ISO 15118

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ISO 15118 Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface is a proposed international standard defining a vehicle to grid (V2G) communication interface for bi-directional charging/discharging of electric vehicles.[1] The standard provides multiple use cases like secure communication, smart charging and the Plug & Charge feature used by some electric vehicle networks.[2]


ISO 15118 is one of the International Electrotechnical Commission's (IEC) group of standards for electric road vehicles and electric industrial trucks, and is the responsibility of Joint Working Group 1 (JWG1 V2G) of IEC Technical Committee 69 (TC69)[3] together with subcommittee 31 (SC31)[4] of the International Organization for Standardization's (ISO) Technical Committee 22 (TC22)[5] on road vehicles.

ISO and IEC began working together on the standard in 2010,[6] and a Plug & Charge section was released in 2014. No automakers had a productive implementation of the standard by 2018.[7][needs update]


ISO 15118 communication can be secured by a TLS connection between EV and electric vehicle supply equipment (EVSE)[clarification needed]. For the use case Plug&Charge this is even mandatory. The norm[clarification needed] describes how a needed "V2G-PKI" (vehicle to grid - Public Key Infrastructure) needs to be set up. Hubject provided already in 2018 the first productive V2G-PKI[8] and the related ecosystem for EU and US.[9] The only productive certificate authority for a V2G-PKI is currently operated by Hubject. Several other companies declared work on a V2G-PKI solutions among which CharIn and Gireve. Nevertheless, charge station operators and automakers can also handle the certificates if they are based on the ISO15118 standard.[7][10][11]

As of 2019 and 2020, several Public Key Infrastructure issues remained unsolved for using the standard as proposed.[12][13][7][11][clarification needed]

Plug & Charge[edit]

The user-convenient and secure Plug & Charge feature envisioned with ISO 15118 enables an electric vehicle to automatically identify and authorize itself to a compatible charging station on behalf of the driver, to receive energy for recharging its battery. The only action required by the driver is to plug the charging cable into the EV and/or charging station, because the car and the charger identify themselves to each other by exchanging certificates which were provided beforehand via a certificate pool to facilitate payment.[14] An open test system was started[where?] in November 2021.[15] The proposed standard can be used for both wired (AC and DC charging) and wireless charging for electric vehicles.[16]

Some EV cars support the Plug & Charge standard, including the model year 2021 Porsche Taycan, Mercedes-Benz EQS,[17] Lucid Air, and Ford Mustang Mach-E.[10] Model year 2024 support includes BMW i4, i5, i7, iX,[18] and Hyundai Ioniq 6.[19]

Other electric vehicles could possibly be updated to support the standard, including the Volkswagen ID.4.[20] Some cars need hardware updates.[11]

All Tesla vehicles since 2012 (before the release of ISO 15118-2 in 2014) have a proprietary version of Plug & Charge.[7][11] Other proprietary solutions exist, such as those developed by Paua.[21]

Besides Tesla, alternatives to Plug & Charge exist including "AutoCharge" based on DIN Spec 70121 (Combined Charging System - CCS)[22][23] using the car's fixed MAC address which is not a secure mechanism, however cars from companies like the Volkswagen Group do not have a fixed MAC address and cannot use AutoCharge.[24]

Standard documents[edit]

ISO 15118 consists of the following parts, detailed in separate standard documents:

  • ISO 15118-1: General information and use-case definition[1]
  • ISO 15118-2: Network and application protocol requirements[25]
  • ISO 15118-3: Physical and data link layer requirements[26]
  • ISO 15118-4: Network and application protocol conformance test[25]
  • ISO 15118-5: Physical and data link layer conformance test[27]
  • ISO/DIS 15118-6: General information and use-case definition for wireless communication (out of commission, merged with 2nd edition of ISO 15118-1)[28]
  • ISO/CD 15118-7: Network and application protocol requirements for wireless communication (out of commission, moved to ISO/DIS 15118–20)[28]
  • ISO 15118-8: Physical layer and data link layer requirements for wireless communication[29]
  • ISO 15118-20: 2nd generation network and application protocol requirements[30]

Use of ISO 15118 in heavy duty vehicles[edit]

The ISO 15118 is also used as communication protocol for charging of heavy duty vehicles as:

  • Harbor Automated Guided Vehicles [31]
  • Public transportation [32]

When using the ISO 15118 in a commercial operation the use of WLAN (ISO 15118-8) must be considered carefully since there is no way to guarantee operation uptime when using wireless communication based on WLAN.[citation needed] For these situations the same protocol as for passenger car charging can be used (ISO 15118-3 powerline communication).


  1. ^ a b "ISO 15118-1:2019 Road vehicles -- Vehicle to grid communication interface -- Part 1: General information and use-case definition". ISO. April 2019. Archived from the original on 26 August 2019.
  2. ^ "Electric Vehicle Charging Open Payment Framework with ISO 15118" (PDF). Secure Technology Alliance. February 2021. Archived (PDF) from the original on 2 June 2021.
  3. ^ IEC Technical Committee 69
  4. ^ ISO technical committee 22 subcommittee 31
  5. ^ ISO technical committee 22
  6. ^ Mültin, Marc (6 July 2021). "What is ISO 15118? | Switch". Archived from the original on 23 October 2021.
  7. ^ a b c d Berman, Bradley (2020-08-11). "ISO EV Plug and Charge standard faces security concerns". SAE International. Archived from the original on 13 August 2020.
  8. ^ "Hubject & Daimler ermöglichen Laden ohne Karte oder App". (in German). 2018-04-17. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  9. ^ "Plug&Charge: Electrify America kooperiert mit Hubject". (in German). 2019-01-09. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  10. ^ a b "How the plug-and-charge feature in the Ford Mustang Mach-E works". TechRepublic. 13 May 2021. Retrieved 22 October 2021.
  11. ^ a b c d Schaal, Sebastian; Carrie Hampel (15 December 2020). "Plug&Charge: The missing link to a breakthrough". Archived from the original on 12 October 2021.
  12. ^ "Practical Considerations for Implementation and Scaling ISO 15118 into a Secure EV Charging Ecosystem" (PDF). ChargePoint et al. 14 May 2019. Archived (PDF) from the original on 22 January 2021.
  13. ^ "ChargeUpEurope perspective" (PDF). ChargeUpEurope.
  14. ^ "Plug&Charge: The missing link to a breakthrough". 15 December 2020. Archived from the original on 26 October 2021.
  15. ^ "Hubject launces Plug&Charge testing system". 17 November 2021.
  16. ^ Mültin, Marc (6 July 2021). "The basics of Plug & Charge | Switch". Archived from the original on 3 September 2021.
  17. ^ "Mercedes EQS: So funktioniert Plug and Charge". InsideEVs Deutschland (in German). Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  18. ^ "Plug and Charge Eligibility". BMW USA. Retrieved 2024-03-07.
  19. ^ "Plug & Charge with Charge myHyundai makes EV charging more convenient and secure". Hyundai News. Retrieved 2024-03-07.
  20. ^ "Convenient, networked and sustainable: new solutions for charging electric Volkswagen models". Volkswagen Newsroom. Retrieved 2022-07-05.
  21. ^ Grundy, Alice (2021-08-17). "Paua heralds plug & charge as the 'future of EV charging' as it delivers successful trial". Current News. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  22. ^ "DIN SPEC 70121. Electromobility - Digital communication between a d.c. EV charging station and an electric vehicle for control of d.c. charging in the Combined Charging System (CCS)". European Standards. Retrieved 1 February 2022.
  23. ^ "The battle between ISO 15118 and DIN SPEC 70121 | Switch". Retrieved 2022-04-09.
  24. ^ Klingenberg, Mathias (20 June 2022). "Teknologien kan gi en Tesla-opplevelse ved ladestasjonen. Men en av verdens største bilprodusenter vil ikke være med". (in Norwegian). Teknisk Ukeblad.
  25. ^ a b "ISO 15118-2:2014". ISO.
  26. ^ "ISO 15118-3:2015". ISO.
  27. ^ "ISO 15118-5:2018". ISO.
  28. ^ a b "Search". ISO.
  29. ^ "ISO 15118-8:2018". ISO.
  30. ^ "ISO/DIS 15118-20". ISO. Retrieved 2019-03-15.
  31. ^ [dead link]
  32. ^ "Electric transport in the Netherlands - 2016 highlights" (PDF). Netherlands Enterprise Agency.

See also[edit]