkers
  • 2008: Cellular reprogramming[19]
    • Seeing Exoplanets
    • Cancer Genes
    • New High-Temperature Superconductors
    • Watching Proteins at Work
    • Water to Burn
    • The Video Embryo
    • Fat of a Different Color
    • Proton's Mass "Predicted"[20]
    • Sequencing Bonanza
  • 2009: Ardipithecus ramidus[21]
    • Opening Up the Gamma Ray Sky
    • ABA Receptors
    • Mock Monopoles Spotted
    • Live Long and Prosper
    • An Icy Moon Revealed
    • Gene Therapy Returns
    • Graphene Takes Off
    • Hubble Reborn
    • First X-ray Laser Shines
  • 2010: The first quantum machine[22]
    • Synthetic biology
    • Neandertal genome
    • HIV prophylaxis
    • Exome Sequencing/Rare disease genes
    • Molecular dynamics simulations
    • Quantum simulator
    • Next-generation genomics
    • RNA reprogramming
    • The return of the rat
  • Insights of the Decade: Science survey that looked at the 10 insights that have changed science since the dawn of the new millennium.
    • The dark genome
    • Precision cosmology
    • Ancient DNA
    • Water on Mars
    • Reprogramming cells
    • The micobiome
    • Exoplanets
    • Inflammation
    • Metamaterials
    • Climate change research
  • 2011: HIV treatment as prevention (HPTN 052)[23]
    • Hayabusa satellite
    • Ancient interbreeding
    • Photosystem II
    • Pristine gas
    • Microbiome
    • Malaria vaccine
    • Exoplanets
    • Designer Zeolites
    • Senescent cells
  • 2012: Discovery of the Higgs boson[24]
    • Denisovan genome
    • Genome engineering
    • Neutrino mixing angle
    • ENCODE research project
    • Curiosity landing
    • X-ray laser advances
    • Controlling bionics
    • Majorana fermions
    • Eggs from stem cells
  • 2013: Cancer immunotherapy[25]
    • Genetic microsurgery for the masses
    • CLARITY makes it perfectly clear
    • Human Cloning at last
    • Dishing up mini-organs
    • Cosmic particle accelerators identified
    • Newcomer juices up the race to harness sunlight
    • To sleep, perchance to clean
    • Your microbes, your health
    • In vaccine design, looks do matter
  • 2014: Rosetta comet mission[26]
    • The birth of birds
    • Using young blood to fight old age
    • Robots that cooperate
    • Chips that mimic the brain
    • The world’s oldest cave art
    • Cells that might cure diabetes
    • Manipulating memories
    • Rise of the CubeSat
    • Giving life a bigger genetic alphabet
  • 2015: CRISPR genome-editing method [27]
  • 2016: Ripples in spacetime: First observation of gravitational waves [28]
    • Proxima b: The exoplanet next door
    • AI beat Go champ: Artificial Intelligence ups its game
    • The purge that refreshes: Killing old cells to stay young
    • Mind-reading great apes: Humans aren’t the only great apes that can ‘read minds’
    • Custom proteins: Proteins by design
    • Making eggs: Mouse eggs made in the lab
    • Great migration: A single wave of migration from Africa peopled the globe
    • Pocket-size sequencer: Genome sequencing in the hand and bush
    • Super lenses: Metalenses, megapromise

See also[edit]

Other Top 10 Breakthroughs of the Year:

References[edit]

  1. ^ R. L. Guyer & D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1989). "The Molecule of the Year". Science. 246 (4937): 1543–1546. PMID 2688087. doi:10.1126/science.2688087. 
  2. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1990). "The Molecule of the Year". Science. 250 (4988): 1637. Bibcode:1990Sci...250.1637K. doi:10.1126/science.250.4988.1637. 
  3. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1991). "Molecule of the Year". Science. 254 (5039): 1705. Bibcode:1991Sci...254.1705K. doi:10.1126/science.254.5039.1705. 
  4. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1992). "The Molecule of the Year". Science. 258 (5090): 1861. Bibcode:1992Sci...258.1861K. PMID 1470903. doi:10.1126/science.1470903. 
  5. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1993). "Molecule of the Year". Science. 262 (5142): 1953. Bibcode:1993Sci...262.1953K. PMID 8266084. doi:10.1126/science.8266084. 
  6. ^ D. E. Koshland, Jr. (1994). "Molecule of the Year: the DNA repair enzyme". Science. 266 (5193): 1925. Bibcode:1994Sci...266.1925K. PMID 7801114. doi:10.1126/science.7801114. 
  7. ^ Michael Balter (1996). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. New Hope in HIV Disease". Science. 274 (5295): 1988–1991. Bibcode:1996Sci...274.1988.. doi:10.1126/science.274.5295.1988. 
  8. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (1997). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Cloning: The Lamb That Roared". Science. 278 (5346): 2038–2039. Bibcode:1997Sci...278.2038P. doi:10.1126/science.278.5346.2038. 
  9. ^ James Glanz (1998). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. ASTRONOMY: Cosmic Motion Revealed". Science. 282 (5397): 2156–2157. Bibcode:1998Sci...282.2156G. doi:10.1126/science.282.5397.2156a. 
  10. ^ Gretchen Vogel (1999). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Capturing the Promise of Youth". Science. 286 (5448): 2238–2239. PMID 10636772. doi:10.1126/science.286.5448.2238. 
  11. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (2000). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Genomics Comes of Age". Science. 290 (5500): 2220–2221. PMID 11188701. doi:10.1126/science.290.5500.2220. 
  12. ^ Robert F. Service (2001). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Molecules Get Wired". Science. 294 (5551): 2442–2443. PMID 11752536. doi:10.1126/science.294.5551.2442. 
  13. ^ Jennifer Couzin (2002). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Small RNAs Make Big Splash". Science. 298 (5602): 2296–2297. PMID 12493875. doi:10.1126/science.298.5602.2296. 
  14. ^ Charles Seife (2003). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Illuminating the Dark Universe". Science. 302 (5653): 2038–2039. PMID 14684787. doi:10.1126/science.302.5653.2038. 
  15. ^ Richard A. Kerr (2004). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. On Mars, a Second Chance for Life". Science. 306 (5704): 2010–2012. PMID 15604365. doi:10.1126/science.306.5704.2010. 
  16. ^ Elizabeth Culotta, Elizabeth Pennisi (2005). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Evolution in Action". Science. 310 (5756): 1878–1879. PMID 16373538. doi:10.1126/science.310.5756.1878. 
  17. ^ Dana Mackenzie (2006). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. The Poincaré Conjecture—Proved". Science. 314 (5807): 1848–1849. PMID 17185565. doi:10.1126/science.314.5807.1848. 
  18. ^ Elizabeth Pennisi (2007). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Human Genetic Variation". Science. 318 (5858): 1842–1843. PMID 18096770. doi:10.1126/science.318.5858.1842. 
  19. ^ Gretchen Vogel (2008). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Reprogramming Cells". Science. 322 (5909): 1766–1767. PMID 19095902. doi:10.1126/science.322.5909.1766. 
  20. ^ Dürr, S.; Fodor, Z.; Frison, J.; Hoelbling, C.; Hoffmann, R.; Katz, S. D.; Krieg, S.; Kurth, T.; Lellouch, L. (2008-11-21). "Ab Initio Determination of Light Hadron Masses". Science. 322 (5905): 1224–1227. Bibcode:2008Sci...322.1224D. ISSN 0036-8075. PMID 19023076. arXiv:0906.3599Freely accessible. doi:10.1126/science.1163233. 
  21. ^ Ann Gibbons (2009). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. Ardipithecus ramidus". Science. 326 (5960): 1598–1599. Bibcode:2009Sci...326.1598G. PMID 20019252. doi:10.1126/science.326.5960.1598-a. 
  22. ^ Adrian Cho (2010). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. The First Quantum Machine". Science. 330 (6011): 1604. Bibcode:2010Sci...330.1604C. PMID 21163978. doi:10.1126/science.330.6011.1604. 
  23. ^ Jon Cohen (2011). "BREAKTHROUGH OF THE YEAR. HIV Treatment as Prevention". Science. 334 (6063): 1628. Bibcode:2011Sci...334.1628C. PMID 22194547. doi:10.1126/science.334.6063.1628. 
  24. ^ "Breakthrough of the Year, 2012". Science. 
  25. ^ Jenifer Couzin-Franken (20 December 2013). "Cancer Immunotherapy". Science. Retrieved 22 December 2013. 
  26. ^ Eric Hand (19 December 2014). "Comet rendezvous". Science. Retrieved 20 December 2014. 
  27. ^ http://www.sciencemag.org/content/350/6267/1456.summary
  28. ^ "Ripples in spacetime: Science's 2016 Breakthrough of the Year". Adiran Cho. AAAS. 22 December 2016. Retrieved 23 December 2016.